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BALDWIN'S 

VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL 

WINS 



LAHM BALLOON CUP— 697 MUes. Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon " New York" 

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE 

35 Hrs., 12 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon " New York'' 

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD 

48 Hrs., 26 Mins. Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial 

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD 

24,200 Ft. Harmon and Post, Balloon " New York," St. Louis Centennial 

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 

30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 
GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES 

QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 
2nd— 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 

2nd— BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE— Glenn H. Curtiss 



BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL 

USED IN THE U. S. GOV. DIRIGIBLE AND SPHERICAL BALLOONS 

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the 
same, as it does not require further treatment Heat and cold have no effect on it, and 
ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of 
oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double- 
walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A 
man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to 
spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, 
width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming 
balloon material, and which, through its superior qualities and being an absolute gas holder, is 
bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon 
must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS. 



AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY 

Prices and Samples on application 

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN, Box 78, Madison Square, NEW YORK 



March, igio 



AIRCRAFT 




CONTENTS — MAR.CH. 1910 

Cover Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . , . G. A. Coffin 

Summary of Human Flight ........... Mrs. J. Herbert Sinclair 

The Progress of Balloons ........... Courtesy of Miss Marie Wait 

Editorials . . . . . . . . -. . . . . . Alfred W. Lawson 

Lilienthal ............... Charles Heitman 

Banking ............... Edward H. Young 

Los Angeles Aeronautical Tournament ............. 

Air, The Emancipation of Man . . . ^..-.sr":^:=^^^'r">~ . . . . . V. L. Ochoa 

Aerial Warfare x^^^i^n '"^^C'/'s/Z/T^y. , .... Hudson Maxim 

Relation of Wind to Aerial Navigation . /Y. . • • ". • • ■ A. Lawrence Rotch 

Aeroplanes among Plants and Animals . )/ , ; ^ . 

Big Men of the Movement . . . \\ . . . . . / . 

Internal Work of the Wind . . . • Sn, • /./ Q-R A RA%.S • -^^ • • • • S. P. Langley 

Law and the Air ...... ^'^^^•Ssz:;^^;:^^?-'^'^ .... Denys P. Myers 

Alexander's Opinions ............... 

Foreign News .............. Albert C. Triaca 

News in General ............. Mrs. J. Herbert Sinclair 

Soaring Power versus Motor Power . . . . . . . . ' . . . R. Dressier 

Club News .................. 

Personal News ............... Ada Gibson 



AIRCRAFT 



Published Monthly by The Lawson Publishing Company 

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ty Tlu La-Mson PuWishivg Co ] 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 




Phvtu hij Dans and Ekha, 



ALFRED W. LAWSON 

Editor of Ait-craft 



ro/ 






ts 



t-G) 



AIRCRAFT 



\'ol. I. No. 1. 



NEW YORK, MARCH, 1910. 



SUMMARY OF HUMAN FLIGHT 



By Mrs. J. Herbert Sinclair 




iSIDE from the many myths set forth in ahnost 
every country in the world concerning man's 
aspiration to fly, the Chinese were probably the 
lirst to make any substantial headway in the germ 
of the art. 

They began by experimenting with the kite, 
which is nothing more or less than a motorless 
aeroplane anchored to the ground by a string, 
more than 300 years before the birth of Christ. 
_^_^_^ It is recorded that about this time a Chinese 
general, llan Sin, brought his army to the relief of a belea- 
guered town and by means of kites signaled to the inhabitants 
indicating the direction of his operations. 

It was reported by a French missionary visiting China during 
the year 1694, that he had seen the records of the Coronation of 
Emperor Fo-Kien at Pekin in the year 1306, mentioning the fact 
that a balloon ascension was one of the features of the ceremonies. 
Leonardo da Vinci, the celebrated 
Italian artist, philosopher, and scien- 
tist spent much of his time during 
the fifteenth century in an effort to 
construct a heavier-than-air machine 
of the wing-flapping variety, and the 
technical details of his drawings, 
which are still in existence, shows 
that he possessed a remarkable apti- 
tude for working out mechanical 
problems. 

Fauste Veranzio of Venice is 
credited with being the first human 
being who has ever dared to risk 
his life while experimenting with fly- 
ing apparatus. In 1617 he con- 
structed a crude sort of a parachute 
consisting of a square frame covered 
with canvas with which he let himself 
drop from a high tower. 

In 1648, John Wilkins, Bishop of 
Chester, built a flying machine to be 
propelled by steam which did not fly, 
and shortly afterward Cyrano de 
Bergerac undertook to float away into 
space by attaching air-bags to his 
body and allowing them to heat in 
the sun. His eff^orts, too, were un- 
successful. 

In 1685 Bartholomaus Laurenzo 
de Gusmann of Lisbon is said to have 
covered a wooden basket with paper, 
and, filling it with hot air, rose from 




ONE OF THE FIRST MONTGOI.FIER BALLOONS 



the ground in the presence of the Royal Court at Lisbon. This 
statement, however, is contradicted by the followers of Mont- 
golfier, who claim that a monk named Bartholomaus Laurenzo 
made some experiments along this line, and that twenty-five years 
afterwards another man named de Gusmann proposed to descend 
from a tower in Lisbon with a flying machine similar in construc- 
tion, but was prevented in doing so by a howling mob who thought 
he was a lunatic. 

In 1742 the Marquis de Bacqueville, of Paris, built a machine 
with which he glided from the window of his mansion, crossed 
the gardens of the Tuilcries, and landed in tlic middle of' the 
Seine. 

As far back as even mythology carries us, we find that not only 
did man dream of flying, but that two distinct methods of pro- 
cedure were considered as being feasible ; namely, the lighter- 
than-air type, which depend for their support upon the buoyancy 
of some gas lighter than air which at the present time have 
taken shape in free balloons and 
dirigible balloons, and the heayier- 
than-air type, such as aeroplanes, or- 
thopters, helicopters, etc., which de- 
pend for their support upon the dy- 
namic reaction of the air itself. 

The general term signifying the 
former method is scientifically called 
aerostatics, while the latter is known 
as aerodynamics. 

Successful aerostatics preceded suc- 
cessful aerodynamics, and the first 
really authentic record of man being 
raised into the air by means of an 
aerostat was accomplished in Paris 
on October 15, 17S3, when Pilatre de 
Rozier was lifted So feet into the air 
in a balloon constructed by the Mont- 
golfier brothers. To these two 
brothers, Stephen and Joseph, there- 
fore, belong the honor of having built 
the first successful man-carrying, 
lighter-than-air vehicle. 

Joseph Montgolfier was the first to 
interest himself in the study of aero- 
nautics and as early as 1771 he began 
to experiment with mechanical de- 
vices for the purpose of flying. 
Hydrogen was discovered by Caven- 
dish in 1776, and the Montgolfier 
brcifhers began experimenting by 
filling -paper bags with it which im- 
mediately escaped through the pores. 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 



as did also smoke which they had at 
first experimented with. On June S, 
17S3, they constructed a paper bal- 
loon 112 feet in circumference and 
inflated it with hot air by placing a 
fire beneath it. The balloon arose to 
a height of nearly a thousand feet, 
but dropped back to the ground again 
as soon as the hot air escaped from 
it. Later they constructed a balloon 
made of water-proof linen having a 
capacity of 52,000 cubic feet, which 
made an eight-minute voyage into 
the air, carrying as passengers a 
sheep, a cock, and a duck, and all re- 
turning safely to ground. 

The first woman to make a balloon 
ascension was Madame Thible, who 
went up in the presence of King 
Gustavus III of Sweden, at Lyons, 
June 4, 17S4. She reached a height 
of 9,000 feet and returned safely to 
ground within an hour. 

While the linen balloon originally 
invented and utilized by the Mont- 
golfier brothers could be made to 
ascend by the use of hot air gen- 
erated b\' burning a mixture of straw 
and wool, still it was found inade- 
quate for the purpose of holding the more elusive hydrogen gas 
which escaped too quickly through its pores. 

The success of the Montgolfiers, however, had the tendency of 
creating enthusiasm for ballooning and bringing into the field 
inventive genius, and a little later on Professor Charles con- 
structed a spherical balloon, which in many respects is similar 
to those built at the present time. 

The covering of the Charles balloon was made of silk and 
coated with a rubber solution, An outer net was extended over 
the upper half of the aerostat for the purpose of supporting the 
silk covering and distributing the pressure more uniformly over 
the entire surface, and ending in a wooden ring which was made 
fast to the car by ropes. He placed a valve at the top of his bal- 





THE KOZIERE 
BUILT BY PILATRE DE 



A professional balloonist named 
Blanchard, and a scientist named 
Jeffries, were successful in crossing 
the English Channel in a balloon, 
from Dover, England, to Calais, 
France, on January 7, 1785, after a 
most dangerous trip in which they 
only succeeded from being dumped 
into the water several times by 
throwing away their provisions, sci- 
entific instruments and clothing, as 
a means to lighten their vehicle. 

Pilatre de Rozier undertook to re- 
peat the performance of Blanchard 
and Jeffries on June 16, 1785, by go- 
ing in the opposite direction with the 
French shore as a starting point. His 
balloon was called " aero-Montgol- 
fier," and was a combination of the 
jMontgolfier and Charles ideas. The 
balloon rose rapidly for several feet, 
wlien in some way the hydrogen took 
fire and exploded, causing Rozier and 
his assistant to fall to the ground, 
and killing both of them. 

This accident had the effect of al- 
laying the enthusiasm of the foUow- 
j^Q2iER ^"-^ °^ ballooning to a considerable 

extent, and for some time afterward 
were few men who could be found willing to go up into 




there 

the air under any consideration. 

(To he Continued in Aircraft for Afril.) 



^-^ 






'\ 




LLANCHARD AND JEFFRIES DkfAkllMj tKOM DOVER, ENGLAND 
THE CONTINENT IN A BALLOON, JANUARY 7, I7S5. 

loon to allow the gas to escape at his will for the purpose of 
making a descent. The valve was operated from the car by 
ropes. At the bottom of his balloon was a tube about eight inches 
in diameter through which the gases were passed into the bal- 
loon, and through which the gas could escape in case of expan- 
sion. The gas was formed by the reaction of sulphuric acid on 
iron trimmings and passed through water in barrels. 

With this balloon Charles made his first ascent on December 
I, 1783, and after being in the air over four hours landed about 
45 miles from the starting-point. 




_jU:^ 






FANTASTIC PLAN PRESENTED BY CITIZEN MONGE, OF ENGLAND, IN I7 
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AND OVER FIVE HUNDRED OTHERS 
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HOTDS WORLD'S RECORDS 



DISTANCE— 243 miles 
DURATION— 5 hours, 3 minutes 
CROSS COUNTRY— 230 miles 



SPEED — 77.67 miles an hour 
ALTITUDE— 10,499 feet 
OVER SEA— 61 miles 



Prices, f. o. br Factory, Paris, France — Packed for Marine Shipment 



50 H. P., ^2600 



100 H. P., $4800 



Terms : One-third Cash with Order, Balance on Delivery 

AEROMOTION COMPANY 



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ALSO EXCLUSIVE AGENTS 

CHAUVIERE INTEGRALE PROPELLERS 



RESULTS TELL THE STORY 




Morok's recent sensational flights at Newark, 
New Jersey, were made with an Elbridge "Feath- 
erweight" engine after just five days of practice. 
First day, perfect straightaway flight; second 
day, circled the fleld; third day, flew over build- 
ing and trees; fourth day, 'cross country; fifth 
day, 'cross country. At Newark Morok flew 
'round the big chimney at a height of 250 feet, 
dove over the grand-stand, and did other sensa- 
tional stunts. 




TITUDB ESCOED. 



B. F. Roehrig, of San Diego, Cal., flying with 
6-cyl. Elbridge "Featherweight." Holds Kna- 
benshue Cup for first sustained amateur flight 
on Pacific coast. Has made exhibition flight at 
altitude of 600 feet, and frequently carried pas- 
sengers on some of his hundreds of successful 
flights. 




Wm. Evans, of Kansas City, made a cross- 
country flight of nearly thirty miles on his 
second day of practice. Has been flying in 
exhibitions since two days after he received 
his machine. He uses a 4-cyl. Elbridge 
"Featherweight" engine. 



C. F. Walsh, of Los Angeles, Cal., flying with 3-cyl. Elbridge 
"Featherweight" won every cup at the Aero Club of California's 
meet at Los Angeles in November. He flew cross-country from 
the Motordrome and circled the course nine times before alight- 
ing. He also made notable quick-start novice records. 



The above pictures are reductions from the illustrations in the booklet "Amateur Aviation in America." Free for the asking. 

The 1911 Aero Special Engines weigh less and have far more power than the Elbridge 
"Featherweight" line. We will guarantee, and demonstrate them, to run ten solid hours with throttle 
wide open, under full load. Unquestionably the greatest Aero Engines in the world. 

ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY 



Aero Dept. 



ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 



March, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



THE PR.OGRESS OF BALLOONS 

From the J^eia) VorK. Gazetteer. Tuesday. December 28, 1784- 

By Courtesy of Miss Marie Wait 



Verdonita telliis, tuinida ccsscnint frcla, 
Inferna nostras regno scuscrc impetus 
Iiiimiinc cocluin est, digiiiis Aleidae labor, 
In alta iniindi spalia SHbliines fereiiiKr. 



Assist me, ye Muses (whose harps are in tune), 
To tell of the flight of the gallant balloon : 
As high as my subject permit me to soar 
To heights unattempted, unthought of before. 

Ye grave, learned doctors, whose trade is to sigh, 
AVho labor to chalk out a road to the sky. 
Improve on your plans — or I'll venture to say 
A chymist, of Paris, will show us the way. 

Tlie earth, on its surface, has all been survey'd. 
The sea has been travell'd — and deep in the shade 
The Kingdom of Pluto has heard us at work. 
When we dig for his metals, wherever they lurk. 

But who would have thought that invention could rise 
To find out a method to soar to the skies. 
And pierce the bright regions, which ages assign'd 
To spirits unbodied and flights of the mind. 

Let the Gods of Olympus their revels prepare — 
By the aid of some pounds of inflammable air 
We'll visit them soon — and forsake this dull ball. 
AVith coat, shoes and stockings, fat carcase and all. 

How France is distinguish 'd in Louis's reign ! 
What cannot her genius and courage attain ? 
Throughout the wide world have her arms found the way 
And Art to the stars is extending her sway. 

At sea let the British their neighbors defy — 

The French shall have frigates to traverse the sky — 

In this navigation more fortunate prove, 

And cruise at their ease in the climates above. 

If the English should venture to sea with their fleet, 
A host of balloons in a trice they shall meet. 
The French from the zenith their wings shall display 
And souse on these sea dogs and bear them away. 

Ye sages who travel on mighty designs. 
To measure meridians and parallel lines — 
The talk being tedious — take heed if you please — 
Construct a balloon — and you will do it with ease. 

And ye who the heaven's broad concave survey. 
And, aided by glasses, its secrets betray. 
Who gaze, the night through, at the wonderful scene, 
Yet still are complaining of vapors between. 

Ah, seize the conveyance, and fearlessly rise 
To peep at the lanthorns that light up the skies, 
And floating above, on our ocean of air. 
Inform us, by letter, what people are there. 

In Saturn advise us if snow ever melts. 

And what are the uses of Jupiter's belts ; 

And (Mars being willing) pray send us word greeting 

If his people are fonder of fighting than eating. 



That Venus has horns we've no reason to doubt 
(I forget what they call him who first found it out), 
And you'll find, I'm afraid, if you venture too near 
That the spirits of cuckolds inhabit her sphere. 

Our folks of good morals it woefully grieves 
That Mercury's people are villains and thieves, 
You'll see how it is — but I venture to show, 
For a dozen among them, twelve dozen below. 

From long observation one proof may be had 
That the men in the moon are incurably mad. 
However, compare us, and if they exceed. 
They must be surprisingly crazy indeed. 

But now to have done with our planets and moons. 
Come, grant me a pattern for making balloons. 
For I find that the time is approaching — the day — 
When horses shall fail and the horsemen decay. 

Post riders at present (call'd centaurs of old) 
Who brave all the seasons, hot weather and cold. 
In future shall leave their dull ponies behind 
And travel, like ghosts, on the wings of the wind. 

The stagenian, whose gallopers scarce have the power 
Through the dirt to convey you ten miles in an hour. 
When advanc'd to balloons shall so furiously drive. 
You'll hardly know whether you are dead or alive. 

The man who at Boston sets out with the sun. 
If the wind should be fair may be with us at one. 
At Gunpowder Ferry drink whisky at three. 
And at six be at Edenton ready for tea. 

(The machine shall be order'd, we hardly need say, 

To travel in darkness as well as by day.) 

At Charleston by ten he for slee]5 shall prepare. 

And by twelve the next day be the Devil knows where. 

When the ladies grow sick of the city in June, 
What a jaunt they shall have in the flying balloon ! 
Whole mornings shall see them at toilets preparing. 
And forty miles high be their afternoon's airing. 

Yet more with its fitness for commerce I'm stuck. 
What broad loads of tobacco shall fly from Kentuck' ! 
What packs of best beaver, bar iron and pig ! 
What budgets of leather from Conoccocheague ! 

If Britain should ever disturb us again 
(As they threaten to do in the next George's reign), 
No doubt they will play us a set of new tunes. 
And pepper us well from their fighting balloons. 

To market the farmers shall shortly repair 
With their hogs and potatoes, wholesale thro" the air, 
Skim over the water as light as a feather. 
Themselves and their turkeys conversing together. 



Such wonders as these from balloons shall arise- 
And the giants of old that assaulted the skies, 
With their Ossa on Pelion, shall freely confess 
That all they attempted was nothing to this. 



AIRCRAFT March, 1910 

TYPES OF SUCCESSFUL AEROPLANES 




CURTIS BIPLANE A E RIAL EXPERIMENT ASSN.BIPLANE 




March, igio AIRCRAFT 

TYPES OF SUCCESSFUL DIR.IGIBLES 




BRITISH MILITARY DIRIGIBLE 



1^: 
BALDWIN, AMERICA 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 





ORGANIZATION 

)IFE IS A COMPLETE SYSTEM of or- 
ganization. Study the entire universal 
scheme as far as the infinitesimal intelli- 
gence of man is capable of doing, and it 
will be found that all things are tending 
toward a complete state of organization. 

The microbes in the blood of man organize — 
.man himself is a system of organized parts — men 
'Organize themselves into communities, States, na- 
tions. Eventually they will organize themselves into 
one complete body in which all of the various units 
will enjoy equal opportunities to aid in the produc- 
tion, distribution and consumption of the earth's 
bountiful supply of good things. 

In his upward progressive march man has just ar- 
rived at the threshold of mechanical flight. He has 
built a few crude toy machines with which he has 
proven that it is possible to fly. He will now go ahead 
to perfect these machines and bring them into com- 
mercial use for the purpose of transporting himself 
and baggage from place to place in the least possible 
time and with the least possible expenditure of energy. 
He will spend a great many years in the study of and 
adaptation to aerial navigation, just as he has spent 
a great many years in the study of and adaptation to 
■other new conditions which were formerly new and 
incomprehensible to him. 

With the development of aircraft, organization in 
the movement will gradually take place, until the time 
finally arrives when one human brain will direct the 
whole aeronautical machinery in all parts of the world. 
And this human brain will merely be a lieutenant 
working in conjunction with other lieutenants acting 
as directors of various other branches of human in- 
dustry, and all directed by one supreme mind at the 
head of the whole human race. 

At the present time aeronautical organization has 
just begun to take shape. Aero clubs are being formed 
in different cities in this country and abroad. These 
clubs in turn are forming into State organizations. 
State organizations into national associations, and na- 
tional associations into an international federation. 

This great organization movement is just as natural 
and necessary in aeronautics as it is in any other 



portion of human industry or universal life. It cannot 
be stopped or checked in its advancement. It must 
go on. There may be here or there an individual who 
stands aloof with the claim that he is independent and 
can get along without joining an organization. He 
can, in just about the same manner that he could get 
along without the collaboration of every other human 
being on earth whose combined efforts go to make 
our modern living possible. 

We therefore advise our readers to join aero clubs, 
and those who live in cities where there are no aero 
clubs, to organize them; and we advise the different 
clubs to join the State organizations, and we advise 
the various State organizations to join the national 
association, and the national association, which is at 
present the Aero Club of America, to remain a mem- 
ber of the International Federation Aeronautique, and 
all pull together to make one grand successful step 
forward in the aeronautical movement. 



HIGH FLYING 

WHEN AEROPLANE FLIGHT first began 
to attract the attention of the public, and 
both big and little scientists in all parts of the 
world stopped trying to prove by their figures that 
such a thing was impossible, the general opinion ex- 
pressed by the leading men of the aerial movement, 
and even by the builders of flying machines them- 
selves, was that the aeroplane was destined to be a 
machine to just skim along the ground, and that it 
could never be expected to make any high flights. In 
fact it was all figured out that high flying was to be 
left entirely to the lighter-than-air craft. 

Nearly two years ago the Editor of this magazine 
began to write upon this subject, and often pointed 
out the fact that it would be the heavier-than-air type 
that would eventually do the highest flying. His fore- 
sight upon this as well as other things was usually 
considered visionary by men who can always see an 
object with powerful glasses or prove an event after 
it has happened. 

The recent flight of Paulhan at Los Angeles, in 
which that intrepid aviator reached an altitude of 
nearly a mile, substantiates to a certain degree some 



March, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



9- 



of the predictions made by the Editor. But we do 
not intend to rest upon these laurels, and AIRCRAFT 
sets itself upon record with a prediction that within 
ten years heavier-than-air machines will be able to 
attain a height of over ten miles. 

The Editor of AIRCRAFT has some other ideas of 
what the future will produce in the shape of human 
flight, which will be recorded from time to time for 
either the digestion or indigestion of its readers. 

o o o 

DON'T WHINE 

SOME MEN BECOME DISCOURAGED very 
easily. If every little thing does not go exactly 
as they would like to have it, they fuss and fume 
and snort and snivel and wish they were dead; and 
the ones that usually do the most fussing and 
sniveling are those who have never had any hard 
knocks in the earlier stages of their lives. They have 
not been trained to overcome obstacles, and therefore 
lose heart when meeting with their first reverses. 
They do not understand that our present civilization 
has been built on failures, and that for every success 
there are hundreds of failures. 

It is the overcoming of obstacles in life which makes 
man strong, and the more of these he has to encounter 
the stronger he will become. 

Life is merely a series of trials which the human 
being is put through, and his ultimate strength de- 
pends upon how many and how difficult are the tasks 
he undertakes. 

If he tries and fails and then quits he is a pretty 
weak creature. But if he tries and fails and then tries 
again, he gains strength, and the more trials and fail- 
ures and trials again the greater becomes his strength 
— that is, if he does not waste part of it in whining. 

At the present time we find ourselves scattered 
about a globular mass flying through space. Where 
we are going we do not know, and why we are here 
we haven't the slightest idea. But we do know that 
we are here, and that we are going somewhere, and 
while our little brains are too immature to comprehend 
the full situation, still the very least we can do is to 
make the most of our opportunities ; to do our best 
at all times ; to struggle along and create. He who 
would create anything of worth must expect to have 
failures, and the greater the task he sets out to ac- 
complish the more failures he will have to put up with. 
The easier the task the easier it is to succeed. 

Study the lives of the greatest men and you will 
find records of continual failures. We owe our suc- 
cess to those who have failed before us, and those who 
follow us will owe their success to our failures. 

In fiying machines the Wright Brothers owe their 
success to the thousands who tried and failed before 
them, and the success of others after them will be 
built upon their failures. 



There have probably been more failures in the con- 
struction of flying machines than in any other task 
man has ever set out to accomplish ; but then flying is 
the greatest task he has ever undertaken, and, conse- 
quently, the greatest men the world has ever known 
are those who have devoted their energies to solving 
the flying problem. They will eventually be placed 
in the front ranks of history. 

It is, perhaps, needless to tell the tens of thousands 
of flying machine inventors in all parts of the world 
not to get discouraged. Most of them have met with 
so many failures that they have become accustomed 
to them. 

Our advice, however, to those who may be inclined 
at times to become discouraged, is to FIGHT IT OUT. 
DON'T QUIT and, above all, DON'T WHINE under 
any circumstances. 

o o o 

A big blustering fellow stood on the back end of a 
street car recently and spent a quarter of an hour ex- 
plaining to a party of his friends the difference between 
an aeroplane and a monoplane, and when he had fin- 
ished his friends agreed that he knew all about air- 
ships. 

His aeronautical learning was no doubt secured 
from some newspaper. 

o o o 

When the complete history of aviation is written, 
the names of C. M. Manley and R. L. Reed must for- 
ever be associated with that of the immortal Langley. 
Manley acted as chief engineer, while Reed was fore- 
man of aerodromics, and made all the drawings for 
the Langley models and machine. Reed was closely 
associated with the great scientist from the year 1892 
until the day of his (Mr. Langley's) death. 
000 

It is a dull mind that cannot be amused by the an- 
tics of its contemporaries, and it is a duller one still 
that is not forced to grin when looking at its own 
reflection in a mirror. 

000 

Did you ever notice a great big mastiff trotting 
along about his own business, while snarling at his 
heels was a dyspeptic little lapdog? The mastiff, so 
occupied with his own thoughts, not even noticing 
the poodle until, unfortunately, one of his hind paws 
accidentally comes into contact with the puny whelp's 
nose, causing it to whine with pain. Quite laughable 
sometimes, but we invariably sympathize with the 
poodle. 

AIRCRAFT is the great big watchdog of the aero- 
nautical movement just now, and we assure the So- 
ciety for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals that if 
his left hind foot should in any way come into contact 
with the snapping snout of any yelping canine, it will 
be purely accidental, and our heartfelt sympathy will 
be extended to the whimpering whelp. 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 



LILIENTHAL 

By Charles Heitman 




OTTO LILILNTHAL 



OTTOLILIEN- 
THAL, inventor, 
constructor and 
lirst pilot to suc- 
cessfully and sci- 
entiiically glide a 
heavier- than-air 
apparatus through 
space, was born 
May 24, 1848, at 
Auklam, in the 
province of Pome- 
rania, Germany. 
While still a mere 
lad he began to 
study the problem 
of flight, and at 
the early age of 
thirteen years, he 
constructed, with 
the help of his 
brother Gustave, 
his first gliding 
machine. He be- 
gan experimenting 
at night in the 
moonlight by 
launching his ma- 
chine from the top 
of a hill and run- 
ning downwards. At the age of twenty he constructed a ma- 
chine with movable wings, which was capable of carrying a 
weight of forty kilograms. His observations in connection with 
these experiments led him to publish his book, " The Flight of 
Birds Considered as the Basis of Aviation,'' which was a re- 
markable work for that 
period, and which is 
of value even now. 

In 1 89 1 he con- 
structed another ma- 
chine, consisting of 
huge wings nearly 23 
feet long, curved para- 
bolically. The mount- 
ings were of bamboo 
covered with calico 
soaked with wax ; this 
machine weighed alto- 
gether 18 kilograms. 
Launching himself 
from a height of 19 
feet, he was able to 
fly at first for a dis- 
tance of 16 feet in a 
strong wind, increas- 
ing this distance later 
to 114 feet, and he 
could also fly against 
the wind. 

He then built a sec- 
ond, larger glider, on the model of the first, but with dimensions 
of 16 square meters and a weight of 24 kilograms. With this 
he was able to cover a distance of 262 feet, at a speed of nearly 
23 feet per second. 

He removed his machine to Rathenow in 1893, after modifying 
the wings so as to be able to fold them for transportation. His 




THE HILL KKOM WHICH LILIENTHAL GLIDED 



new proving ground was in the middle of a large field covered by 
turf and surrounded by regular, conical hills rising in a gentle 
slope to a height of from 200 to 260 feet. His new machine was 
composed of large curved surfaces in the form of an open fan. 
Lilienthal had arranged a place for himself on the left side, and 
by means of two wooden levers he could augment or diminish at 
will the form and dimensions of the soaring planes during flight. 
At the back of his machine he placed a vertical steering gear, 
which he operated by means of two cables. The weights, of 20 
and 100 kilograms respectively when mounted, were well dis- 
tributed. 

With this machine Lilienthal launched himself from a height 
of 98 feet, and, carried by an ascending wind, he glided upward 
to a height of from 650 to 980 feet, and was perfectly successful 
in turning to the right or left by means of light displacements of 
the center of gravity and of the steering gear. Having thus 
demonstrated the feasibility of his machine, he undertook to 
manufacture it and sell it to aeronauts in Germany and else- 
where. 

In 1894 he built at Lichterfelde a conical mound 49 feet high 
and 227 feet in diameter at the base. From this elevation he 
tried out his new gliding machine, which was composed of two 
planes placed one over the other, with which he made very suc- 
cessful flights. 

Later on he constructed a machine, with beating wings, worked 
by means of two motors run by carbonic acid; but this apparatus 
proved worthless. 

Lilienthal died a martyr to his inventor's enthusiasm. One day 
during a successful flight the machine suddenly rose to a height 
of 23 feet and then fell straight down to the ground and was 
shattered into fragments. Lilienthal's spine was broken, and he 
died twent3--four hours later, on August 10, 1896. 

Some defect in the machine probably caused the disaster. 
Lilienthal's apparatus had no longitudinal stability because it con- 
sisted of but one carrying surface ; the horizontal governing ap- 
paratus, moreover, was 

I much too small and 

■ set too close to the 
surface of the bow 
to be really efficient. 
The aviator was 
obliged to use his body 
as a means to estab- 
lish the equilibrium, 
by moving back and 
forth, just as an acro- 
bat keeps his equilib- 
rium. But he could 
not remain stationary 
in the air ; his appara- 
tus was liable to rear 
instead of gliding, be- 
cause of retrograde 
movement ; and again, 
it was liable to descend 
straight down, striking 
the ground violently 
with its prow before 
the aviator had time to 
make it regain its nor- 
mal position. As he plunged down in full flight, the machine 
was shattered and he was killed. 

His death was felt as a loss to aviation. " He was," says Wil- 
helm Kress. " a modest and amiable man. His glides, or flights, 
were extraordinarily able and were executed with a very unstable 
apparatus : they not onl}' created a sensation and excited a lively 



March, lyio 



AIRCRAFT 



interest, but also gave a new impulse 
and stimulus to the efforts of other 
aviators. 

The experiments of the unfortunate 
German inventor were of incontest- 
able value in demonstrating the effi- 
ciency of supporting surfaces and the 
possibility of realizing under the best 
conditions equilibrium during flight. 
Lilienthal had no imitators in Ger- 
many, but in 1S96 Octave Chanute, a 
Frenchman living in America, began 
to experiment with man-carrying 
gliding-machines in which he re- 
versed the method of Lilienthal to 
restore balance and caused the sur- 
faces themselves to alter their posi- 
tion, so as to bring the center of 
pressure back verticallj' over the cen- 
ter of gravity. 

Pilcher, an English engineer, who 
shared tlie fate of Lilienthal three 




LILIENTHAL IN FLIGHT 



BANKING 

By Edward H. Young 



years later, the late Captain Ferber 
and Voisin, both Frenchmen, who 
subsequently distinguished themselves 
with successful motor aeroplanes in 
France, also followed his methods, as 
well as other celebrated pioneers in 
the science of aviation. 

Lilienthal's greatest title to glory 
is the fact that he was an initiator, 
and the forerunner of the Wright 
brothers, who adapted his ideas to 
their aeroplanes of 1902 and 1903, 
and to the construction of the me- 
chanical aeroplane. However much 
bis pupils may have gone ahead of 
their master now, the successful 
flights of the German engineer in his 
attempts to overcome the resistance 
of the air on curved surfaces put him 
in the foremost ranks of the world's 
greatest aviators and his name will 
live for many centuries. 



HEN a bicyclist turns a corner, he has to lean towards 
the side on which he is turning, in order to keep from 
falling, and to keep his proper balance or equilibrium. 
Similarly a bicyclist or motor cyclist who is racing around 
a race-track ; only in this case the track is sloped or banked at the 
turns to keep him from sliding or falling off to one side. Now 
imagine the air as a bank of earth which is sloped the same way 
where a heavier-than-air flying machine takes a turn ; for this 
is in fact just what takes place. 

There is, however, a different principle involved in aeroplane 
" banking," as it is called, from the principle illustrated by the 
cyclist leaning to one side at a turn ; though both are alike in 
that the movement serves to the same end. A cyclist is like an 
inverted pendulum, he being the knob or weight which is fastened 
at the top of a pendulum rod, and not at the bottom, as in most 
cases. His bicycle is the pendulum rod which is pivoted to a solid 
foundation, the ground. In making a turn, centrifugal action 
tends to throw him outward from the turn, and he leans to the 
turning point to bring the action of gravity into play as a coun- 
terbalance to the action of the centrifugal force, this keeping his 
equilibrium. On the other hand, an aeroplane is like a carpet 
sweeper, which has a tendency to move straight ahead rather than 
to make a turn as desired ; and which would go straight ahead 
unless the floor were banked to assist in making the turn. The 
aeroplane proper corresponds to the sweeper box, and is pushed 
along by the propellers, which correspond to the handle of the 
carpet sweeper. 

There is, however, another principle which applies to an aero- 
plane, but which does not apply to the bicyclist. This is the op- 
position of the aeroplanic principles of " center of pressure " and 
" center of gravity." The pressure is the upward tendency of the 
air against the lifting surface of the aeroplane, and tends to sup- 
port the heavier-than-air flying machine in the air ; gravity is the 
pull of the earth against the machine, and tends to bring it down 
to the ground. The center of each is the spot where, counting 
from some point (as the spokes of a wheel) the pressure is evenly 
directed to all parts of the flying machine. The tendency of each 
being in opposition, one being upward and the other downward, 
these two centers must of necessity coincide in the vertical plane. 

Centrifugal action plays an important part in a heavier-than- 
air flying machine in making a turn. It has a tendency to throw 
everything about the machine having weight out towards the rim 
or periphery of the turn. As centrifugal action only affects parts 
having weight, and as the pull of gravity also only affects parts 
having weight, centrifugal action therefore disturbs the center of 



gravity, tending to throw it to the outside edge of the machine in 
making a turn. Throwing the center of gravity towards the out- 
side edge causes the center of pressure to move towards the 
inner edge of the machine (that is, the side of the machine nearest 
the corner of the turn), causing the coincidence of these two 
centres to be destroyed. This causes the outside edge of the fly- 
ing machine to lower and fall towards the ground. This action 
is disregarded by a great many young experimenters in the art ; 
they build their machines without reference to it and then find 
out too late that they are wrong in principle. 

To overcome this centrifugal action, it is necessary to raise the 
outside edge of the machine above the horizontal ; in other words, 
to bank it. This causes the pull (or center) of gravity to move 
towards the inside edge of the machine and meet, and keep in 
coincidence with, the center of pressure. This action counterbal- 
ances the outward force of centrifugal action and keeps the ma- 
chine in balance or equilibrium. 

To achieve this result, several dififerent devices are in use. One 
is the plane-warping principle of the Wright brothers, whereby 
they raise the rear edge of their surfaces at one end of the ma- 
chine and lower it below the horizontal at the other. This action 
causes the side of the aeroplane, whose surfaces are lowered, to 
shoot up into the air to a higher level and thus bank the machine 
in making a turn. Another device is the use of wing tips or 
rudders, whose action is the same as the plane-warping device, 
though a little slower in its movement. Because of this short- 
coming, it is doubtful if it will be found as efficient in high winds 
as is the other device, for in high winds the action is very rapid 
and instantaneous correction must be made, delay being danger- 
ous to equilibrium. 

It was the lack of the knowledge of how to properly keep an 
aeroplane in equilibrium in making a turn, that delayed the prac- 
tical application of the art to commercial uses. As before stated, 
the old idea was that the machine would naturally raise itself in 
making a turn, the same as a bird in soaring flight appears to do ; 
but as shown above, this was a mistaken idea. 

The outer wing of a soaring bird does not naturally raise it- 
self in making a turn, but the bird raises it to a higher level by 
almost imperceptibly throwing the wing slightly forward and 
changing his other wing slightly to the rear. This action, it is 
true, pertains to a principle different from that heretofore de- 
scribed. The wing that is thrown forward receives the upward 
pressure of the air first, and also gets the upward pressure of the 
air in front of the point of fore and aft balance of its body, thus 
tending to turn it upward and get to a higher level. 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 




A VIEW OF THE STARTING-POINT — PAULUAN's Ull'LANE IS SEEN KISING FROM THE GROUND TO THE LEET OF THE BALLOON " DISCOVERY. 




A BLERIOT MONOPLANE PASSING OVER THE GRAND STANDS 



March, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



13 



THE LOS ANGELES AERONAVTICAL TOVRNAMENT 



^^HE lirst great aeronau- 
5s)*f:\ lical tournament, in which 
^Jlf^ living machines as well 
as airships and sphericals 
were entered into contests, ever 
held in the United States took 
place ,it Los Angeles, California, 
from the loth to the 20th days 
of January, igio, and was a most 
decided success from every con- 
ceivable standpoint. 

The contests were held on the 
Domingnez Ranch, a historic old 
battlefield which originally con- 
sisted of about 50,000 -acres of 
mostly level surface. 

The grand stand was 750 feet 
long and 40 feet high, with a 
seating capacity of about 25.000 
including one hundred private 
boxes. It was built upon the 
highest stretch of land and over- 
looked the surrounding plains 
for miles. 

The attendance ran from 20.- 
000 to 50,000 daily, and promi- 
nent men and women from all 
parts of the world were enthu- 
siastic spectators. 

$So.ooo was the aggregate 
amount offered in prizes, of 
which $19,000 was won by Louis 
Paulhan and $5,000 by Glenn H. 
Curtiss. both of whom took 
part in the International Aviation Meet at Rheims, France, last 
summer. Paulhan established a new world's record for height 




LOUIS PAULHAN AND WIFE 



bucked his w 
In all he cov 



ay back 
ered an e: 



by going 4,165 feet up into the 
.lir and winning the first prize 
for the feat. He also won first 
money for the Endurance and 
Time and Passencer-cakryinc 
contests, while Curtiss took the 
lu'st prizes for the Speed and 
Qltick Starting contests. 

Both Charles K. Hamilton 
and Charles F. Willard distin- 
guished ' themselves as great 
aviators, the former winning 
first prize for making the Slow- 
est Lap and the latter taking 
first money for Starting and 
LjVnding in a square. 

Roy Knabenshue and Lincoln 
Ucachy gave some very pretty 
' xhibitions with their Dirigibles, 
and Clifford B. Harmon, Dick 
Ferris, George B. Harrison, J. 
C. Mars and other celebrated 
balloonists made some very 
clever ascensions. 

On January i8th Paulhan 
made one of the most remark- 
,ible cross-countrv flights in 
istor)'. On the wings of a 
md that other aviators hesi- 
ited to face, the Frenchman 
'ared from Aviation Field to 
Lucky" Baldwin's ranch, twen- 
ty-three miles away, circled the 
old Santa Anita race-track and 
to his tent, 
timated distance of 475-2 miles in i hour 




THE HENRY FARMAN BIPLANE WITH WHICH LOUIS PAULHAN MADE THE WORLD'S HEIGHT RECORD AT LOS ANGELES 



14 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 



2 minutes 42 4/5 seconds. He flew to Baldwin's with the wind 
in thirty minutes and came back against it in approximately 
thirtj'-three minutes. When he finished he said that the motor 
was as cool as when he started, and that he could repeat the 
trip at once. 




GLENN CUETISS THE SPEED CH\MPION RE VD\ TO FL^ 

Paulhan attained an altitude of from 1,000 to 2,000 feet on his 
way over the valley. His highest point was 2,130 feet, as indi- 
cated by the instrument in the flyer. 

Under him, speeding" over countr)' roads, were automobiles, 
horsemen and motorcycles, trying to be near the machine should 
Paulhan fall, or have to descend. Mrs. Paulhan was in one of 
the pursuing automobiles, praying and crying. 

When Paulhan reached the grand stand on his return he was 
mobbed. The crowd broke through the barriers. The aviator 




CHARLES Wn.L.\RD IN .\CTION 

was borne over the field. His countrymen kissed him and wept 
in joy. 

Among the many ladies who took trips skyward in the balloons 
and aeroplanes were Mrs. Ada M. Gregory of Chicago, Miss 
Bertha Freund of Cincinnati, Miss Mae Meyers of San Bernar- 
dino, Mrs. Dick Ferris of Los Angeles, and JNIme. Paulhan of 
Paris. 

From start to finish there was a dash and spirit to the great 
show that made it one continuous round of excitement. Los 
Angeles never saw such crowds before, and the whole population 
became wildly enthusiastic over the wonderful events. 

The aviators were lionized at every turn, and fabulous amounts 
offered them by promoters to give exhibitions in other cities. 




THE MARQUISE DE ROBERT KERSANSON DE PENNENDRIFF TAKING 
LUNCHEON WITH PAULHAN AND HIS WIFE 

The prizes won during the aviation meet follow : 

Height. — First, $3,000, JMons. Louis Paulhan, 4.165 feet ; sec- 
ond, $2,000, Mr. Charles K. Hamilton, 530.5 feet ; third, $500, Mr. 
Glenn H. Curtiss, no official height taken. 

Endurance and Time. — First, $3,000, j\Ions. Paulhan, 75.77 
miles, ih. 58m. 32s. ; second, $2,000, ^Ir. Charles K. Hamilton, 
ig.44 miles, 39m. 2/5S. ; third, $500, Air. Glenn H. Curtiss, 16.11 
miles, 24m. 54 2/55. 

Speed, Ten Laps. — First, $3,000, Mr. Curtiss, 16. 11 miles, 23m. 
43 3/Ss. ; second, $2,000, Mons. Paulhan, 16.11 miles, 24m. 59 2/53.; 
third, $500, jNIr. Hamilton, 16. 11 miles, 30m. 34 3/5S. 

Three Laps with Passenger. — First, $1,000, Mons. Paulhan, 4.83 
miles, 8m. 16 1/5S. No others contested. 

Slowest Lap. — First, $500, ]Mr. Charles K. Hamilton, 1.61 miles, 
3m. 36 2/ss. 

Quickest Start. — First, $250, Mr. Curtiss, 98 feet. 




lUIXC K1I> AXIl 
IN TROUBLE 



I HI-; KX AM I XI' 



Starting and Landing in a Square. — $250, ]\Ir. Charles F. Wil- 
lard ; score perfect. 

Cross Country. — $10,000, Mons. Paulhan. 

The following are records for the course also made : 

Speed, one lap, 2m. 12s. : Mr. Curtiss. 

Shortest Time in Rising, 6 2/55. ; Mr. Curtiss. 

Dirigibles, one lap, 4m. 57 4/5S. ; Mr. Lincoln Beachy. 



March, igio 



AIRCRAFT 




PAULHAN' IN HIS AEROPLANE. PEACHY IN HIS DIRIGIBLE AND 
FERRIS IN HIS SPHERICAL 





AVIATORS SMITH, CURTISS, MASSON, PAULHAN. MISCAROt. WILLARD 
AND BEACHY ON THE GROUND 



^ 


^ 


^^- 








^ 






^^^^ 


^^^ 


^ 






/""Sig^- 


4-,LUt,.fJWt*v 


y^^/y 


'^■ 


'''^§B 


/ 



LICK FEKKIS TAKlNi) HIS 



\NE l;lliE WITH I'Arl.llAX 




BUNCH OF AMERICAN BEAUTIES WATCHING THE AVIATORS IN 
THE RAIN 



^^ 


i^M 
^^^y 




^■^ 



CHARLES HAMILTON IN A CURTISS MACHINE TRYING FOR AN GLENN H. CURTISS BREAKING THE WORLDS RECORD FOR QUICK 

ALTITUDE RECORD STARTING 



i6 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 




ROY KNABENSHUE FL\ 1 



sU STAND IN HIS DIRIGIBLE 




WILLIAM RANDOLPH HEARST, THE AMERICAN NEWSPAPER COLOSSUS, 
WAS THERE AND TOOK A RIDE WITH PAULHAN 





THE MAYOR OF SAN DIEGO PRESENTING PAULHAN WITH A LOVING 
CUP 



■J 




1 


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111^ WITH THE TRANSIT 




CHARLES WILLARD IN A CURTISS MACHINE DID SOME GREAT FLYING MISCAROL, THE FRENCH AVIATOR, DRIVING A BLERIOT MONOPLANE 



March, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



17 



AIR.. THE EMANCIPATION OF MAN 



By V. L. Ochoa 




PLAN OF THE OCHOA MACHINE, WHICH 
WILL BE MADE ENTIRELY OV STEEL. 



H. O. N. plus Argyle 
and then Neon, and now 
we may still add, »(og- 
nctic Aux, as the element 
that gives it cohesive- 
ness, capillary adhesive- 
ness or (tenuity), or 
any other term you may 
wish to employ to de- 
note its inseparability, 
when cleaved asunder, 
disturbed or disrupted. 

The physicists will tell 
you that the pressure 
and the specific gravity makes the atmosphere inseparable. 
Where does the pressure come from? Is it from above the 
earth? and if so, what, then, is there below the earth to press 
that air up against the earth's surface? This, then, is a self- 
contradictory statement. 

Is it not more reasonable to assume that the cause for this 
thing we call pressure is the now well-known magnetic lines of 
force known to exist and so palpably illustrated in the Aurora 
Borealis and Aurora Austrialis, when conditions are favorable 
for optical observation? These auroras, visually, show us really 
to what extent the magnetic lines of force extend. 

They have, on man}' occasions, when conditions were favorable, 
shown to the naked eye their formed lines to extend from the 
poles to the equatorial zones. This, then, is an optical demon- 
stration to us, of the ever-present magnetic lines of force, that 
we talk about but cannot very well prove. 

Now, let us assume that magnetism is ever present, and we 
will then be able to explain phenomena heretofore baffling to 
man's understanding. To start with, we will take a cloud float- 
ing in the air. It floats on a cushion of hot air, as only in that 
way could it keep its load of vapor in a state volatile enough to 
float, otherwise the moment it is struck by a cold draft the vapor 
condenses and drops its water. Another thing happens ; as the 
cloud is heavier, it does not quite float with the wind, it loses 
ground, as it were, the wind is ripped asunder at the forefront 
of the cloud, part of the air running down and part over it; as 
the wind .is ripped in two, the magnetic lines of force in the air 
are severed. After a while enough magnetism is generated on 
the surface of the cloud to give ofif a spark — and this spark we 
call a bolt of lightning. As a rule this spark follows the mois- 
ture-laden air, or intermittent stream, caused by the on-rushing 
drops of water to the earth or from one cloud to another to 
which the damp vapor is blown or carried by the wind. 

Magnetism in the air, or in the water, gives life to animated 
beings and causes disintegration in inanimate matter. 

It will cause metals to disintegrate, whereas it will build up 
the body of an animal. How is it done? Very simply. 

Look at a piece of iron exposed to the weather. You will say 
it has rusted away — into mere dust. Look at what is left of that 
iron. It is full of pits and holes, and next to each pit or hole is 
a little mound or ampula. A microscopic examination will reveal 
that the mound or ampula of rust was built up by the deposition 
of the particles of iron that flew out of the pit or hole and de- 
posited themselves near by in a little mound. This could only 
have been made in one way — by magnetism. A magnetic eddy 
taking the particles of iron out, at the South Pole, and deposit- 
ing them at the North Pole, is the only explanation for that pit 
and adjoining mound of rust. 

In the case of life in the water, the magnetic eddies, as in the 
atmosphere, are ever present and ever, ever working. Let us take 
the simple cell of the slime and there we find the exact conditions 
existing in the atmosphere. As far as the microscope can show 
us, and the chemical analysis of the simple cell can be determined. 
It is shown that this cell is made up of a bit of carbon and par- 



ticles of protoplasma, that grow by electrolytic aggregation and 
absorption, as each twenty-four hours pass by, much as the 
mound of rust, next to the pit, grows in the case of the iron ex- 
posed to the magnetic eddies of the atmosphere or water. 

If the reader will please remember that many of our present 
electric cells are made with a bit of carbon and other protoplas- 
mic pastes, with a reactive agent, to energize a current of elec- 
tricity, he will thus see how near to ours is nature's own electric 
simplest cell. 

I may mention that any two salts will, suffice to energize the 
simple cells, and in the waters of the sea as well as in the liquids 
of the blood there are ample salts finding their way thither to 
energize and build ever and ever the simple cells that go to re- 
build and reenforce the wasted cells destroyed by wear and tear 
in all animal life. 

Now, having made an efi^ort at showing how magnetism is the 
source of life of man, let us see how that same magnetism and, 
air are to be the emancipation of man ; simply this way : not only 
shall we make the wind give us power which we shall store 
up, in compressed air tanks, and convert into electric lighting,, 
liquid air, all uses of power, and finally cheap means of commu- 
nication. 

In the great aerial highway man will emancipate himself from 
the upkeep of the present railroad bed, rolling stock, wear and' 
tear of car wheels and cumbersome driving mechanisms. On the 
aircraft there will be no heavy nor expensive wheels to keep up,, 
nor any other than the reasonable wear and tear of engines. 
Neither the wings nor the propeller of a flying machine suffer 
any wear as do the rubber tires of an automobile, or the wheels 
of a PuUman coach. 

We are now carrying 100 pounds of weight one mile, at an 
expense of one-fourth of a cent, and before the year 1910 is over,. 
I feel sure we can cut that to less than one mill per mile for 
every hundredweight. 

If the railroads and automobile makers think they will be able 
to compete with such means of locomotion, I feel sure they will 
have very shortly to change their line of thought. 

In the much despised and neglected oscillating wing machines, 
of which none have ever been made in a sensible and mechanical 
way, either for lack of means or for the lack of brains, and for 
the parsimony of civilization, and its neglectful and perfunctory 
governments, I have no doubt we will find the machine that will 
defy the elements, as they are now defied, even by the most feeble 
insect. 

It has been said that the aeroplane is the nearest thing imitat- 
ing the beautiful flight of. the larger birds. There never was a 
statement made farther from the truth. 

The aeroplane is thrust ahead by the impact of the propeller 
again.st the air behind it, and the planes lift the mass by mount- 
ing or continually creeping upon the embankment of air it meets. 
It does another thing, it creates a suction behind its great spread 
of plane surfaces. This suction, as well as the embankment in 
front, retards its progress. In other words, it vitiates or annuls, 
to a great extent, the work of the propeller. 

In the case of the wings of a bird or of an insect, their opera- 
tion is just the reverse. At each stroke the flexible feathers find 
an embankment of air behind, scooping it, as it were, and all the 
suction created is made to the front of the wing, thus utilizing 
every condition for the acceleration of its forward movement. 
Even its tail is utilized for lifting weight. How, then, can it be 
said the aeroplane is the duplication of nature's fliers? 

We have aeroplane insects like the June bug and the beetle 
and all hard shell-wing insects, but they are all slow fliers, 
whereas all flexible wing insects are swift fliers — as is the honey- 
bee, the locust, the dragon fly, etc. 

So, all things considered, we may safely prophesy that where 
an aeroplane made si.xty miles last year the wing machine will 
make many more this year. 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 



AERIAL WARFARE 



By Hudson Maxim 




^[NCE that long ago when the primitive savage 
, crawled from the smoke and dinge of the hill- 

\A \ cavern and raised his eyes to the unfathomed 
ts_// * mysteries of the great star-spangled concave, 
filled with winged life, flying with the day and 
hovering with the night, human aspiration, stimu- 
lated by imaginative wonder, has been the con- 
quest of the air. 

l\Ian's admiration and his envy have always 
followed the bird in its flight, and though foot- 
tied to earth, he has in imagination soared in the cloud-land of 
the lark. His passion for flight has given wings to the immortal 
spirits of the dead, who, disburdened of this cumber of flesh and 
blood and bone, at last come to the realization of the dream of 
flight. 

The skater, as he rides on glare of steel over the frozen glare, 
is, in fancy's pretense, riding on the wind. The cyclist, too, has 
his aerial fancies, and the automobilist in his flight with chance 
and death has the passion of the wing in him. 

Now that the flying machine has actually come, we naturally 
stand a-tiptoe and peer into the future with a questioning sur- 
mise as to what will be its usefulness. Will it ever be broadl}' 
utilitarian ? 

Every invention has been forged out of necessity and there 
is not and never has been any other stimulus of genius so strong 
as that which has impelled man to prepare for war, demanding as 
it has and does the defense of country, home and loved ones on 
the one hand, and offering on the other the coveted rewards of 
conquest. Thus it is that the chief uses of human inventions 
from time immemorial have been as implements and enginery 
of war, for often it has been that a little lead of one people or 
country in war inventions has meant victory. 

When the hair-snarled, low-browed, prognathous, primitive an- 
cestor of ours looked down from his arboreal perch upon the 
life-and-death grapple of a fighting world, the imperative neces- 
sity for communication with his fellows for organization and co- 
operation to meet the exigencies of existence in an inclement 
environment of savage tooth and claw impelled him to employ 
certain sounds as the signs of ideas, which gave birth to language 
— the greatest and most useful of all weapons of war, and which 
lifted him from brute to man. 

The human brain and the sword-arm have grown up side by 
side. The fingered hand has been forged from the fin of the 
fish by the same impulse that has builded the human brain upon 
the microscopic terminal ganglion of the primitive cordworm, 
infinitesimal piece by piece. Everywhere in nature the intelli- 
gently selective has grown out of blind inertia tending always 
toward the survival of the fittest. 

It is an eternal, inexorable, impartial and merciless law of 
nature that all animal life must feed on other life. Every living 
creature has always been obliged to fight for place in its environ- 
ment, and the fight of man for his higher place has been the 
severest contention of them all. He- has had to fight a sterner 
fight for his uplift to a higher plane, in his war with heat and 
cold, with the hurricane and storm and flood, and with savage 
beasts and still more savage men. 

Armed with a language and a club, the Alalus crept from his 
warren and entered the arena of life as man; and since that time 
he has hewn the living flesh from off the bones of every breathing 
thing and won the mastery of all the earth; and the fighting 
spirit in man has become a part of the very spirit of life itself, 
and we find it everywhere to-daj', manifested in business as well 
as in war. 

Though war be an evil, yet it is not always an unmixed one. 
Often war is a good thing, for to wars we owe the intermingling 



of peoples and the wider acquaintance of different groups and 
races of men with one another ; and to the war spur we owe 
many of the master inventions and their wonder-working that 
have raised the world from savage indigence to luxurious en- 
lightenment. 

So it is, with the advent of the flying machine, we naturally 
look to its military uses as among those that will be the most 
important and that will give to the industry its strongest stimu- 
lus. Inventors will have to delve deep into the resources of their 
genius to produce flying machines to .meet the stringent require- 
ments of government specifications, for war is not a fair-weather 
game, but battles must be fought in the night and the storm, in 
high wind and low, as well as in calm air and daylight. It will 
be necessarj' to produce aeroplanes which will be capable of ris- 
ing from any ground and traveling upon any air, however tur- 
bulent. 

When there is a very strong demand for the accomplishment 
of a result through invention, that result is pretty sure of accom-- 
plishment if it lies within the range of human possibility; and I 
think that we may confidently expect the final building of aero- 
planes that will enable the aeronaut to laugh at the wind and the 
storm, — aeroplanes which shall automatically hold their way, as 
the Whitehead torpedo holds its course, except for desired direct- 
ing under the hand of the aeronaut. 

The greatest usefulness which will be found for flying machines 
in the wars of the future will be as scouting craft and as car- 
riers of raiders with the raiders' outfit of light arms and ex- 
plosives ; and the true use for explosives so carried will be in the 
blowing up of bridges, the destruction of magazines, arsenals 
and powder mills, and not, as is popularly supposed, as bombs to 
be dropped from a height. 

Aerial bombs dropped from the sky will never be widely de- 
structive, for it is contrary to the laws of nature that they should 
be, and nature's laws are hard to reverse. 

There is a wide popular error about the force and action of 
high explosives. We often read of the invention by some ob- 
scure genius of a high explosive a hundred or a thousand times as 
powerful as dj'namite, an ounce of which would wreck a block 
of buildings. Occasionally, a dynamiter or anarchist is arrested 
with a quantity of dynamite on his person, which is confidently 
asserted to be sufficient to utterly demolish a city square. Un- 
familiarity with high explosives allows the imagination wide 
play which leads the public mind far into error. 

It has been recently stated in the press that the advent of the 
flying machine seals the doom of the battleship, for now aero- 
planes will be able to drop high explosives upon them and wreck 
them ; and it was asserted that ten-pound bombs dropped from 
the sky upon a battleship would destroy it. As a matter of fact, 
it might rain ten-pound bOmbs for a week on a modern battleship 
without any other result than the marring of its paint and a few 
slight bruises on the superstructure. Such bombs would not even 
disturb the siestas of the marines below decks. 

Bombs containing several hundred pounds of dynamite, how- 
ever, dropped into the smoke-stacks or clos'e beside a battleship 
and exploded near the hull below the armored protection, might 
do some wicked work, but this would be very difficult of accom- 
plishment. 

Obviously, a flying machine would have to travel high, in order 
to escape the sky-raking guns of a warship, which will be ready 
for the flying machine, as soon as the flying" machine is ready, 
and must therefore be taken into consideration. 

The flying machine must also travel at least thirty miles an 
hour in order to keep up. This means that it must be traveling 
forward at the time it drops a bomb at the rate of more than 
forty feet a second, and as the bomb would only travel sixteen 



March, igio 



A I R C R A !• T 



19 



foot llio lir-it second il was dropped, it would travel f(.)rward 
forty feet while dropping sixteen feet ; and by the time it had 
fallen three hundred and thirty-six feet, it would have moved 
forward two Iiundred and forty feet ; so that by the time a bomb 
had fallen from the height of a mile, it would strike pretty wide 
of the mark, unless the aeronaut should be skillful enough to 
drop it at exactly the right instant and several hundred feet be- 
fore he came over the warship. This would certainly be a very 
difficult task, even if the warship were at anchor; but as the war- 
sliip may itself be moving at nearly or quite the speed of the 
flying machine, the difficulty of hitting the warsliip would be in- 
creased still more. 

A very wide use will be found for flying machines carrying 
raiders to wage war upon the unprotected population of interior 
towns, for the flying machine can pass over all barriers. War- 
ships and coast fortifications, forts and armies, will fail to arrest 
its progress, but there will be of course flying machines of the 
opposing forces to bar the way. 

In the next great war. along the frontiers of the warring pow- 
ers will be hosts of aeroplanes perched ready to fly to the attack 
for the interception of any invading air fleet. Hill top and moun- 
tain height will watch the sea of air for aerial armadas as the 
coast hills of England watched the sea for the Spanish Armada. 

Nevertheless, there will be aerial blockade runners that will 
elude detection and which will light upon and devastate unpro- 
tected cities and towns. 

We must not imagine that in the next great war we will be 
permitted to sit by the hearthstone and read of the conduct of 
the war in distant parts, for aerial raiders of the enemy may at 
any moment come down from the sky and bring the latest war 
news right to our doors. The slumber of anv night may be 



broken by the flare of the torch, the glint of the sword and the 
roar of conflagration. But, as I have said, the aerial bomb, 
dropping from the high air, will never be widely destructive, re- 
ports of imaginative writers notwithstanding. 

/\ body of high explosive, detonated upon the surface of the 
earth, rebounds from the earth upward, expanding as it goes up 
in the form of an inverted cone, so that there Is little action, and 
often none at all, to any consideraljle distance, on a horizontal 
plane. In order to do much damage, dynamite requires confine- 
ment in the thing to be destroyed, where it can exert its energy 
in disrupting its container. Then the damage it is capable of 
working is tremendous. 

High explosive projectiles have been found to be quite inef- 
fectual against troops, for the reason that their horizontal action 
is so limited ; while, on the other hand, shrapnel and canister 
are very destructive because of their wide horizontal effectiveness, 
for the same reason that a bullet is more destructive having a flat 
trajectory than one that has a high trajectory. The bullet with 
the fiat trajectory will strike a larger number of troops in its line 
of flight than a bullet having a more curved trajectory. 

Obviously, an army marching rank behind rank would expose 
much more vital surface to the bullets of an enemy firing at 
them horizontally than they would if the bullets were fired at 
them from the sky, taking them head-on or end-wise, instead of 
sidewise, and where the bullet, even if it hit, could penetrate 
but one inan ; whereas the same bullet traveling horizontally might 
pass through half a dozen men. 

The flying machine will be very useful as a scouting craft for 
the observation and mapping of an enemy's position and opera- 
tions. The wars of the future will more and more be fought with 
science opposed to science. 



THE RELATION OF WIND TO AERIAL NAVIGATION 

By Professor A. Lawrence RotcK 



^K^HE prevailing direction and strength of the winds over the 
^iK surface of the globe have been the object of study for 
^Ljffs many years. Thej' are now quite accurately known and 
are entered on charts for the use of mariners, who are 
chiefly concerned with them as aids to navigation. The normal 
upper winds, which lately have been determined with some exact- 
ness by meteorologists, with a view of ascertaining the atmos- 
pheric circulation at different heights, become of interest to the 
aeronaut who wishes to make use of the more regular currents 
prevailing above the earth's surface. Consequently, the data 
which have been obtained at such aerological stations as Blue 
Hill now possess a practical as well as a scientific value. 

The first measurements in America of the motions of the clouds 
were there made twenty j-ears ago. By means of a triangulation 
from a base-line, the height, direction and drift of the various 
kinds of clouds were measured up to the level at which the high- 
est ice-clouds, or cirrus, float, six to eight miles above the earth. 
These usually move from a westerly direction, little influenced by 
the storms at the ground, at an average speed of eighty miles an 
hour. But this method of determining the upper air-currents is 
not always available, for frequently there are no clouds, or, if 
there are, the lower clouds obscure the upper ones, and, in any 
case, it is not possible by them to measure the air-currents at 
successive heights at any particular time. This, however, can be 
accomplished by the use of pilot-balloons, triangulated like the 
clouds from a base-line. While small balloons have long been 
used hy balloonists to determine the general direction in which 
they are likely to drift, it is believed that the first exact measures 
in America of pilot-balloons were made last summer at Blue Hill. 

Even in cloudy weather, or at night, it is possible to obtain the 
general drift of the atmosphere up to heights of ten miles or 
more, by the so-called sounding-balloons, which carry automatic 
instruments that record continuously, height, temperature and the 
time. The first balloons of this kind were sent up from St. Louis 



in 1904 by the staft' of the Blue Hill Observatory, and when they 
fell to the ground hundreds of miles away, all but four of the 
seventy-six dispatched were found and returned to the senders. 
Knowing the place at which the balloons fell, and having a record 
of the height during the flight and its duration, the average direc- 
tion and speed of drift could be calculated. These showed a gen- 
eral movement from the west-northwest at the rate of 25 miles per 
hour for a mean height of 6,500 feet, and at a rate of 56 miles 
per hour for a mean height of 20,000 feet, which is rarely at- 
tained by manned balloons. 

Thus it is evident that, in these latitudes, the aeronaut who 
maintains an altitude of two miles or more will be carried east- 
ward, in most cases, with the speed of an express train. 

The surface winds in most parts of the world are too irregular 
to be of much service to either the spherical or dirigible balloon 
which are unable to sail into the wind like a ship, but north and 
south of the equator the trade-winds blow steadily from the 
northeast and southwest respectively, rarely influenced by cy- 
clonic disturbances. To ascertain the upper winds in these low 
latitudes, a steam-yacht, provided with balloons and kites, was 
sent to the South Atlantic a few years ago by ]\I. Teisserene de 
Bort and the writer. ■Measurements of the angular altitude and 
direction of the balloons from the deck of the vessel showed 
that at a height varying from a quarter of a mile to a couple of 
miles the surface winds were completely reversed, the northeast 
trade becoming southwest and the southeast becoming northwest. 
These results have just been confirmed by the observations of a 
German colleague. Professor Hergesell, in the Caribbean Sea, 
where a very strong southwest wind was found to be superposed 
on the northeast trade-wind, three miles or more above the ocean. 

Hence it appears possible for a spherical balloon, starting from 
the African coast, to sail far out over the Atlantic, and, by rising 
into the upper current, return safely to land. 

A more dangerous feat would be for a balloon starting from 



20 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 



the southern West Indies to seek first the upper southwest cur- 
rent, trusting to the northeast trade for the return journey. 

The impossibility of tceeping a balloon in the air for several 
days would make a transatlantic crossing, from the United States 
to Europe, in the upper westerly current, a hazardous under- 
taking. 

Aeronauts and aviators, however, are more particularly inter- 
ested in the wind conditions prevailing within two or three miles 
of the earth, and for the Atlantic coast states the data which have 
been obtained with kites at Blue Hill Observatory since 1894 fur- 
nish this information. 

The best way of measuring wind velocity within the stratum 
mentioned is by means of an anemometer attached to a kite which 
can be kept at a nearly constant height over the ground station 
for many hours at a time. 

The increase in wind velocity with height above the ground is 
found from these records to be very rapid. At night it is faster 
and attains a maximum at the height of a third of a mile, above 
which there is a decrease in velocity, except in winter, up to two- 
thirds of a mile. Above that level there is little change between 
the day and night conditions and the velocity continues to in- 



crease up to the regions occupied by the highest clouds, where, 
as we have said, it blows on the average eighty miles an hour, 
and sometimes in winter at double that speed. On account of the 
diminished density of the air at this elevation, however, the 
pressure of the wind becomes only one-quarter of that for the 
same velocity at sea-level. 

The diurnal change in the velocity of the wind is also of in- 
terest. At the ground the highest velocity occurs in the after- 
noon and the lowest velocity early in the morning, but in the free 
air these conditions are completely reversed at the height of a 
quarter of a mile. Near the ground the wind is more gusty on 
account of the obstacles it encounters, which may be compared 
to reefs on the sea-coast producing breakers. At night, because 
of the absence of ascending currents, the wind is much steadier 
than during the daytime, and in summer, a region of little wind 
suitable for aviation, which is also warmer and drier than either 
in the daj'time or on the ground, may be found about 4.000 feet 
above it. In this way, then, the aerologist, although himself re- 
maining on the earth, may aid the aeronaut and aviator perform 
aerial journeys, looking to them in return to advance the explora- 
tion of the air. 



AEROPLANES AMONG PLANTS AND ANIMALS 



(From Harper's Weekly Adz'crtiser) 



^if^HE ''men birds" who have solved the heavier-than-air 
cq/iyK problem have not attained the possibilities of the lower 
■^Jjffj animals who rise in the air by muscular power, nor are 
the birds and the "winged mice" (bats) the only flying 
animals. There are others, and those others deserve more credit 
for their effort because they do their work without the aid of ar- 
tificial motors. 

Some of the mammals give themselves the appearance of para- 
chutes by spreading a slack skin carried by them on both sides 
of their flanks. The skin joins the front legs to the back legs and 
maintains the animal in the air during his flight. Such mainte- 
nance is nothing less than flat flight, the flight of an ' aeroplane " 
("air-flat"). 

The flying squirrel, or Norfolk squirrel, of New North Wales, 
is an example of the anim.al aeroplane. This little animal affects 
the society of men, lives in small families in the trees, and feeds 
on vegetable substances and on insects. He hides in the tree- 
tops, rolled like a ball, in a knot-hole, or in the crotch formed by 
several branches, and sleeps wrapped in his membranous skin as 
in a mantle. At nightfall he awakes, spreads his sails, and leaps 
in the air with surprising agility. In the light he is as inanimate 
as a bat ; he sleeps all day, awaking from time to time to eat a 
little, but when night falls he moves so swiftly that the human 
eye cannot follow his movements. He is as agile as a monkey. 
He has been known to spring thirty-three feet into the air and 
leap to a distance of one hundred and two feet. 

The flying-dragon of the Sunday Islands is the aviator among 
reptiles. He carries large membranous expansions on his flanks. 
The two membranes when spread form a parachute which he 
uses whenever his keen eyes spy an insect on a distant tree. 

Flying-fishes may be classed as aviators who fly by means of 
aeroplanes. They do not fly as the bird flies — that is to say. they 
do not beat the air with their wings. Their fins do nothing but 
maintain them in the air by flat flight — the flight of the air-plane. 

The most common of amphibious aviators leaps from the sea 
and soars in the air to a distance of from eighteen to twenty feet. 
In some of his greatest leaps he moves in an arc of from twelve 
to fourteen feet. When his momentum gives out he falls back 
into the water to gather strength for another flight. These unfor- 
tunate amphibious aviators are forced to fly to escape the teeth 
of the fish who hunt them. 

In the warm regions of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and 
even in the Mediterranean, another flying-fish is found. This is 



the " sea-swalloWj" a creature so like a bird in appearance that 
it is impossible to think of him as a fish. He flies close to the 
water because the warm air dries his fins and makes high flight 
impossible. He is a fish, therefore his fins must be kept wet, for 
all his power is drawn from the sea. Like the glow-worm, the 
sea-swallow emits phosphorescent light. 

Living aeroplanes, some no larger than the smallest gnats, are 
found among the shell-fish of the crab and lobster family. Under 
a strong magnifying-glass they show tails ending in feathers. 
Their locomotor appendices are furnished with plumes of hairs 
so long and so numerous that it is evident that they were created 
to be spread as a means of augmenting the body's surface so as 
to enable the little beasts to maintain themselves in the air. Thsy 
dart to the surface of the water, leap in the air, soar, and fall 
back. Their movement is a long spring or jump rather than a 
flight. 

Nature has given other animals other means of sailing the air. 
The white gossamer which rides the autumn wind is a species of 
airship used by the animals who spin the silvery threads, draw- 
ing them so fine and light that they- are seen floating in the air 
more than si.xty miles from land. Gossamer threads are spun 
by different kinds of spiders. Naturalists who have watched the 
spinners at their work have seen them climb to the tops of trees 
and there build their web, which the lightest wind carries onward 
and on it the spider that spun it. Scientists have expressed aston- 
ishment that no inventor has applied the spider principle to 
aviation. 

The vegetable world shows aviators of merit. Even the pollen 
of certain plants is an agile and indefatigable traveler on the 
wind. B3' means of the wind plants sow their seed for miles 
around. The plants which send their seed broadcast on the wind 
are. in their way, manufacturers of very successful and practical 
aeroplanes. The most frequent aviatory arrangement is made by 
the tree fruits, called by naturalists, " the wind-lovers." 

The fruit of the elm-tree is provided with an envelope of very 
light membranous tissue which forms a wing ; that of the maple 
has such a membrane, but it has it on one side onh'. The fruit 
of the birch-tree has two side pieces which act as wings. That of 
the clematis is drawn out in a long, silky, plume-like arrangement 
which seems to have been created for nothing but aviation. L^n- 
questionably these appendices were given trees and plants to en- 
able seeds to travel on the wind and sow themselves at a distance 
from their starting-point. 



March, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



PROMINENT AMERICAN WOMEN 

WKo are Interested in the Science of Aviation 



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of New York 



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of New York 



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of New York 




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of Philadelphia, Pa. 



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of Washington, D. C. 



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of Dayton, Ohio 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 




BIG MEN OF THE MOVEMENT 



HUDSON MAXIM 

HUDSON MAXIM, inventor, mechanical engi- 
neer and student of aeronautics, was born at 
OrneviUe, Piscataquis County, Maine, February 3, 
1853. He is the son of Isaac and Harriet Boston 
(.Stevens) Maxim. 

Hudson Maxim left school at twenty-five years 
of age, after completing his academical studies at 
Kent's Hill, Maine, where he paid special atten- 
tion to chemistrv, engineering, and the natural 
sciences. In :S75 he formulated the hypothesis 
of the compoxmd nature of so-called atoms, which 
has become a generally accepted theory only 
within the past few years, as a result of experi- 
ments on radiant matter. :Mr. ^Maxim's theorv 
was published in the Scientific American Supple- 
ment in 18S9. He was engaged in the printing 
and subscription-book publishing business in 
Pittsfield. Mass.. from 18S3 to 18S8, and of one 
book of which he was the author, entitled " Pen- 
work Self-Instructor." nearly 500,000 copies were 
sold. He took up the business of ordnance and 
explosives in iSSS. In iSgo he built a dynamite 
factory and smokeless powder mill at Maxim, 
New Jersey, a place named for him, where he 
developed the first smokeless powder to be 
adopted by the United States Government. In 
1897, he sold the smokeless powder inventions to 
E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Wil- 
mington, Delaware, and since 1S98 has been con- 
sulting engineer and expert in the experimental 
department of that company. In 1901, he sold to 
the United States Government the secret of his 
invention known as Maximite, the first high ex- 
plosive to be fired through heavy armor-plate. 
This explosive at once placed the United States 
in the lead of all nations in the use of high-explo- 
sive projectiles. He is also the inventor of a 
detonating fuse for high-explosive projectiles, 
which has proven the most successful of any fvise 
yet developed. He has recently perfected a new 
smokeless powder of his invention, known as 
Stabillite. which has manv advantages over any 
other form of smokeless powder. Pie is the in- 
ventor of a new system of driving automobile 
torpedoes of the Whitehead type, by means of a 
self-combustive material known as motorite. by 
which much longer range and speed than here- 
tofore is made possible. Pie invented the process 
now in general use in the United States for mak- 
ing calcium carbide continuously by the electrical 
resistance of a molten carbide conductor, remov- 
ing the carbide as fast as formed, and simul- 
taneouslv supplying fresh material to the heating 
field. This process was purchased by the Union 
Carbide Companv in 1906. 

He was married in 1896 to Lilinn Durban, 
daughter of the Rev. Wm. Durban, M.A., a well- 
known linguist and litterateur of London. Eng- 
land. He is a member of the Military Service 
Institution: the Society of Chemical Industry: the 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science; the Chemists' Club; the New England 
Society; the Navv League, and the Brooklyn In- 
stitute of Arts and Sciences. 



CORTLANDT FIELD BISHOP 

i^ORTLANDT FIELD BISHOP was born in 
V^ New York City, November 24, 1870. In 1891 
he graduated from Columbia University, A.B.; 
Ph.D., 1893; Columbia Law School, 1894. 

Pie is a member of a great many clubs and as- 
sociations throughout the world, among them 
being the Bar Association of the City of New 
York, American Museum of Natural History, Na- 
tional Academy of Design, Society of Colonial 
Wars, Columbia University Alumni Association, 
and the Metropolitan, City, Grolier. Collectors, 
Knickerbocker, Automobile Club of America, Au- 
tomobile Club of France; but all these are 
secondary in his estimation to the Aero Club of 
America. 

When the automobile made its appearance, Mr. 
Bishop was one of the first to become interested, 
and when conditions were such that progress was 
possible in aeronautics he immediately became as 
much interested in this new science as he had in 
the automobile. 

The Aero Club of America was but a few 
months old when Mr. Bishop became its Presi- 
dent. The greater part of his time is spent in 
working in the interests of the Aero Club of 
America, and last summer while abroad, so as to 
be able to be of even more value to the Club, he 
accepted the office of Vice-President of the Inter- 
nationale Aeronautique Federation. 

The first Gordon-Bennett International Aviation 
Cup Race was to be held at Rheims to decide the 
aviation championship, and as the date fixed for 
the contest drew near there was much anxiety in 
America because of the fact that no American 
aviator was available, the Wright Brothers being 
too much occupied in their business and the ex- 
pense being prohibitive for anyone else. It was 
then that Mr. Bishop came to the front and guar- 
anteed the expenses of ilr. Curtiss and the trans- 
portation of his machine. As a result, Mr. Curtiss 
went to Rheims -and won against the most skilful 
aviators in Europe. When the time came for 
America to send a representative to participate 
in the Gordon-Bennett International Balloon Race 
at Zurich, America found herself in the same pre- 
dicament she had been at the time of the Inter- 
national aviation contest. 

Again Mr. Bishop guaranteed the expenses of 
Pilot E. W. :Mix, and another great victory for 



An 



the 



ult. 



At the present writing Mr. Bishop has returned 
home after representing the Club at Los Angeles, 
a large part of the great success of this meeting 
being due to his work in conjunction with the 
Aero Club of California, one of the clubs affiliated 
with the Aero Club of America. 

Mr. Bishop has offered his resignation as Presi- 
dent of the Aero Club of America on a number 
of occasions, so that some one else could take up 
the work, and on each of these occasions the en- 
tire membership of the Club arose and persuaded 
him to keep at its head. 



SAMUEL PIERPONT LANGLEY 

CAMUEL PIERPONT LANGLEY, the famous 
•-^ astronomer and physicist, and third Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution, was born on Au- 
gust 22, 1834, at Roxbury, Mass. He took up civil 
engineering and architecture for a profession, but 
abandoned these pursuits in 1864 and built a tele- 
scope together with his brother. A year later he 
was made assistant astronomer at the PIar%'ard 
College Observatory. In 1866. after a brief stay 
at the United States Naval Academy at Annap- 
olis, he was called to the Western University of 
Pennsylvania as professor of astronomy and phys- 
ics and director of the Allegheny Observatory at 
Pittsburg. This position he held for 20 vears. and 
his scientific labors in connection with it, one of 
the first being the standardization of time both in 
this country and Europe, gained him an interna- 
tional reputation, and induced Professor Baird to 
invite him to the Smithsonian Institution as as- 
sistant secretary. In 18S7. on Professor Baird's 
death, he was elected its chief executive officer. 

His first public utterance on aerodynamics was 
a very brief communication to the Academy of 
Sciences of the Institute of France, in Tuly, 1890; 
his second, a lengthy memoir in the Smithsonian 
Contributions to Knowledge; and his third, a 
popular account of the possibility of aerial flight, 
in the Century Magazine. His great work. "Ex- 
periments in Aerodynamics," was republished in 
French and attracted wide attention. He followed 
it up with a second great work, in 1S93, entitled 
'■The Internal Work of the Wind." 

His first successful flight was made in 1896 with 
an aerodrome model driven by steam. This ma- 
chine flew three-quarters of a mile over the Poto- 
mac River. In i8g8 he built a flying machine by 
direction of the Board of Ordnance and Fortifi- 
cation of the United States Army, who appropri- 
ated the funds for that purpose. 

He continued his experiments with the gas en- 
gine as a motor power, publishing his results in 
a brief paper in 1905. The trials of the test mod- 
els were successful, but the two attempts made 
to launch the large machine, on October 7, 1905, 
and again on December Sth of the same year, 
were failures. This was due, in Langley's opin- 
ion, not to any defect in the machine itself, but 
to the lack of means to continue the work prop- 
erly. But it made him the subject of hostile at- 
tack by the newspapers of the country, and this 
public misapprehension of his labors broke his 
spirit, and he died at Aiken, S. C, on February 
27, 1906. 

For his general scientific work he was the re- 
cipient of many honors. He received degrees 
from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge 
in England, and from Harvard, Princeton, Mich- 
awarded medals bv the National Academy of 
Sciences, the Royal Society of London, the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Insti- 
tute of France, and the Astronomical Society of 



March, i^io 



AIRCRAFT 




BIG MEN OF THE MOVEMENT 



A. LAWRENCE ROTCH 

A LAWREXCE ROTCH, born in Boston, 1861, 
^- S.r... Mass. Institute of Technology. A.M. 
Harvard University, Professor of iMeteorology in 
Harvard Lniversity, Founder and Director of 
Blue Hill -Meteorological Observatory, where the 
earliest measurements in America of clouds were 
made in 1S90. and the first self-recording instru- 
ments lifted by kites in 1S94, reaching the unpre- 
cedented height of three miles in 1900. Tliis 
method of exploring the air is now extensively 
used at meteorological observatories everywhere. 

Tn igoT kites were, for the first time, flown over 
the ocean, the motion of the steamer serving to 
create an artificial wind sufficient to lift the kites 
in calm weather. 

Tn 1904 sounding-balloons with instruments 
were sent up under his direction at St. Louis to 
the height of ten miles, recording the tempera- 
tures at this and intermediate heights. 

Recently the atmospheric currents were meas- 
ured with pilot balloons eleven and a half miles 
above Blue Hill. The only sounding-balloons yet 
used in the East are those sent up by Professor 
Rotch from Pittsfield, Mass. 

As early as 18S9. Mr. Rotch made two balloon 
ascensions from Paris to test the accuracy with 
which temperatures were recorded automatically, 
and subsequently made ascensions from Berlin, 
Strasburg, Milan and London. 

Tn 1S96 he helped to found the Tnternational 
Commission for Scientific Aeronautics, which exe- 
cutes aerological observations simultaneously 
throughout the world, and is an original member 
of the permanent Tnternational Aeronautical Com- 
mission, organized also at Paris in igoo. to con- 
sider technical questions relating to aeronaotics. 

Professor Rotch is a corresponding member of 
the Berlin Aeronautical Society, and received the 
Orders of the Prussian Crown and Red Eagle. 
Third Class, in recognition of his work in explor- 
ing the atmosphere. Tt may be mentioned that 
in the colored plate, designed by Colonel Moede- 
beck for the German schools, and entitled " Pio- 
neers in Aeronautics," the only Americans in- 
cluded are Professor Rotch and his early co- 
citizen. Dr. Jeffries. 

Professor Rotch is a member of the Aero Club 
of the I'nited Kingdom and an original member 
of the Aero Club of America. 

He was the first President of the Aero Club of 
New England, is now President of the newly- 
organized Harvard Aeronautical Society, and as 
Chairman of the Section of Mechanical Science 
of the .American Association for the advancement 
of Science, he will invite the attention of engi- 
neers to aeronautics. 

Resides numerous scientific articles. Professor 
Rotch has published " Sounding the Ocean of 
Air'* ("Romance of Science Series). London, igoo, 
and "The Conquest of the Air" (Present TDay 
Primers), New York. igog. 



CAPTATN THOMAS S. BALDWIN 

i^APTATN THOMAS S. BALDWTN, the Zep- 
^ pelin of America, was born on June 30, 1S55, 
in iiarion County, Miss. 

His first aeronautical achievement, that of mak- 
ing the first successful parachute jump in the 
world from a balloon, took place at Golden Gate 
Park. San Francisco, on Januar}' 30, 1S77. This 
was followed by balloon ascensions and parachute 
leaps all over the world, and in 1888 William H. 
Le Fevre, C. E., President of the Balloon Society 
of Great Britain, said of his work: " T am of the 
opinion that Captain Baldwin has made one of 
the greatest discoveries in the practical applica- 
tion of aeronautical science, T mean the practical 
application of the science so as to realize results 
which previous to the invention of his parachute 
seemed to be absolutely unattainable." And Bald- 
win was presented with the first gold medal ever 
awarded by that Society. 

Tn 1892 Baldwin made his first attempt to con- 
struct an airship. This was a combination of the 
balloon, the bicycle, and the screw propeller, but 
he found that his own power was hardly sufficient, 
and it was impossible at the time to secure a suit- 
able motor for the purpose, the gasolene motor 
being then in its infancy. He was unable to pro- 
duce a power-driven machine until 1902, when he 
removed a 24 horse-power motor from his auto- 
mobile and installed it in his airship. When the 
ship was tested it rose from the launching frames, 
but the operator found it impossible to control 
the affair. It was an airship, but not of the dir- 
igible class. Then followed more months of ex- 
perimenting, and it was in 1904 that Baldwin made 
his first conspicuous success. On August 2nd, on 
the outskirts of Oakland, he drove into the wind 
with his ship, turned, and came back with it to 
the starting point. Then rapidly in succession he 
produced one successful dirigible after the other. 

His crowning success was the recognition given 
him by the United States Government, when, in 
1908, it purchased from him its first airship. The 
requirements seemed impossible to fulfill, which 
made his success all the greater. During the 
past few years Baldwin had experimented con- 
stantly to produce a gas-holding material which 
would stand all kinds of weather and from which 
no gas could escape. When he received this con- 
tract from the Government he had produced such 
a material in the way of a vulcanized rubber. 
The_ Government has since adopted this material 
for its spherical balloons, and sportsmen likewise 
recognize its superiority. Baldwin's work in con- 
nection with the producing of the Curtiss aero- 
plane is also recognized by all. and the world is 
looking forward eagerly to the day when Baldwin 
will construct a heavier-than-air machine embody- 
ing wholly his ideas gained by his vast experience. 
Captain Baldwin is a charter member of the Aero 
Club of America and one of the most popular men 
in the movement to-day. 



DR. OCTAVE CHANUTE 

DR. OCTAVE CHANUTE, popularly known in 
America as the " Father of Aeronautics," was 
born at Paris, France, on February 18. 1832. 
When he was only six years old he came to this 
country with his parents, and spent his boyhood 
in New York, being educated in the private 
schools of that city. In the early fifties he went 
West as a railroad engineer. In 1863 he was ap- 
pointed engineer-in-chief of the Chicago and Alton 
Railroad, and in this position he was active in the 
development of the railroads of the Middle West. 
In 1S73 he became chief engineer of the Erie Rail- 
road, a position that he held until he was elected 
president of the Chicago Tie Preserving Company, 
ten years later. 

Among other offices he has held are those of 
Vice-President of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers; Fellow of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science: President of the 
Western Society of Engineers. He is an Honor- 
ary Member of the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers and in the Institution of Civil Engi- 
neers of Great Britain, and is a member of the 
Century Club of New York. 

Dr. Chanute has been a frequent contributor to 
various engineering journals, and he is also widely 
known as the author of the volume " The Kansas 
City Bridge." But of greater interest to the aero- 
naut is his book, " Progress of Flying Machines." 
which first appeared serially in the pages of The 
Railroad and En^hieering Jour7zal (later called 
The Avierica7i Engineer). Beginning with the 
October installment in i8gi, it ran through twenty- 
seven issues of the magazine, and was then col- 
lected in book form. His object in writing this 
book was, according to his statement in the pref- 
ace, to satisfy himself whether with the mechan- 
ical knowledge and appliances then at hand, espe- 
cially with the light motors then coming into use, 
it would be possible in time for men to fly through 
the air. Second, to bring together a record of 
previous experiments and failures, for the benefit 
of aviators, who might thereby be saved needless 
waste of eff^ort in experimenting with unsuitable 
devices. Third, to give an accotmt of recent 
achievements and to set forth the principles in- 
volved in the flying machine, so that an investi- 
gator might judge intelligently of new devices 
submitted for examination. The value of this 
work lies in the fact that Dr. Chanute was one 
of the first to sum up the status of aeronautics 
down to his own time, thereby providing inventors 
with a starting point for new departures in the 
art of aerial navigation. And he was far sighted 
enough to realize the value of aeronautics at a 
time when the art still stood on a very insecure 
footing. 

He was the constant and helpful friend of the 
Wrights in their early experiments, and later he 
had the great satisfaction of witnessing Orville 
Wright's first successful trials at Fort Meyer. 



24 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 



THE INTERNAL WORK OF THE WIND 

By S. P. LaLAgley 

By Courtesy of the Sinitlisoiiian Institution 




T has long been observed that certain species of 
birds maintain themselves indeiinitely in the air 
by " soaring " without any flapping of the wings, 
or any motion other than a slight rocking of the 
body ; and this, although the body in cjuestion is 
man)' hundred times denser than the air in which 
it seems to float with an undulating movement, as 
on the waves of an invisible stream. 

No satisfactor}- mechanical explanation of this 
anomaly has been given, and none would be of- 
fered in this connection by the writer, were he not satisfied that 
it involves much more than an ornithological problem, and that 
it points to novel conclusions of mechanical and utilitarian im- 
portance. They are paradoxical at first sight, since they imply 
that, under certain specified conditions, very heavy bodies entirely 
detached from the earth immersed in, and free to move in, the 
air can be sustained there indefinitely, without any expenditure 
of energy from within. 

These bodies may be entirely of mechanical construction, as 
will be seen later, but for the present we will continue to con- 
sider the character of the invisible support of the soaring bird, 
and to study its motions, though only as a pregnant instance of- 
fered by Nature to show that a rational solution of the mechan- 
ical problem is possible. 

Recurring, then, to the illustration just referred to, we may 
observe that the flow of an ordinary river would afford no ex- 
planation of the fact that nearly inert creatures, while free to 
move, although greatly denser than the fluid, yet float upon it; 
which is what we actually behold in the aerial stream, since the 
writer, like others, has satisfied himself, by repeated observation, 
that the soaring vultures and other birds appear as if sustained 
by some invisible support, in the stream of air, sometimes for 
at least a considerable fraction of an hour. It is frequently sug- 
gested by those who know these facts only from books, that there 
must be some quivering of the wings, so rapid as to escape obser- 
vation. Those who do know them from observation are aware 
that it is absolutely certain that nothing of the kind takes place, 
and that the birds sustain themselves on pinions which are quite 
rigid and motionless, except for a rocking or balancing movement 
involving little energ)'. 

To the writer, who has himself been attracted from his earliest 
years to the mystery which has surrounded this action of the 
soaring bird, it has been a subject of continual surprise that it 
has attracted so little attention from physicists. That nearly 
inert bodifs, weighing from S to lo, and even more, pounds, and 
many hundred times denser than the air, should be visibly sus- 
pended in it above our heads, sometimes for hours at a time, and 
without falling — this, it might seem, is, without misuse of lan- 
guage, to be called a physical miracle ; and yet. the fact that 
those whose province it is to investigate nature have hitherto 
seldom thought it deserving attention is perhaps the greater 
wonder. 

The " turkey buzzard '' is so plenty around the environs of 
Washington that there is rarely a time when some of them may 
not be seen in the sky, gliding in curves over some attractive 
point, or, more rarely, moving in nearly straight lines on rigid 
wings, if there be a moderate wind. On the only occasion when 
the motion of one near at hand could be studied in a very high 
wind, the author was crossing the long " Aqueduct Bridge " over 
the Potomac, in an unusually violent November gale, the veloc- 
ity of the wind being probably over 35 miles an hour. About 
one-third of the distance from the right bank of the river, and 
immediately over the right parapet of the bridge, at a height of 
not over 20 yards, was one of these buzzards, which, for some 
object which was not evident, chose to keep over this spot, where 



the gale, undisturbed by any surface irregularities, swept directly 
up the river with unchecked violence. In this aerial torrent, and 
apparently indifferent to it, the bird hung, gliding, in the usual 
manner of its species, round and round, in a small oval curve, 
whose major axis (which seemed toward the wind) was not 
longer than twice its height from the water. The bird was 
therefore at all times in close view. It swung around repeatedly, 
rising and falling slightly in its course, while keeping as a whole 
on one level, and over the same place, moving with a slight sway- 
ing, both in front and lateral direction, but in such an effortless- 
way, as suggested a lazy yielding of itself to the rocking of some 
invisible wave. 

It may be asserted that there was not only no flap of the wing, 
but not the quiver of a wing feather visible to the closest scrutiny 
during" the considerable time the bird was under observation, and 
during which the gale continued. A record of this time was not 
kept, but it at any rate lasted until the writer, chilled by the cold 
blast, gave up watching and moved away, leaving the bird still 
floating about at the same height in the torrent of air, in nearly 
the same circle, and with the same aspect of indolent repose. 

If the wind is such a body as it is commonly supposed to be, 
it is absolutely impossible that this sustentation could have taken 
place in a horizontal current any more than in a calm, and yet 
that the ability to soar is, in some way, connected with the pres- 
ence of the wind became to the writer as certain as any fact of 
observation could be, and at first the difificulty of reconciling such 
facts (to him undoubted) with accepted laws of motion seemed 
quite insuperable. 

Light came to him through one of those accidents which are 
commonly found to occur when the mind is intent on a particular 
subject, and looking" everywhere for a clue to its solution. 

In 1887, while engaged with the " whirling-table " in the open 
air at the Allegheny Observatory, he had chosen a quiet after- 
noon for certain experiments, but in the absence of the entire 
calm, which is almost never realized, had placed one of the very 
small and light anemometers made for hospital use in the open 
air, with the object of determining" and allowing for the velocity 
of what feeble breeze existed. His attention was called to the 
extreme irregularity of this register, and he assumed at first that 
the day was more unfavorable than he had supposed. Subsequent 
observations, however, showed that when the anemometer was 
sufficiently light and devoid of inertia, the register always showed 
great irregularity, especially when its movements were noted, not 
from minute to minute, but from second to second. 

His attention was aroused to these anomalies, he was led to 
reflect upon their extraordinary importance in a possible me- 
chanical application. He then designed certain special apparatus 
hereafter described, and made observations with it which showed 
that "wind" in general was not what it is commonly assumed to 
be, that is, air put in motion with an approximately uniform 
velocity in the same strata; but that, considered in the narrowest 
practicable sections, wind was always not only not approximately 
uniform, but variable and irregular in its movements beyond any- 
thing which had been anticipated, so that it seemed probable that 
the very smallest part observable could not be treated as approxi- 
mately homogeneous but that even here there was an internal 
motion to be considered, distinct both from that of the whole 
body, and from its immediate surroundings. It seemed to the 
writer to follow as a necessary consequence that there might be 
a potentiality of what may be called " internal work " * of the 
wind. 

* Since the term " internal work " is often used in tliermodynamics to 
signify molecular action, it may be well to observe that it here refers not 
to molecular movements, but to pulsations of sensible magnitude, always 
existing in the wind, as will be shown later, and whose extent and ex- 
traordinary possible mechanical importance it is the object of this research 
to illustrate. The term is so significant of the author's meaning that he 
permits himself to use it here, in spite of the possible ambiguity. 



March, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



25 



On further study it seemed to him tliat this internal work might 
conceivably be so utilized as to furnish a power which should 
not only keep an inert body from falling but cause it to rise, 
and that while this power was the possible cause of the action of 
the soaring bird, it might be possible through its means to cause 
any suitably disposed body, animate or inanimate, wholly im- 
mersed in the wind, and wholly free to move, to advance against 
the direction of the wind itself. By this it is not meant that the 
writer then devised means for doing this, but that he then at- 
tained the conviction both that such an action involved no con- 
tradiction of the laws of motion, and that it was mechanically 
possible (however difficult it might be to realize the exact mech- 
anism by which this might be accomplished). 

It will be observed that in what has preceded it is intimated 
that the difficulties in the way of regarding this, even in the light 
of a theoretical possibility, may have proceeded, with others as 
with the writer, not from erroneous reasoning, but from an error 
in the premises, entering insidiously in the form of the tacit 
assumption made by nearly all writers, that the word " wind " 
means something so simple, so readily intelligible and so com- 
monly understood as to require no special definition while, never- 
theless, the observations which are presently to be given show 
that it is, on the contrary, to be considered as a generic name for 
a series of indefinitely complex and little known phenomena. 

Without determining here whether any mechanism can be 
actually devised which shall draw from the wind the power to 
cause a body wholly immersed in it to go against the wind, the 
reader's consideration is now first invited to the evidence that 
there is no contradiction to the known laws of motion, and at 
any rate no theoretical impossibility in the conception of such a 
mechanism, if it admitted that the wind is not what it has been 
ordinarily taken to be, but Avhat the following observations show 
that it is. 

What immediately follows is an account of evidence of the 
■complex nature of the " wind," of its internal movements, of the 
resulting potentiality of this internal work, and of attempts 
which the writer has made to determine quantitatively its amount 
hy the use of special apparatus, recording the changes which go 



on (so to speak) zinthin the wind at very brief intervals. These 
results ma3', it is hoped, be of interest to meteorologists, but they 
are given here with special reference to their important bearing 
on the future of what the writer has ventured to call the science 
of aerodromics.* 

The observations which are first given were made in 1887 at 
Allegheny, and are supplemented by others made at Washington 
in the present year.t 

What has just been said about their possible importance will 
perhaps seem justified, if it is remarked (in anticipation of what 
follows later) that the result of the present discussion implies 
not only the theoretical, but the mechanical possibility that 
a heavy body, wholly immersed in the air and sustained by it, 
ma3', without the ordinary use of wind, or sail, or steam, and 
without the expenditure of any power except such as may be 
derived from the ordinary winds, make an aerial voyage in any 
direction, whose length is only limited by the occurrence of a 
calm. A ship is able to go against a head-wind by the force of 
that wind, owing to the fact that it is partly immersed in the 
water, which reacts on the keel, but it is here asserted that (con- 
trary to usual opinion and in opposition to what at first may seem 
the teachings of physical science) it is not impossible that a 
heavy and nearly inert body, zvhoUy immersed in the air, can 
be made to do this. 

The observations on which the writer's belief in this mechanical 
possibility are founded will now be given. 



much 



* From aepo5po/xeto, to traverse the air; aepoSpo/ios, an air-ri: 
t It will be noticed that the fact of observation here is nc 
the movement of currents, such as the writer has since learne 
gested by Lord Rayleigh so long ago as 1883, still less of the 
of distinct currents at a considerable distance above the earth's surface, 
but of what must rather be called the effect of the irregularities and pulsa- 
tions of any ordinary wind within the immediate field of examination, 

See the instructive article by Lord Rayleigh in Nature, April, 5, 1883. 
Lord Rayleigh remarks that continued soaring implies: " (i) that the 
course is not horizontal; (2) that the wind is not horizontal; (3) that the 
wind is not uniform." " It is probable," he says. " that the truth is usu- 
ally represented by (i) or (2); but the question I wish to raise is, whether 
the cause suggested by (3) may not sometimes come into operation." 

To be continued in April Aircraft 



LAW AND 

By Denys 



THE AIR 




RANCH has called a conference to determine the 
rules by which the nations will be guided in their 
navigation of the air. At this writing neither the 
date nor place nor any of the preliminaries of the 
conference have been thoroughh- considered, but 
sooner or later the conference will be held, will 
emit a code — and there will be a body of law to 
govern the air internationally. 

Already Paul Fauchille in France, Friedrich 
Aleili in Switzerland, and Friedrich Gruenwald 
m GLimam have published monographs on the juridical regime 
that will obtain in the aerial domain : in this country the Ameri- 
can Journal of International Laiv is soon to publish some ar- 
ticles on the subject, and lectures upon the topic are beginning 
to be given. 

It is, therefore, timely that Aircraft, in its first number, begin a 
consideration of what rules the aeronaut will have to respect. 
Since in most countries, especially Europe, flight will readily dis- 
regard boundaries and become an international afifair, the ques- 
tion begins to loom large in the prospective law of nations, and 
particularly is the extent of a nation's, or state's, jurisdiction in 
the ether, to employ the technical word, forging to the front. 

How far up. then, can a state exert its jurisdiction? The an- 
swer is simple : As far as it can. But if that were the whole 
story books would not be in process of construction on the sub- 
ject. And, in fact, that dictum only defines the point where the 
difficulty starts. For dirigibles and aeroplanes have both been 
driven higher than the highest structures vet reared bv man. 



P. Myers 

Comte de Lambert having flown at least 200 feet higher than the 
Eiffel Tower, the tallest building of the world. Orville Wright, 
Latham, and the unfortunate Fernandez have ascended 1,640 
feet in the air, far beyond the count's mark. The dirigible pre- 
fers to travel at a height of about a mile (5,280 feet) above the 
surface of the earth. Even many cannon fail to ascend their 
shells that high, and doubtless aeroplanes will shortly dare to 
go beyond their range. 

So much for the problem. Writers and thinkers generally find 
the legal solution of the difficulty in setting a limit beneath which 
a flying machine may not come: Here enters the analogy of the 
sea, which in many respects resembles the domain of the air. It 
is uninhabitable in a continuous manner, is not susceptible to 
being occupied in the way a homesteader stakes a claim on land, 
and so cannot be possessed or appropriated. This much cannot 
be gainsaid. 

But no sooner have the legal authorities agreed upon this than 
they begin to diverge in theory. One set say, we grant the air 
cannot be occupied or appropriated by the state lying beneath, 
but neither can it be subjected as a whole to the authority of any 
other state. So, by default of other ownership, possession must 
be an attribute of the subjacent state. They add that this simple 
solution removes many difficulties and, in time of peace, inures 
to no one's harm. But, assert the other school, since you cannot 
possess the air in a real and continuous manner, it cannot be 
argued that it must of necessity belong to anybody. Ownership 
is not usually proved that way. To be sure, the doctrine of the 
hinterland has been asserted in late years, but that, reduced to 



26 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 



it5 lowest terms, simply means that, by occupation of a coast in 
a region tit for colonization, a state may thus obtain a favored 
position which shall result in keeping other states from effecting 
possession of territory in that region and leave the hinterland 
state free to make its title to the interior good. 

The latter school seems to have the better of the argument, for 
in the last hundred years the other argument has been pretty thor- 
oughly disproved by actual usage. England once asserted con- 
trol over every sea that touched her coasts, but finally assumed 
the more modest attitude of claiming jurisdiction over only three 
nautical miles of it from low water mark. 

It is therefore fairly certain that some such arrangement will 
be decided upon for the air. The basis of the three-mile limit for 
the sea is the carriage of a cannon shot in the old days when the 
iimit was established. Why not transfer the same test to the 
air? A claim to the right to rule over such a portion of the at- 
mosphere as can be commanded by artillery is obviously an en- 
forceable one. 

The question that now arises is, how far does such a sphere 
extend upward? Information sufficiently exact to be considered 
final does not yet exist on the point, but from various sources it 
is considered that a range of two miles vertically represents the 
extreme. Doubtless the specially constructed Krupp gun can 
carry farther, but no definite reports of its tests are at hand. 

Be that as it may, the range is great enough to bring every 
aeroplane within the danger line and reach everything else that 
flies when within the customary zone ; for the favorite height of 
a dirigible seems to be about one mile. 

By this time the reader is very likely wondering why it is of 
consequence whether the subjacent state owns one mile or lOO 
miles into the air. Possession determines legal jurisdiction and 
also responsibility. An act committed aboard a vessel on the 
high sea, beyond the three-mile limit, comes within the compe- 
tence of the courts of the state to whose citizens the ship belongs. 
The same act committed in a foreign port would come within the 
jurisdiction of the courts of the state to which the port belonged. 
General agreement among civilized countries renders this prin- 
ciple automatic, to the effect that no ship is ever outside of the 
jurisdiction of some court, and the captain is never in doubt as 
to what jurisdiction applies. The case is precisely analogous to 
the situation that will obtain in the air. 

But there is more to the story. The United States does not 
know what the fear of espionage is, but in Europe, where the 
nations correspond in size to our federal states, the dread of 
prying neighbors is acute. Inasmuch as Europe by reason of its 
many states has a large voice in international councils, its dif- 



ficulties are bound to receive full attention in the making of in- 
ternational laws. So espionage as a force must be reckoned with. 

A moment's thought will convince anyone that of all methods 
of espionage observation from the air above is the safest, easiest 
and most efficient for most purposes. In war and peace so much 
depends on knowing the arrangement of troops, guns mounted 
in forts and elsewhere, that a camera in the hands of a capable 
aeroplanist becomes a great menace. As a result the nations are 
already of the opinion that the flying machine will be not only 
indispensable, but that each state must take extreme precautions 
against its successful use by its enemies. At the basis of the 
problem is the primary consideration. Is an aviator equipped for 
observation as a spy? 

The legal ground upon which the definition of spy is built 
makes deception a necessary quality of the individual. Now an 
aviator cannot conceal himself, to a great extent cannot work 
clandestinely. But the danger from his kind is so great that it 
is certain the definition will be revised to include him among the 
spies, especially if his credentials are not entirely satisfactory. 

Every state is going to defend itself against espionage as a 
matter of self-preservation, and that circumstance suggests that 
a protective zone, such as the marine three-mile limit may be 
established by international agreement. Eyesight being so de- 
fective as compared with photography that it gives only a fleet- 
ing and imperfectly remembered glimpse of an object, this sphere 
will doubtless be based upon the focal range of such combina- 
tions of the lens and telescope as will be developed for the ex- 
press purpose. The range of the telephoto camera under satis- 
factory conditions is, I believe, now something like a mile for 
detailed work such as espionage observations naturally would be. 

It seems probable that inventors will direct their attention to 
this problem, and that the limit of practical range will be shifted 
from time to time. As a consequence, the proximity to a forti- 
fied place of an aeronaut not giving indications of official or in- 
nocent purposes would undergo modifications. There will, how- 
ever, be little doubt that the first agreement on the subject will 
forbid unaccredited aeronauts from approaching less than a mile 
from military works. 

One thing remains sure : navigation of the air will not be left 
unrestricted by the nations. It is more than probable that the 
rules now in force for navigation of the sea will be drawn upon 
largely in constructing a code for the air, but in the nature of the 
case no zone of protection against aerial travellers could be 
fixed so precisely or for so long a time as the now obsolete three^ 
mile limit relative to coastal waters of a state. 

To be continued in April Aircr.ift 



ALEXANDER'S OPINIONS 



3'©R. PATRICK Y. ALEXANDER, of London, England, 
who has given the last twenty years of his life study- 
ing and promoting the science of aeronautics, and who 
has visited almost everj' country in the world in the in- 
terests of the aeronautical movement, spent an interesting hour 
in the editorial department of Aircraft recently. 

Mr. Alexander has a thorough grasp of the whole aerial sub- 
ject, and is just as much interested in the success of the move- 
ment in Japan, China, France or any other country as he is in 
the propaganda work done in his own land. 

He aided the movement during its inception in the United 
States to a large extent by giving valuable advice to the Ameri- 
can pioneers as well as contributing to the science generally. 

It is Mr. Alexander's opinion that France leads the flying ma- 
chine world from a practical standpoint, but that England is away 
ahead of that country theoretically. 

He thinks Germany has spent too much time in developing the 
" lighter-than-air '' craft to the exclusion almost entirely of the 
heavier-than-air vehicles. Japan, he says, is taking a wonderful 
interest in the movement, but is apparently keeping secret mos[ 
of its discoveries. 

Mr. Alexander is of the opinion that the motor will eventually 



be discarded for the propelling force of flying machines and the 
natural forces do that work altogether. Small motors may be 
used, however, on the larger aircraft for the purpose of steering, 
etc. He also thinks that within the next few years wonderful 
ships of the air will be plying between the different cities and 
countries of the world. 

He takes a great interest in educating the boys of England in 
this new science, and gives periodical lectures, illustrated by 
magic lantern slides, of gliders, flying machines, etc.. at the LInited 
Services College, Windsor, England, where there are one hun- 
dred boys interested in the subject. 

The Hampshire Aero Club, which also has about one hundred 
boy members, is getting lectures frequently by iNIr. Alexander, 
as well as the East London College. 

He thinks that within three years' time at least fifteen thousand 
boys of England will be able to fly : in fact, he is of the opinion 
that boj'S will take the greatest part in the development of the 
science, they having more time to devote to it and less fear of 
getting into smash-ups than men usually. 

Mr. Alexander thinks that the movement has now taken root 
in the United States, and that this country within the next three 
years will rank among the great aeronautical centers of the world. 



Marc/i, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



27 




28 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 




March, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



FOREIGN NEWS 



AUSTRALIA.— The Department of Defense of 
Australia has offered $25,000 to the inventor of a 
tlying machine adjudged by the minister for de- 
fense to be the best and most suitable for military 
purposes. 

The inventor must have been a resident for at 
least two years and be a British subjcet. The 
machine, so far as possible, must be constructed 
in Australia. 

AFRICA.— At the aero contest near Heliopolis. 
in Egypt, which takes place during the week of 
February 6th to 13th, there will be present fifteen 
of the most eminent aviators in the world. La- 
tham will flv his .Antoinette, the Baroness de la 
Roche in a Voisin biplane. Mortimer Singer, a 
daring Englishman, in a Farman machine, De 
RIemsdyek in the Curtiss biplane, and Hans Grade 
in the. monoplane, which he recently flew in Ger- 
many. The Baroness de la Roche has never flown 
in public before. The aviators all purpose to fly 
around the Sphinx if possible. 



By Albert C. Triaca 

ken a monoplane constructed on the new Schulze- 
ITerfort system flew two hundred yards. 

Eight months ago, on a night when the Zeppelin 
dirigible lay a wreck, llic GiriiKin .\niai League 
was started, and a iiiiD.nKil ■.\il--ci ii.i 1, m was 
opened. This has now iimlIu,! ihf si 
$2,500,000 to advance llu- i.ium. ,,f ;n,:i 
many, and pr.,\h[r iL, ii,i'..m miiIi .n ,,, n.il fleet 
for war purp.is. w . n. 1,1 , , i.,l,lished 
a. school of. a,:, n ,. , i ,.,,!■. i, ,, ,, ,„ nd- 
I -I .!< 1-iiaiiln ~ :il I Hittingen 



early 



Uni' 



iity. 



Ev 



Tai 



notable to the traveller for its 
archaic conditions, has been invaded by the flying 
machine. The other day Olieslagers, formerly a 
Dutch motorcycle man, flew about over the city 
of Oran for fifty-four minutes. The excitement 
among the veiled beauties of the harems and the 
beturbaned male population of the city is said to 
have been so great that the priests, who govern 
the city, have forbidden any more exhibitions. 

BELGIUIM.- At Brussels. Belgium, several aero- 
planes, Bleriot, Antoinette and a great number of 
home-built apparatus were exhibited at the motor 
show which opened .Tanuary 15th. 

EXGLAND.-In England a prize of $5,000 has 
been offered by Jlr. Patrick Y. Alexander for a 
twenty-four-hour aeroplane motor. The engine 
must develop not less than thirtv-five horse-power 
and its weight not exceed 245 pounds. In making 
the award these points will be considered: Weight 
of petrol, petrol consumption, reliabilitv and 
steadiness of running, wear on working" parts, 
security against fire, air resistance offered, etc., 
by the motor. 

The Aerial League of the British Empire is en- 
listing volunteers to aid in aerial signaling and 
in assisting aviators. This volunteer force is in- 
tended to take active service in case of war. 

The utmost secrecy has been maintained con- 
cerning the new naval airship which is being built 
at Barrow. England, for the British Government. 
The British airship will have a length of over 500 
feet— about iro yards. The motors will be Wol- 
seley engines of eight cylinders, developing 200 
horse-power each. With this driving force the 
speed of the airship is calculated at forty-five 
miles an hour. 

The Hon. C. H. Rolls accomplished a fifteen- 
mile continuous flight across country. Levsdown 
to the Neor Club, on the island of Sheppy,' in his 



Wright biplane 

Mr. Grahame-A\'hite made a wager that he would 
fly from a point down the River Thames to within 
a mile of the heart of London with his Bleriot 

FRANCE.-Count Lambert intends to fit a cel- 
lular tail of the Voisin tvpe to his Wright aero- 
plane. 

-Although the great Astra airship is now ready 
and could make the voyage from Paris to London 
at any moment, it has been decided to postpone 
her voyage until after the general election. Orig- 
mally it was intended that she should make it be- 
fore Christmas. The Daily Mail Garage at Worm- 
wood Scrubs is ready for the reception of the huge 
airship. 

The sporting daily paper of Paris, VAuto, 
which has promoted for several years on the Tuil- 
eries Garden an annual contest for small pilot 
balloons for children, will hold this year, in Feb- 
ruary, the Gordon-Bennett Cup for aeVoplane mod 
els in the same place. 

ITALY.— At Rome is planned an aviation e\hi 
bition next March under the auspices of the So 
cieta Aeronautica Italiana. 

GERMANY.— Count Zeppelin had a sad Chnst 
mas. He had just been notified that the Go\ern 
ment will not purchase his airship, Zeppelin III 
He had expected to receive $140,000 

The War Office says the employment of a new 
rnetal lighter than aluminum, called electrum in 
the making of airships would make the Zenpelm 
III. out of date. Count Zeppelin's health is not 
good. 

The first successful flights of three different 
types of aeroplane of purelv German construction 
took place on February 2d. A biplane, with the 
inventor, Echler. and his assistant, made a flight 
of a short distance at Landau, but the assistant 

tL™^'"^?' ":=\ ".','= """ of ? slight accident 
the machine is built to c.nrry six. 

■At Essen a biplane under the control of He^r 
iiilsmann made eight short flights, while at Ber- 



The Dirigibles of the World are 

To-day Fifty-two 

.\.M ERICA.— War dirigible No. i, built by Cap- 
tain Thos. Baldwin. Six small dirigibles for show 
purposes, owned by Knabenshue, Eeachey and 



ELGIUM.— La Belgique II.. built in Paris 
dard, owned by R. Goldsmith. 



Count Zeppelin, whose aerial flights in dirigible 
balloons have attracted world-wide attention, is 
planning a monster airship capable of carrying 
300 persons, and which it is proposed to use in 
a passenger service to be established between 
Hamburg and London. A service will also be 
maintained from Hamburg to Cologne and ]3aden 
Baden. 

Vigorous opposition to the Wright aeroplane 
patents is threatened by German aviators. The 
matter was fullv discussed at a meeting recently 
of the 11.11! >■,,, riimtechniker in Berlin. Major 
von l',,i ' I,, I that a member of the as- 

sociatii'ii ,1 i Mm action against the German 



the Wright patents 
would t,.i^L LiiL l>^ue. Then German aviators in 
general would be accurately informed and guided 
in the manufacture and use of their respective 
systems. Herr Grade declared that nothing on 
his plane could be construed as an infringement 
of the Wright patents, and the general opinion 
expressed was that Wright patents were subject 
to considerable doubt. It was finally decided that 
a special committee should take the matter in 
hand, establish a test case and bring it before the 
courts for a decision, which would settle the 
matter. 

The German Zeppelin and Parseval companies 
are negotiating for co-operative aerial passenger 

Widespread interest in aviation is illustrated by 
the fact that Dr. Karl Voll Moller, a German poet, 
and Rev. Mr. Sydney Swann, an Englishman, 
have provided themselves with aeroplanes. 

The Parseval Airship Co. (Munich) will com- 
mence, on May ist, a series of airship excursions 
with a dirigible of 250,000 cubic feet. The voyage 
will last three hours; a distance of 90 miles will 
be covered, and the fare will be $50. 

All records for distance, duration and altitude 
are held by Count Zeppelin, with his monster 
airship, the Zeppelin HI. On JIarch 13th he 
attained a height of 5,200 feet, and on May 29th 
he covered 870 miles in thirty-seven hours. 

The German Government, it is expected, will 
finance Professor Hergesell's airship expedition to 
the North Pole. Two airships, to be constructed 
by Count Zeppelin, are to be used. One is to be 
left at a relief station to be established at Spitz- 
bergen; the other is to be used in making excur- 
sions, keeping in touch with the relief station by 
means of wireless telegraphy. Professor Hergesell 
has just reached New York. 

HUNGARY.— Hungary is beginning to have 
real flights. A Dr. Kutassy has recently bought 
a jMaurice Farman aeroplane and succeeded in 
flying at Budapesth for about 5 kil. 

SWITZERLAND.-Exhibition flights are prom- 
ised for some time in January in Switzerland. 
Count de Viry will prepare an aerodrome near 
Geneva, to encourage Swiss aviation. Already 
there are six aeroplanes in the countrv, of which 
one IS that built by the makers of the Dufaux 
motor, which has already made short flights. 

TURKEY.— The Turkish army decided to or- 
ganize aviation sections in the three first army 
corps. 



ENGLAND.-" Non-rigid type," military dirig- 
ible baby, for experimental purposes. 

" Under construction, non-rigid ": 

i\ war dirigible of 7,000 m. 3, speed 32 miles per 
hour, IS being built in Astra works. Pattern 
Colonel Renard. 

" In preparation," three dirigibles. 

FRANCE.— " Non-rigid type": Ville de Paris; 
3,200 m. 3, speed 28 miles per hour. 

Clement-Bayard, 3,500 m. 3, speed 29 miles per 
hour. Owned by Astra works. 

Ville de Nancy. 

Ville de Bordeaux, 3,000 m. 3, speed 29 miles per 



Colonel Renard, 7,c 



3, for the French Go 



Zodiac No. I., No. II., No. III. (of Zodiac 
works), 750 m. 3. goo m. 3, 1,200 m. 3, with speed 
varying from 14-24 miles per hour. 

" Semi-rigid type," Le Jaune. built by Lebaudy 
Bros., 2.500 m. 3. Military training airship. 

Liberte, for the War Office. 

" In preparation ": Spiess dirigible, Malecot dir- 
igible, mixed balloon-aeroplane system. 

GERMANY.— " Non-rigid type": Parseval type^ 
No. I., 2.S00 m. 3, speed 26 miles an hour. Impe- 



1 Aero Club. 

'. '^■P'^' JM°- y.u 4,000 m. 3, speed 2S-30 



Pa 



les per hour. War Offi,__. 

Parseval type, No. III.. 5,600 m. 3, speed n 

ijes per hour. War Oflice. 

1 type, No. IV.. 1,200 m. 3 (speed not 



given). Imperial Aero Club 

Clouth, 1,720 m. 3, speed 21 miles per hour. 

Rhenish-Westphalian Motor Airship Co.. 2,000 
m. 3 (resembles the French type Ville de Paris, 
built by Astra Co.). 

"Semi-rigid type": Military airships (designed 
by Major Gross), 1907, experimental dirigible, 
i.Soo m. 3, speed 26 miles per hour. 

iNIilitary No. I, 5,500 m. 3, speed 26-2S miles per 

Military No. II., 5,500 m. 3, speed 26-28 miles 
per hour. 

Ruthenberg, j.200 m. 3. speed 24 miles per hour. 

"Rigid type": Zeppelin No. I., 13,000 m. •!, 
speed 24 miles an hour. War Oflice. 

Zeppelin No. II., 15,000 m. 3, speed 28 miles an 
hour. -War Office. 

Zeppelin No. III., 15,000 m. 3, speed 33 miles 
per hour. 

"Non-rigid type. Unde 

Siemens-Schuckert, 13,000 m. 

" Rigid type ": Sehnette, 20,c 
to the German Aerial Navigatic. _„. 

"In preparation": Unger. Steel dirigible. 

Prill. Steel dirigible. 

Rettig; with the balloon cover made of five 
wooden plates. 

ITALY.—" Semi-rigid ": Military dirigible, 2,500 



nstruction "; 
3- 

3. Belongs 



hou 



" Non-rigid": Da Sehi< 

Leonardo da Vinci (built by Forlanini. i's a 
nixed rigid, not rigid, type). 

" In preparation ": Two war dirigibles. 

RUSSIA.— A war dirigible (built by Lebaudy 
iros.; type Republique). 

SP.AIN.— Dirigible " Espana " (built by the 
Utra works; type Colonel Renard). 





[b IjbED B\ MEbbRb. BAYARD-CLEMENT TO INSTRUCT NOVICES IN THE 
ART OF OPERATING A SANTOS-DUMONT MONOPLANE 



3° 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 



NEWS IN GENERAL 



By Mrs. J. Herbert Sinclair 



AN opportunity of viewing all the different types 
of aircraft will be afforded the public when the 
first National Exhibition of Aerial Craft will be 
held in Mechanic's Building, Boston, Mass., Feb- 
ruary i6th to 23d. under the personal direction of 
Chester I. Campbell and sanctioned by the Aero 
Club of New England and the Aero Club of 

Mr Charles J. Glidden is Chairman of the Ad- 
visory Board for the Exhibition, and such well- 
known men as Professor W. H. Pickering of 
Harvard University, Professor David Todd of Am- 
herst College. H. Helm Clayton Luke J. Minne- 
han President of the Pittsfield Aero Club, N. H. 
Arnold of North Adams, Chas. J. Shean. Presi- 
dent of the Springfield Aero Club, A. Holland 
Forbes. Vice-President of the Aero Club of Amer- 
ica Professor A. Lawrence Rotch of Boston. Hon. 
John Barrett of the Aero Club of Washington, 
b C and A. B. Lambert, President of the St. 
Louis Aero Club, will serve on the Board. 

Among the manv entries so far arranged for are 
Captain Baldwin's immense dirigible, 105 feet in 
length and an exact replica of the first dirigible 
sold the Government. The celebrated " Boston " 
balloon, the '^ All America." and others from the 
difi'erent aero clubs, as well as a most complete 
exhibit bv Aeronaut Leo Stevens, will also be 
shown. Among the full-size, heavier-than-air ma- 
chines will be a Bleriot, a Latham, an Antoinette, 
a Wright model and other types. Hundreds of 
flying models will be sent from all over the coun- 
try, including exhibits of the West Side Y. M. C. 
A. of New York, the junior Aero Club of New 
York. Columbia and Harvard Universities and 
manv individuals. 

The exhibition will open at 8 P. M.. Wednesday 
evening, February 16th. after the first day opening 
at 10 A. M. daily, closing February 23d. 

Reginald W'eatberby, of Spanway Lake, eleven 
miles from Tacoma, has achieved a triumph of 
aviation. After three years of experimenting, 
which gives him high rank as an aeronaut, he has 
completed and successfully tried out his aluminum 
aeroplane. The new feature of the Weatherby 
machine is a substitution of a system of undulat- 
ing planes for the ordinary revolving propeller. 
by means of which the inventor has demonstrated 
a' speed of 120 miles an hour without vibration 
or jar, if the newspaper reports are to be believed. 

C. F. Lowe, of Pasadena, CaL, who sailed a bal- 
loon from Cincinnati, Ohio, to the coast of South 
Carolina, made a record in 1S61 of more than 750 
miles in twenty-four hours, \vhich has not been 



is thirty-five pounds, and the engine will weigh 
thirty-six pounds more. 

Mrs. Edgar Reagen, of San Antonio, Tex., has 
had an airship built in the shops of Messrs. Mer- 
rill & Keisen. 206 North Haliday Street, Balti- 
more, Md. The machine, the inventor says, will 
travel at the rate of 130 miles an hour. It is on 
the multiplane type. The craft is of aluminum 
and will be propelled by an eight-cylinder Curtiss 
engine, and will have an air-space of 700 feet. The 
weight is only 600 pounds, and the machine will 
carry four persons. 

J. H. Klassen. of Los Angeles, Cal., is building 
a monoplane that has a supporting surface of 240 
square feet, and will weigh 400 pounds fully 
equipped. This machine is thirty feet long and 
thirty feet wide. He will equip the machine with 
a 20 horse-power, four-cylinder, air-cooled Curtiss 
engine with a sJ-inch bore and 33-inch stroke. The 
propeller is seventy-two inches long and five 
inches wide. 

Mr. De Witt C. Dorman. of Monot, H. D., has 
built an aeroplane with the absence of planes. It 
has all propellers, eight blades being attached to 
the frame. The owner said he believed his ma- 
chine was capable of maintaining any speed which 
the operator desired, and that it would even hover 
over a given point for any length of time. On 
' I go straight up without 



yet, but propose to hold an aerial meet in May or 
June and offer cups, and prizes for speed, height 
and distance flying. 

Stanley Beach, of Stamford, Conn., has nearly 
completed a new monoplane which is somewhat 
•similar to the Bleriot machine but much lighter, 
Lghing only 500 pounds. The engine is a 25 



the 



Captain John Berry, of St. Louis, Mo., is at 
work on an airship which promises well. The 
mechanism differs from any that has heretofore 
been tried on dirigibles. It is designed to give 
to the pilot control of a balloon of the ordinary 
construction. On an upright shaft, twelve feet in 
height, are set propeller blades and rudder blades 
controlled by levers. The power is transmitted 
from a motor at the base of the shaft, which is to 
rest in the basket. The blades are old aluminum, 
S X iS inches in size. The weight of the entire 
mechanism is 150 pounds. He is satisfied that it 
will do the work it is intended to do as it is. 
but he plans to substitute a 10 horse-power motor 
for the 2 horse-power motor now attached. He 
expects to use with it a 17,000 cubic feet balloon. 

Messrs. Preble & Rekar. of Portland. Ore., are 
busy building an airship which they expect great 
results from, and when completed will do as they 
claim, and more. The Russian Government has 
offered $3,000,000 for the patents if the airship can 
make a flight of i,coo miles. 

A. Harrison, of Wichita. Kan., has already pro- 
duced a machine which promises to prove an en- 
tire success in the field of aerial navigation. Up 
to the present time the only power used has been 
developed by the navigator himself, using geared 
bicycle pedals to drive the propellers. In this 
way he has only been able to drive the fans at 
the rate of from sixty to seventy-five revolutions 
per minute. He is now attaching a 5 horse-power 
gasolene engine, with which he expects to drive 
the fans at the rate of from 300 to 400 revolutions 
per minute, thus furnishing enough power to keep 
the machine in the air as long as desired. Mr. 
Harrison's machine is rather more of a mono- 
plane than a biplane, the main plane of the ma- 
chine is 27x14 feet in size, having two wines 
which fold down when not in use. The steering 
will be accomplished by two sets of practically 
horizontal fans before and behind the machine. 
These fans range from i^ x 7 feet to 4 x 8 feet in 
size. The frame work is of second-growth pine 
and the machine is mounted on three bicycle 
wheels. The propeller has four blades, each eight 
feet long and eighteen inches wide. Driven by 
the engine, it should produce a wind eft'ect of 
from ten to twenty miles per hour, which will 
keep the machine up at will. The present weight 



J. A. McCullum, President of the INIidland Elec- 
tric Co., Kansas City, has constructed a flying 
machine which has a thirty-two foot span, a five 
foot four inch cord or breadth, and weighs 550 
pounds. In appearance it is very much like the 
Curtiss plane. Mr. McCullum has been interested 
in the navigation of the air some years, and al- 
though only thirty-one years of age has made 
many models of flying machines. 

J. W. Curzon, of New Orleans. La., is now 
building an aeroplane for his sisters of which 
much is expected. It is called the " Boudoir " 
size, and "the Curzon sisters will have a 90-lb. 
engine in their machine. 

Mr. Otto Herman, of Providence. R. L, be- 
lieves he has solved the aerial problem. He has 
invented a machine on the biplane type, in which 
he will make his first flight shortly. 

Frank P. Lahm says that the aeroplane will be 
a valuable addition to the army in the near fu- 
ture, but even as the machine stands to-day it is 
fitted for splendid work on the battlefields. 

A design for an automatically balanced aero- 
plane has been made by Everhard H, Boeckh, of 
Washington, D. C. He has two gliding models 
of the machine at his home. Boeckh is but a boy. 
and some time ago patented designs for a mono- 
plane. 

Ernest Walschendorf, of West Reading, has com- 
pleted a flying machine weighing seventy pounds, 
to carry three persons and operated by compressed 



John W. Hudson and Clifton O'Brien, of Oak- 
land, Cal., have invented a monoplane almost a 
replica of the famous machine in which Bleriot. 
the French aviator, crossed the English Channel, 
with the exception of the engine, which is an en- 
tirely new model designed and built by Mr. 
Hudson. 

Norbert Obrecht. of Pontiac, Mich., who has 
been engaged for the past six months in con- 
structing an airship, is now putting the finishing 
touches on it, and expects to fly before summer. 

Mr. Henry Stoddard, Secretary of the Speedwell 
Motor Car Co.. is interested in flying machines, 
and will build the first plant in Dayton, O., de- 
voted to that purpose, getting it under roof and 
in operation by the first of May. 

Chas. A. Wilson, of Goodland. Kansas, and Wm. 
T. Purvis, of Illinois, have invented a gyroplane. 
So engrossed are the inventors in putting their 
machine to a more complete test that both have 
resigned their positions with a railroad company, 
and the people of Goodland are going to support 
them to the end that they may have means for 
building a perfectly equipped gyroplane after their 
ideas. 

David Williams, of Yale. Mich., has invented an 
airship that will not only sail in the air, but on 
water as well, and even travel on land. The date 
of his trial trip has not been set. 

W. B. Strong, owner of the Kansas City Olathe 
Tnterurban R. R.. made the following statement: 
" I am not done with the flying machine business 



— „ „ — ^ ^-_ ^ The engii.^ ... „ -j 

horse-power, water cooled, and weighs about 250 
pounds. Mr. Beach contemplates organizing a 
company in New York with a capital of $50,000. 

Edgar S. Smith, of Los Angeles, Cal., is near- 
ing the completion of a very small aeroplane, 
which he calls the " Dragon Fly " No. 2. It is 
a double monoplane similar to the Langley type. 
It is eighteen feet wide and twenty feet long, 
with a supporting surface of 160 square feet. The 
total weight in flying order, including the opera- 
tor, will be about 350 pounds. The body is made 
of spruce reinforced with steel tubing, while piano 



Mr. Parker Lyon, ex-Mayor of Fresno, Cal., is 
greatly interested in a machine owned by one of 
the Fullers in San Francisco, and which is much 
the same as those used by. the Wright Brothers. 
This machine is of about go horse-power, and has 
a carrying capacity of four passengers. 

Frederick Loy, Washington, D. C, has invented 
a new type of biplane. The machine is octagon 
shaped and longer than it is wide. In this man- 
carrying machine, of the type which Mr. Loy in- 
tends to build, there will be a speed of 700 square 
feet of supporting surface. It will be thirty feet 
wide and will weigh about 700 pounds. 

Work is being carried on by A. H. McCarthy, 
of San Leandro, Cal.. Superintendent of the Best 
Iron Works, on an aeroplane, the design of which 
he has been working over for some time. Mr. 
McCarthy, who has already constructed a model 
of the airship which he claims is an exact replica 
of the proposed machine, claims that it flies. The 
aeroplane is of the pattern of the Wright ma- 
chines. Horizontal planes furnish the chief wind 
resistance. A 50 horse-power motor will be in- 
stalled to furnish power for the two propellers 
which will pull the contrivance through the air. 

Two monoplanes are nearing completion, one by 
Messrs. Frank & Warren and Professor Twining. 
The machines are moulded out of McAdamite 
metal, which is claimed to be the strongest and 
yet the lightest metal on the market. The engines 
will be a 50 horse-power, four-cylinder, water- 
cooled type and will turn 1,800 revolutions a 
minute. 

Messrs. Beachy & Knabenshue, of Los Angeles, 
Cal., are building a biplane to weigh 425 pounds 
fully equipped, and is planned along proven lines 
with several original improvements. The frame 
work is of spruce throughout; stranded cable and 
piano wires are used for guying. The motor 
power is furnished with a four-cylinder Curtiss en- 
gine, which develops 15 horse-power and is air 
cooled. The engine is calculated to drive a five- 
foot spruce propeller at the rate of 10,000 revolu- 
tions a minute. The machine is twenty feet long 
and twenty-eight feet wide and has a supporting 
surface of i8o square feet. The main planes are 
28 by 4^ feet and are placed four feet apart and 
are set at an angle of six degrees. 

Paul and Henry Elliott and Gilbert Smith, of 
Fort Scott, Kan., are building a flying machine. 
The machine is not an original invention — they do 
not claim that they have originated any important 
new features — they have taken the monoplane of 
Santos Dumont and Bleriot as models, and after 
a careful selection of the best features of each, 
have constructed a machine of their own. They 
enlarged on the Dumont model and gave their 
machine 120 square feet of canvas. This is less 
spread of wings than the Bleriot ship, which 
crossel the Channel, had. The main wing of the 
machine has a spread of 6 x 20 feet and the tail 
has twenty-seven square feet. The machine with- 
out the engine will weigh between 100 to 150 
pounds. The propeller on the machine has two 
seven feet blades; the seat for the driver is below 
the propeller. The Bleriot stabilizing planes will 
keep the car nearly level, automatically. With a 
moderate weight engine and a man weighing 150 
pounds, the total weight of the machine will be 
less than 400 pounds. 

At the National Aircraft Exhibition, to be held 
at Boston. February i6th to 2sd. Mr. Edward 
Durant, Director Junior Aero Club of America. 
will exhibit aeroplane models of various designs. 
There will also be models made by members of 
the Aeronautic Society and others. 

Among those who will exhibit are Percy Pierce. 
Walter Phipps, Ralph S. Barnaby and Bryan 
Battey. 

Among the adults. Mr. _W. M. Sagje. J. K. Dal- 
kranian and A. Reaud will also exhibit models. 



March, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



31 



SOARING POWER -Versus MOTOR POWER 



By R. Dressier 



A vultuT 
15 pounds 
nearly 2 1 



ascends. 1 
height of 
about ten 
motionless 



iiechanical II.T 

t to rise into the air, it faces the air 
imps, stretches out its wings, and then 
.ithout any further wing motion, to a 
about 3.000 feet, gliding up and down 
times, while its wings seem perfectly 
. An albatross weighs about 20 pounds, 
ss. and his wings measure 14 feet from 



fficulties presented 


room soarer. lake a piece of lii*l 


,1 follow the giiid- 


board 7 by 15 inches, or any other 


plac^.- the weight 


over the rear part a piece of gla. 


IS 111 the Santos- 


2 by 15 inches, bend the front pan . 


ul. we must adopt 


and drop it (don't shove it) fron 


e imicliable motor 


about ID feet; notice the increase 1 


ature will serve to 


tion as it flies through the room, pr 




piece of paper, which acts somewh: 


1 tip to tip, weighs 


blade. If it does not balance corn 


ng power equal to 


soaring blade up or down until yoi 


us weight. When 






equal to 3 H.P.. without 
it wants to rise from the 
can do so without wing 
dav it must beat its wir 



tho 



awakes, adjusts its balance, 
to take another nap. 

Storks, cranes, wild geese 
soaring birds of heavy \i 
domicile in the spring ar 
soar up to a height of 2, 



dth of 8 inches, 
power 
ting his wings, 
windy day 



soaring blades always 



■mgs 



I H.P. 
For in; 
pound. 




whalebone rods do the propelling very elTectively. 
Cover the two decks with pongee silk. A rattan 
rod about 2 feet long. g. runs from c to /t, which 
IS held in position by the two lines / I from each 
corner ti to /;, and at the end /i a ten-pound 
weight is fastened. This weight must be adjusted 
until you have the right supporting angle, and 
the weight then keeps the Hier at this angle. 
Place the rudder in position and have everything 
well balanced. If you drop this machine from a 
height of 40 feet, it will first fly forward in a 
downward direction, and as soon as it has gained 
speed enough for support it will fly in an upward 
direction and overcome gravity. Or push it 
against a wind current, holding it by a reel, and 
then let go. If badly balanced, it will fly in 
circles. 



their weight a 

ody of propell 
for every ten pou 

f a vulture 

gravity. 
In the air like a butterfly, 
nents may be easily verified by 
I fliers here illustrated. Please 
J the action of the rear part, 
ng blades. Fig. i represents a 



:a] albatross. Fig. 3 
of two planes, each 
:ross-ribs, which are 
halebone. such as is 
overhanging rear part 
point them ofl:' toward 
When this machine floats 




Fig. 4 represents 
rigid, and below the dotted li 

These experiments show hoi 
They prove that heavy bodi 
light bodies; that a weight is 
gravity; that ten pounds of ; 
a motor power equal to one n 
that one square foot of curved 



■ foot of fl. 
ity equal to twc 
that man can i 



rfac 



is efl^ected. 
soar better than 
ded to overcome 
pressure produce 
lanical H.P., and 
surface and one 



grav 



and 



travel 






line 



d. The 



tbala 
pounds of weight. It ah 
litate the flight of birds 
nachine that will enable him to 
using the weight of his body to 
produce a soaring power to overcome gravity. 

As soaring blades maintain the impetus indefi- 
nitely, the soaring power is nothing more or less 
than gravity, shifted and guided by connecting 
planes into other directions, as downward; or, a 
falling body pushed sideways and also slightly 
upward. 



CLUB NEWS 



Aero Club of America 
By Charles H. Heitman 



distance. 



the 



to the organizatio 



ful study i 
balloons 
m had ma 
ager to 



frequently, and to do 



theii 



In the summer of 1905 the subject was discussed 
with great interest by members of the Automobile 
Club of America; it was realized that if these 
workers could be brought together in one body 
where they could compare notes and exchange the 
knowledge gained by their efforts, it would insure 
much more rapid progress 
to start a club, such as th^ 
to offer facilities for its m 
sions. etc. ; aeronautics a 
benefit very largely, and as 



of Ame 
In Ta 



o Club of Fr; 
rs to make ascen- 
sport would also 
;ult the Aero Club 



were g 

like. Photograpli 

displayed 

popular i 



1906, the club's first real work was 
organized its first exposition. Eal- 
nported from Paris, and the public 



opportunity to s 

of balloon 

ffort was 1 

terest in the sport 

w was followed by a 



number of actual 
sions, and many persons became familiar 

aerial navigation in its simplest and safest 
The club located at Pittsfield. Mass.. a 
>n combining the features necessary for suc- 
.il ascents — distance from the sea and an 
dant supply of coal gas. 

o balloons were then purchased from Count 
i de la Vauix. one of them, the Centaur. 
ig made the record balloon journey from 

to Russia in 1900, still the world's record for 



nd these balloons w 

:ery moderate cost. 

to throw safeguari 

necessary for tlie 



ds about this sport 
club to adopt rules 
governing the issuing ot licenses to those who 
have proved themselves capable of handling bal- 
loons. The club requires a strict course of train- 
ing before it grants a license to an aerial pilot, 
and at the present time thirty such licenses have 
been granted to pilots in all parts of the country, 
so that balloon ascensions may be made in many 
places piloted by capable men. The club from 
its birth believed in encouraging ballooning as 
the most practical means of studying the air and 
stimulating public interest in aerial navigation, 
and it feels that it has acted wisely. 

The Aero Club of America was fortunate in 
being organized in time to become one of the 
original members of the Federation Aeronautique 
Internationale, which was founded in 1905. and 
is composed of the leading aero clubs of all na- 
tions. This organization is in reality an inter- 
national federation of aeronauts, as its name im- 
plies. It holds an annual conference in some one 
of the world's capitals, and the number of dele- 
gates from each club is proportioned to the num- 
ber of cubic meters of gas consumed in its ascen- 
sions during the previous year, and the number 
of flights made in heavier-than-air machines. 

It was to this bodv that James Gordon Bennett 
presented for competition his International Chal- 
lenge Cup, and it was under its auspices that the 
first contest for this cud was held, on September 
30, 1006. The honnr of winning this cup fell to 
the Aero Club of America, represented by one of 
its honorary members, Lieutenant Frank P. 
Lahm. 

As a result of this victory it devolved upon the 
Aero Club of America to organize and hold the 
contest for this International Trophy in 1907. St. 
Louis, because of its favorable location and its 
excellent gas facilities, was selected as the city 
to hold the race, and St. Louis successfully ac- 



complished its task. There were nine contestants, 
Germany represented by three, France by two, 
England by one, and the United States by three, 
and Oscar Erbsloh, representing Germany, suc- 
ceeded in carrying off the much-coveted cup and 
cash prjzes, making an American record for dis- 
nding at Bradley Beach, 



N. J. Alfred Le Bla 



gained 



Qd pla 



eprese 
landing at 






the 



rd for duratio 



--I4 



ville, 

III 



mulus to ballooning, the Aero 
Club of America founded and offered for com- 
petition a challenge trophy, known as the Lahm 
Cup, held in turn by each pilot who exceeds the 
record of the previous holder of the cup. But not 
only did the Club carry out the one purpose for 
which it was founded, that of stimulating interest 
in aeronautics as a sport in this coimtry, but it 
lias also always given encouragement and recog- 
nition to inventors in every way it possibly could. 
In 1906 the club investigated the work being done 
by the then unknown Wright brothers, and pub- 
lished a report laying before the public for the 
first time their achievements. In the fall of 1907. 
the club held its second aeronautical exposition, 
giving the public an opportunity to witness the 
state of the science at that time. The club has 
held nn annual banquet in 1907 
the Hotel St. Regis, and each n 
increasing interest. 

The club holds the magnificen 
ican Trophy for competition 1: 
machines, which will become 
property of the aviator who wi 
A flight of one kilometer was 
first competition, and this was 
T008, by Glenn H. Curtiss, representing the Ae 
Experiment Association. 

A flight of twenty-five kilometers was required 
for the second competition, and this was won by 
Glenn H. Curtiss on July 17. igog, on the Club's 
grounds on the Hempstead Plains, Long Island. 



igoS 


and 


1909 at 


arked the 


rapidly 


t Sci 


nfifi 


c Amer- 


V heavier-than-air 


the 

TS it 


Pe 
fhre 


rmanent 
e times. 


requ 


red 


for the 
July .4. 



32 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 



Aeronautic Society of New York 
By Lee S. Burrldge, President 



^? 



nto 



tic Society of Ne 



practical pursuit of the pr^ 
Its objects w 



ifight by 

as folic 

In G 



!neral.— To ad^ 
e fullest extent 
■ interest therein 
Parti. 



nt alo 



nts. To 



of mechanical 
riefly set forth 

le Art of Aeronautics 
its powers by stimu- 

ts members in carry- 
courage inventors to 
lines. To aid experi- 
)f their ideas by the 
essary facilities with 
:. To bring together, 



nters 



advi( 



orde 



the 



1-athe 



w- 



expenn 

mentors to the "realizatic 
provision of the most 
which to carry on their v 
as far as possible, those 
fields of aeronautic ende 
individual may have the 
of others. 

And that these objects have largely been ob- 
tained is shown by the record of performances of 
the many machines which have been built, and 
some of them operated, at the Society's aviation 
grounds at Morris Park. 

The Society is composed of enthusiastic workers, 
bound together with one great object, the advance- 
ment of aerial flight. 

Among the members are scientists, professional 
men and mechanics, who devote their time to de- 
tail, and as a result of their co-operation some 
have evolved biplanes, monoplanes, dirigibles and 
aerial propellers that are of superior design and 
great efficiency, while others have studied engine 
problems and invented many devices of great util- 
ity as building aids. 

Several model contests have been carried out 
under the management of a special committee, 
chosen by the members, which has led to the evo- 
lution of many new ideas in designs for aero- 
planes, some of which show great promise and 
will certainly be heard of before the year is 
throiigh. 

This work has resulted in several instances in 
bringing together inventors and capitalists to their 
mutual interest. 

Handsome silver cups and other prizes were 
awarded to the successful competitors, and the 
field of competition was made more interesting by 
mtroducmg such features as marks for stability, 
origmality and neatness of construction in addi- 
tion to the usual ones for length of flight. 

The cup presented by Leo Stevens for the first 
machine built by a member, carrying a passenger, 
was won by Dr. William Greene, with his biplane, 
with which he made many flights, taking two and 
even three passengers, and many members were 
able to have their first ride in the air. 

Dr. Greene used a British-American 26 horse- yea 
power engine weighing 320 pounds. Subsequently 
he installed the Kimball motor, which was half 
the weight. The machine flew much better then, 
and on the Doctor's leaving for Middletown, O., 
manufacture of aeroplanes, the 
ught by Mr. Kimball, and taken 
., where experiments were con- 
conjunction with F. E. Boland. 
th of the members are patentees 



and 5 feet high, and weighted with engine and The Aero Club's pla 
gearing 1,040 pounds. putti 

Many interesting lectures have been given at cubic 
the weekly meetings. Hudson Maxim has several meet 
times honored the Societv with such. FJmer A aernr 
Sperry described the uses of the ne 
of gyroscope and its possible appl 
aeroplane for giving equilibriuir. an 
multiple instrument of his own des 
Professor Herschel C. Park 
bilities of the aeroplane in 
ing and exploration. R. B. Whitmai 
twice on the explosive engine, first tell 
development of ignition, and later desc 
action and balance of four-cycle engine 
C. Gibson also lectured on internal c 
engines. A. C. Triaca told the secrets 
ing, and on a subsequent occasion F. 
gave a remarkable displav of photog 
moving pictures, which formed one of the con 
pletest lessons possible in ballooning. Octav 
Chanute, who, with the brothers Wright, is num- investigator" of th< 

bered among the Society's honorary members, ' ' " ~ 

honored the members at a meeting with remarks 
based on the results of his long experience, the 
value of which is best realized from the cognomen 
applied to O. Chanute by the French, "The 



!S for th 
■ a third bal 
projection 
the gene 



year 



:tive form 
on to an 
xhibited a 



spoke of the pos 



lombustion 
of balloon- 
W. White 
aphs and 



feet capacity, th 
Boston an 
nautic interest. 

uch other work is being done along aeronauti 

; in New England. Several Maine resident 

taking keen interest in aeronautics, and Ne\ 

pshire, Vermont, Connecticut and Rhode Isl 

keeping pace with them. The Bos 

perhaps fuller than those in mos 

f New Eng 



and people 
ton papers a 
parts of the 
land experi 
chinery. 

The whole 
lace E. Tilli 
have made 
Boston in ai 



pas 



'ith he 



--than-i 

: story of Wal- 



ry now knows 
it of Worceste 

mile flight to New York and 
Dplane of his own construction, 
liles an hour, stopping his ma- 
for forty minutes to have his 
chanics repair some parts. An 
Club of New England 



Aeronautics in New England 
By Denys P. Myers 



Tillinghast reticent as to hii. 

proof of his assertion thus being lacking, dis- 
story; but Mr. Tillinghast, who, it 
applied for aeroplane patents, 
bears an excellent reputation as a trustworthy 
citizen in Worcester, sticks to his story, and has 
promised to produce the machine in his own time. 
If half of his claims are substantiated, he has 
everything else in the aeroplane line surpassed. 

Beginning late this month an aeronautic exhibi- 
tion 



able 
practical 



of ballo 



At it 



very 



Be 



the 



by p 



a dozen aeronautic 
of experimenters w 
egotiations for the 
haps half-a-dozen 
of laun 



Thi 



irigible aerostat . 
e, mono- and hi-, will be showr 
1 quota of freak machines will b 
"ihibition will bring to ligb 



persons. 



the 



epitome of New England's present activities rela- 
tive to aerial flight. No other portion of the 
country of equal area— the five New England 
States contain less than 65,000 square miles — can 
exhibit so much activity. 

There are, however, good reasons for this. Un- 

hke practically all the rest of the country. New 

^' ' ' ' not adapted to agriculture, and so its 

ng population is naturally interested in 

advances. Many of its citizens are in- 

in fortune, and therefore have leisure 

new sports. And New England is an 

center, so that technical aeronautic 

ves a great deal of attention. While 

se elements is in any way exclusive to 

ew iingiand, their unusual combination there is 

rtainly favorable to a practical interest in aero- 

uitics. 

Aero Club of New England, the foster par- 
organizations, is now in its fourth 



ufactu 



educational 
study recei 
none of the 



New England 
Boston Expo- 



nt of the 



the Doct 
to take up the 
apparatus was bo 
to Rahway, N. J 
tinued with it in 

Nearly one-four 
or actual builders c 
have put their ideas into practisf 
places, twenty-four full-sized he; 
chines and one dirigible have 1 
Society's workshops since they w 
months ago. 

Five members, Leo Stevens, E 
Dr. Greene, Mr. Kimball and 
made the New England balloon 
miles in 5 hours 59 minutes. 

On June 21, 1910, an order \ 
Curtiss aeroplane, and I believe 
constituted the first purchase of ; 
made by an aeronautical society. 

"al transaction of the sort 



t it was projected as much as seven years 
ago. in Massachusetts there are aero clubs at 
Pittsfield, Springfield and Worcester and societies 
at Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology and Amherst College. All of these 
are independent organizations, although the mem- 
hip of the Aero Club of New England includes 



n space. 

ral new freaks a: 

ime known. One of the most ambiti'ous"of 
e latter is a double-decked proposition capable 
arrying twenty persons, according to the claims 
iventor, who points out that no one has yet 
been able to tell him why it cannot fly. He him- 
self does not claim that it ever has. Another is a 
Jllapsible monoplane which, according to theory, 
wings up and serve as an automobile 
of its inventors, 
rizing of aeronautics : 
n November at the " 1915 
vhere the Curtiss machine 
dels of all other aeroplane: 
ere shown. Educationa 
in steadily, chiefly by 

J. Glidden, Albert A. Merrill of the Bos- 
.C. A. aviation school, and Professor A 
Rotch of the Blue Hill Observatory 
have been the most indefatigable lecturers, but 
college professors and others have also appeared 
on the platform. The Harvard Aeronautical So- 
ciety IS perhaps most active in this work, although 
\ale, Amherst, Technology and Dartmouth are 
not far behind the Crimson. The Harvard Society 
was organized in November with nearly 300 mem- 
bers. Since then it has given an exhibition of 
models and photographs, and is at present hold- 
ing weekly meetings, many of which ar 
id which consist usually of a lecture ui 



of its : 



ill fold its 
at the desire 

The popula 
began in No 



Charle 
ton Y. 
Lawrenc 



efforts 



publii 



(filiated with th. 
3ne of the few aeronautic school 
at Boston, where the Y. M. C. 
ind while many struction to would-be sky pilots. ' 
at private work- school is H. Helm Clayton, who 
'ier-than-air ma- reputation as a balloonist and who 
:en built at the an expert on air currents. As a 
■e opened twelve Hill Observatory, situated a few 



scientific problem in connectit 
Aside from the Tillinghast 



■ith 



vhich, if 



the 



luntry 
of the 



las acquired a 
is in particular 
rarker at Blue 
Ith of 



An 



On Ju 



26th Curti" 



fle 



at Morri 
the Society's machine, after which t 
was loaned by the Society to Mr. Cu 
purposeof practising long flights on 
preparatory to h 



Plains 



th. 



St pie 
had no othe 
While the 
members of 
to handle it. 
C. F. Willa 



ntests at Rhe 



Boston, for ten years, he and the owning director 
-. J. P. Thomas, of the observatory. Professor A. Lawrence Rotch, 
.Ir. A. Meixner, studied the phenomena of the upper air by means 
:lg record of 175 of kites with recording apparatus attached. The 
knowledge thus gained was first put to use in 
as placed for a aeronautics when as a passenger in the balloon 
this commission Pommern, October 17, 1907, his acquaintance with 
n aeroplane ever aerial habits enabled Oscar Erbsloeh to pilot the 
It was the first aerostat 872 miles to Asbury, N. J., winning the 
;r made in James Gordon Bennett Cup. 

Much of New England's recent ballooning ac- 

Park with tivity has centered around Mr. Clayton, who at the 

le machine dinner of the Aero Club, on the night of January 

tiss for the 24 last, was presented with the Boston Herald and 

Hempstead Fitchburg trophies, both being awarded for a land- 

itering ing nearest to Boston Common. Mr. Clayton 

great- promptly put them up for further competition, the 

:urtiss terms being that a balloonist start from Fitchburg 

learest Boston Common. At the same 

serted the possibility of a flight from 



the claims ma 


de for 


it are substantiated, is ea 


sily 


the best hea 


vier-thE 


in-air craft yet 


construe 


ted. 


little has been 


: done 


in New England 


that can 


be 


called unique 


. Yet 


the widespread 


interest 




aeronautics is 


produ< 


cing a compreher 


ision of 


the 


problems invo 


Ived in 


flight that will pr 


obablv S' 




yield tangible 


result! 


i in genuine adv 


ances." The 


traditions of 


Yankee 


: inventiveness w 


ill certai 


nly 


be disproved otherwi 









The fact gav 
:ause at the time Mr. 
le with which to pract 
e was at Mineola two 
iety were chosen to be 
were Alexander Williai 
I'hom quite a little has bee 
otable event was the buildin 



Aero Club of Baltimore 

By James T. O'Neill, Secretary 

HEN Glenn H. Curtiss was declared the 
champion aviator at the international avia- 
tion meet at Rheims, France, last year, he brought 
to the United States not only the championship 
trophy, but also the privilege of holding the in- 
to this the people 
aking forward with 



w 



of the 



ht De 



The 



nd Jo 



Hot Springs, Ark. 
orris Park. The ne 
nvention of Mr. Ri 
snce entirely upon 
; propellers were us 
of the car, c 



The A 
■ joi 



nd its 



to the Atlantic 
Jresident of the / 
ries J. Glidden, 
Litoist 



ternational meet for 
of the entire world a 
interest. 

According to the ri 
the 



Eagle, Glidden automobile to 



ed the Society 
their machine 
involved was 
de- 



■ity of tht 
flights, of which 



)ropellers for 

. One of them, placed 

- -_..Id be worked in an arc 

horizontally, and was for steering left to right. 
The others, placed seven feet behind the front one, 
vertically to give up and 
ee were used for propul- 
n length, which was made 
a capacity of 35,000 cubic 
1 was louna to give a lift of over 1,600 
The car was of steel tubing 100 feet long, 
feet wide across the top, 2 feet at the bottom. 



achusetts and six from \' 
,n air mileage of 3,774 miles, 
lered 137, of whom eighteen 
ongest_ flight was on July 
ying fi 



worked 

down steering. All th 

sion. The bag, 105 feet 

by A. Leo Stevens, hac 

feet. 



North Ada 



landed at Topsh. 
miles away. Ten balloons were in service during 
the year, two belonging to the club. Mr. Glidden 
was on a good proportion of these flights, and is 
qualified as a pilot. In fact, he is president of 
the first Association of International Aeronautic 
Pilots, which he was instrumental in organizing at 
Boston last September. 



re now lo 

les of the Aviation Congress, 
is to be held on a course 
ast. selected by the Aero Club of America and con- 

D Club of New England trolled by organized local clubs affiliated with that 
10 is well known as a organization. And this course, it is almost defi- 
nd the backer of the nitely settled, will be at College Park, Md., ap- 
leen his enthu- proximately half way between the great cities of 
made possible Baltimore and Washington and convenient to 
ing 1909 eighty- Philadelphia, New York, Boston and scores of 
vere from Mas- other cities. Only the formal announcement is 
.-ere made, with required from the Aero Club of America and the 
aeronauts num- question of rivalry between many aspirants will 
: women. The be settled beyond all question. 

len the balloon Practically assured that College Park will be 
started from the course, Baltimore and Washington ha 
a joint fund of $100,000. contributed equal . 
two cities, as a guarantee for substantial pr: 
the competitors and for the proper conduct of the 
meet, and another $100,000 will be raised, should 



. It ha 
I that ha 
club. E 
ty-on 



th. 



by the 



The 



iity 



nt for College Park originated 
, wnere a meeting of representative ci 
held at the City Elall, with Mayor 



March, igio 



lUirrv -Mahool presiding. An offer of a $500 prize 
l>v the lialtimore Su/i was quickly followed by 
similar offers, most of which have since been ni- 
crcased to $1,000. and the campaign for funds was 
started by the Aero Club of lialtimore, of which 
Colonel .lern.ne TI. 
lation to W^i-lnnul 



AIRCRAFT 



33 



i. FreM.U- 



.-.liate 



for th< 



bv theAero Club to .Mr. Curtiss. at which the 
llaltimore-Washington delegation were also guests 
of honor. 

.\lthongh at that time the national organization 
was unable to give a definite reply to the twin 
aspirants, the heartiest encouragement was ex- 
tended. 

About twelve miles from Washington and 
twenty-eight miles from Baltimore, College Park 
is easy oi access by steam roads and trolley lines, 
with capital roads for automobile and carriage 
travel Bevond this, however, it is described by 
aviators as 'ideally situated for aviation, while Pro- 
fessor \\'illis L. Moore, Chief of the United States 
Bureau, has prepared statistics showing that the 
climatic conditions cannot be surpassed. The 
average velocity of the wind is about eight miles 
,an hour, the field is level and of ample propor- 
tions, and the ground is familiar to many leading 
aviators, who have sailed their aeroplanes in that 
section. 

In anticipation of the meet being held at College 
Park, the promoters in Baltimore and Washington 
bave been assured of the support of the United 
States Government, which will do all in its power 
to contribute to the success of the affair. Troops 
will be furnished to police the ground and protect 
both aviators and spectators, and to guard the 
roads and guide the traffic. College Park is the 
government aviation field, and the Federal author- 
ities are prepared to meet all the requirements 
of even such a monster meet. 

For foreigners College Park offers especial at- 
tractions, being accessible through the port of 
Baltimore from all parts of the world. The mon- 
ster steam-ships now plying betw^een Baltimore 
and the leading ports of Europe will be reinforced 
bv a great fleet of similar vessels, permitting the 
shipment of aeroplanes and paraphernalia and the 
transportation of passengers practically to the 
very gates of the field. 

^'isitors from all parts of the United States will 
also be transported to the two cities with a maxi- 
mum speed and a minimum of discomfort bv 
the great railroads running into Baltimore and 
\\'ashington from all points of the compass. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad, the Baltimore ,!i: 
Ohio. The Southern, the Atlantic Coast Line, the 
Chesapeake & Ohio, the Louisville & Nashville, 
Queen & Crescent, and the Western Maryland are 
a few of the railroads entering the two cities, 
while lines of steamers connect Baltimore with 
the great coast cities of the Atlantic and the Gulf 
of Mexico. 

Millions of persons reside within an area of a 
few hundred miles, and a large proportion of this 
immense population will undoubtedly attend the 



Harvard Aeronautical Society 
By James V. Martin, Director 

THE ?Iarvard Aeronautical Society, of Cam 
bridge, Mass., is perhaps the largest and most 
active Society of this kind in the world. It was 
organized November 11, iQog, by James V. Mar- 
tin, and has already three hundred members en- 
rolled. .-\ course of ten lectures on the subject of 
aeronautics was arranged for the winter, and they 
have attracted a great deal of attention and en- 
thusiasm among the aeronautically inclined in 
Cambridge. One of these lectures was illustrated 
and showed the various types of aeroplanes in 
motion. 

A library has been established with seventy-two 
books relating to aerial navigation and its various 
problems. Working models of the Wright and 
Bleriot machines bave been secured, and a full- 
sized aeroplane is now in the course of construc- 
tion which will represent the Society in various 
contests ne.xt summer, and various steps are beinK 
taken to have a flight exhibit near Boston during' 
the month of May. Professor A. Lawrence Rotch, 
founder of the Blue Hill Observatory, is President 
and Professors W. W. Pickering, F. L. Kennedy, 
and L. S. Marks are on the Advisory Board. 

The aeroplane now being constructed for the 
Harvard Aeronautical Society, and which will rep- 
resent the Society in various contests in the 
future, has been named the " Harvard I," and will 
excel in workmanship and design anything that 
has yet been attempted. The weight, with engine 
and oil. 275 pounds; 250 pounds thrust, excess of 
strength five times that required; speed 45 miles, 
excellent sustaining curve, 240 square feet of sur- 
face. 

Other universities are following the Harvard 
example, so in the near future the public may ex- 
pect to hear of intercollegiate flight contests which 
will doubtless prove keen rivals of all other ath- 
letic sports. 




The Club will have workshops whe 
may make their initial 
members may house tht 
grounds where member 
ing. The Club will h; 
tures, library, and an ( 
the near future a local 
in the nature of a flying contest, and not merely 
an exhibition 

The Southe 
a monoplane 
produce a flyi 

The South 
be the Mecca 



COL. JEROME H. JOYCE, PRESIDENT AERO CLUB 
OF BALTIMORE 

The Southern Aero Club 

By Dr. L. L. Lavadan, Secretary 

THE Southern Aero Club, of New Orleans, La., 
1 is the first aero club organized in the South 
to practically develop the art of aerial science. 
The officers are: 

Dr. Thomas \V. Carey, Jr President 

F. Freije Vice-President 

Dr. L. L. Lavadan Secretary-Treasurer 




r machines rent free, and 
may learn the art of fly- 
ve weekly meetings, lec- 
sperimental fund; and in 
neet that will be 



n Aero Club are now constructing 
3n entirely new lines, and hope to 
r that will do credit to their efforts, 
/ill, from actual climatic conditions, 
of flying in America. 



DR. THOMAS W. C.\REy, JR., PRESIDENT .SOUTH- 
ERN AERO CLUE 

The objects and purposes of the Southern Aero 
Club are to promote interest in and develop the 
aeroplane in every particular for the professional 
and the amateur aeronaut; to encourage the study 
of aerial science, and to hold exhibitions and con- 
tests of apparatus designed for the purpose of 
aerial locomotion. 

The organizing of the Southern .\ero Club is 
the initial step in the direct line to bring about 
conditions that will produce flying apparatus in 
the South. 

The Club will also have all the facilities for 
members to build and construct their own planes, 
and develop their own ideas into practical fliers. 



Club Notes 

/^ORTLANDT FIELD BISHOP, President of 
^ the Aero Club of America, has notified the 
members that a special meeting of the organiza- 
tion will be held next month. 

The purpose of this meeting is to consider and 
act upon the report of a special committee which 
was appointed at the meeting of the club on No- 
vember 1st last, with instructions to make recom- 
niendations upon the subject of amending the 
club's certificate of incorporation, constitution atid 
by-laws. 

The Committee, in its report filed with the 
president, urges that the name of the present cor- 
poration, "Aero Club of America," be changed to 
" Aero Corporation, Limited," and that an incor- 
porated club be formed under the membership 
corporation law of this State with the name " Aero 
Club of America." 

The shares of stock of the corporation are to be 
assigned and transferred to the club as its prop- 
erty, and the corporation stock is to be voted pur- 
suant to the direction of the board of governors 
of the club, who shall select the directors for the 
corporation. 

All the members of the present Aero Club who 
have paid their dues for the year ending Novem- 
ber 1st next are to have the privilege of becoming 
members of the new club without the payment of 
initiation fees and annual dues for the current 
year. Any member not in favor of this plan is to 
have the privilege of withdrawing from member- 
ship in the existing club, and in that event his 
initiation fee and proportion of dues paid covering 
the unexpired portion of the year are to be re- 
turned to him. 

The special committee, whose report will be 
acted on at the meeting next month, consisted of 
W W. Miller, Chairman, Cortlandt Field Bishop, 
Philip T. Dodge, W. W. Niles and Dave H. Mor- 
ris, Secretary. 

The Michigan Aero Club has been formally 
launched at Detroit. Among the members of the 
committee are Messrs. R. D. Chapin, H. B. Joy, 
Russel A. Alger and Frederick Wadsworth. 

Mr. Glenn Curtiss was recently elected honorary 
president of the Oakland Aero Club, which has a 
membership of one hundred and seventy-five. 

The South Side Aero Club, St. Louis, is build- 
ing a balloon, which Captain John Berry is to 
pilot. The club has been notified that the Laclede 
Gas Co. will reduce the price of gas owing to 
numerous ascensions planned for next summer. 

The first Women's Aviation Club in the United 
States was organized recently at Los Angeles. 
The officers of the Women's Aviation Club are: 
Mrs. John Reavis, President; Mrs. Dick Ferris, 
First Vice-President; Mrs. Sydney Lee Grover, 
Second Vice-President; Miss Jessie M. Flint, Sec- 
retary; Mrs. G. H. McGinnis, Treasurer. Already 
the membership includes a number of enthusiastic 
women of Southern California. It is the intention 
of the members to systematically take up the study 
of the aircraft subject. 

The Aero Club of Buffalo will hold a model 
aeroplane contest on March ist. The winner will 
receive a silver cup, donated bv Tohn M. Satter- 
field. president of the club. The club has recently 
elected forty-six members. Mr. James How is 
chairman of the Model Contest. 

Bakersfield, Cal., has an active aero club, the 
members of which are small boys, the oldest mem- 
ber being only fourteen years of age. 

The Aero Club of America has leased from the 
Garden City Co., a large real estate concern, an 
acre of ground near Garden City, L. I., at the 
edge of the Hempstead Plains, with the privilege 
of flving over all the other property controlled by 
the Garden City Co. 

In the city of Paterson, N. J., there has been 
formed an aero club, with a membership of over 
sixty men, who are resolved to have an aerial 
meet to last two weeks, and to be held during the 
months of May and Tune this year. Prices aggre- 
gating about a hundred thousand dollars will be 
offered by this club to the great aviators of the 
world. 

It is believed by those heading the movement :n 
Paterson that a full membership of a thousand 
persons will be easy to secure. 

The President is V. L. Ochoa; its Secretary, 
William S. Martin, and its Treasurer, Thomas W. 
McAndrews. 



34 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 



PERSONAL NOTES 



was recently accomplished by A. D. Fowler 
and John Fowler, brothers, at Springfield, Mo. 

Professor F. W. Smith, of the N. N. T. S., is 
building an aeroplane at Aberdeen, S. D., similar 
to the Curtiss machine. 

By introducing small single planes within large 
planes a man named i\IcCarthy, of San Leandro, 
claims to secure a perfect equilibrium for hie aero- 
plane 

Mr. W. S. Globe, of Fresno, Cal., has built a 
flying machine which has attracted considerable 
attention on the Pacific Coast. 

A patent on an " Automatic Air-Cushion Bal- 
ance " for aeroplanes has been applied for at 
Washington by Mrs. Ida M. Von Claussen. 

Mr. Victor W. Page, M.E., of Providence, R. I., 
is the inventor of the aeroplane, and Mr. Oliver 
Light of the same city is the inventor of the 
motor of the machine, to be manufactured by the 
L. A. M. Motor Co. 

Miss Lillian Todd, a lady inventor of New York, 
hopes to have her new aeroplane in shape to fiy 
some time in May. 

One of the most persistent inventors along aero- 
nautic lines in this country is Professor H. La V. 
Twining, member of the Aero Club of California. 
His latest experiment is on the ornithopter type. 

Mr. Merrifield Martling, of Kansas, is workitig 
secretly on an airship which he says will be dif- 
ferent from anything yet produced. 

A new record for the Wright biplane type of 
model was made by Morel Sage of New York at 
the Y. M. C. A. Model Contest, the distance made 
being 95 feet 4 inches. 

A. P. Warner, of Beloit, Wis., has invented an 
aerometer for registering the speed of aeroplanes. 
He is also working on a device for checking air 
skids. 

J. F. Scott, of Lawrenceburg, Ind., is the in- 
ventor of a triplane. It is said he is negotiating 
with the United States Government for the sale 
of it. 



A. L. Pfitzner, of Hammondsport, N. Y., is 
meeting with considerable success in experiment- 
ing with a new balancing device which he is utiliz- 
ing in connection with the monoplane which he 
recently constructed. 

Mr. .T. Loose is the inventor of a new biplane 
the wings of which are curved similar to those of 
a bird. He is practising with it at San Francisco, 
Cal. 

An aeroplane that can be packed in specially 
made trunks and transported as personal luggage 
is the latest invention of Howard W. Gill, Balti- 



Mr. Emile Berliner. Rexford M. Smith and W. 
H. Beck were exhibitors of flying machines of 
their own invention at the Washington Auto- 
mobile Sho^v. 

O. .L Pruitt, of St. Joseph, Miss., has completed 
the construction work of a monoplane and is about 
to install the engine. 

Frank Steffan. of Los Angeles, Cal.. claims to 
have originated a device that will prevent a flying 
machine from taking a quick drop when the motor 
power fails. His new invention he calls a " Kita- 
plane." 

Mr. Sydney B. Bowman, of both bicycle and 
automobile fame, is presenting a handsome cup 
for the best constructed aeroplane model during 
the season of 191C. Any club within the jurisdic- 
tion of New York has the privilege of competing 
at the regular contests held bv clubs and colleges 
of New York. 

Mr. Wilcox. President of the Columbia Univer- 
sity Aero Club, is building some extremely fine 
propellers at Leo Stevens' workshop. Great re- 
sults are expected from the many specially de- 



;igned 



odels 



By Ada Gibson 



A Bleriot machine has arrived at Provid( 
R. I., for Leo Samuels. John Shepard, Jr 
Providence, R. J., has ordered a Wright i 
plane, and JoMiinW. Kaufman, of Columbus, 
is another purchaser of a flying machine. 



e, pleted a monoplane which he intended to try in 
of the vicinity of the Kammelhor home. The Justice 
o- donned his fur overcoat and visited a sign-painter 
Paterson, who prepared a sign ten feet long 



and five 



Club, held at St. 
passed to petition 



At a conference of the Ae 
Louis recently, a resolution v 
Congress to determine the v; 
warfare. A committee from the aero clubs is to 
call on President Taft to ask him to undertake 
steps to insure the development of aerial craft. 
The conference, which was presided over by Mr. 
Cortlandt F. Bishop, President. of the Aero Club 
of America, represented aero clubs from thirteen 
cities and States. 

St. Louis is to have a company for the inanu- 
facture of aeroplanes, to be known as the Aero 
jMotion Co. of America, .\mong the incorporators 
are H, Brussel, M. Sequin. and J. P. Walsh. The 
nominal capitalization is $2,000. 

In a speech^ at a recent dinner in New York 
Philander C. Knox, Secretary of State, prophesied 
that airships would bring nations much closer to- 
gether, and enumerated them among the first 
agencies toward international unity. 

Interest in aviation was put to a test recently in 
Carnegie Hall, and by no means found wanting, 
when Burton Holmes, in his talk on " Sicily," 
featured the aviator at Rheims_, showing the pilots 
of the air steering their machines over the heads 
of the spectators. 

A company is being formed to further the use 
of aeroplanes in the L^nited States, especially 
Southern California. The company contemplates 
purchasing two Farman machines and demonstrat- 
ing them in the small towns of the West. Among 
the men who are to aiifiliate themselves with the 
company are H. L. Cornish. John Nightingale, 
G. E. Nagle, George Cline. Edward Helms, Dr. 
N. . . Hirtz, Al Levy and Dick Ferris. 



It 



reported that Mr. C. W. Parker, the 
showman r.f Abilene. Kansas, has 
a Farman biplane for $7,500. 



Mr. Chas. S. Clark. General :Xranager of the 
Second Annual Motor Show of Milwaukee, Wis., 
has arranged to add an aeroplane exhibit to the 
show which takes place on February 22d to Feb- 
ruary 27th. 

Two aeroplanes will be exhibited at the Port- 
land. Ore,. .Automobile Show. .K Curtiss machine, 
lust Durchased bv Mr. E. Henry Wemme, who 
has the honor of being the first person in Port- 
land to own an aeroplane. The other machine to 
be exhibited is Mr. T. C. Burkharfs biplane, 
which he has been building in accordance with 
his own ideas. 

hVi aviators and balloonists who took part in 
the Los Ansreles meet were awarded handsome 
bronze medals, bea'-ing their names, date and 
event. The oresentations were made bv D. .\. 
Harfurger, Chairman of the Aviation Committee. 



vhich reads 



Leo Stevens, the celebrated balloon manufac- 
turer, has offered a cup for the longest flight made 
by a model aeroplane during the season 1910. 
Designs for Mr. Stevens' cup are being prepared 
by Diejes & Clust of New York. 



The first aeronautic alumni association to be 
formed in this country has been organized by the 
graduates of the aeronautic class, established last 
October by the West Side Y. M. C. A. The offi- 
cers of the Alumni are Dr. Rex. C. Worthwood, 
President, and Francis C. Willson, Secretary and 
Treasurer. 

The Boston Aero Club have placed an order 
with Leo Stevens for a new balloon of 38,000 cubic 
feet, which is to be delivered by March the first. 

The Harvard University Aeronautical Society, of 
which J. V. Martin is Director, is about to build 
a full-sized, two passenger biplane. Plans for the 
machine are completed, and the manufacturing of 
the parts and assembling of same will be in charge 
of the undergraduates of the engineering and sci- 
entific department of the university. 



NOTICE! 
All Aviators Are Hereby Warned Not to Fl 
Their Machines Over This House Under Pei 
ally of Imprisonment. 

MORRIS KAMMELHOR. 



The sign is fastened to the flagstaft' of the 
Squire's house. 

He intends to run a string of lanterns around 
the sign so that it can be seen at night. 

Squire Kammelhor insists that he owns to the 
heavens above his premises and to the center of 
the earth the other way. 



tfr. W. Jforre" Sage, designer and 
s joined Leo Stevens in connection with the 
astruction of aeroplanes: so it is expected that 
mething reallv interesting will be on the market 



Coming Aircraft Events 

THE Internationale .Aeronautique Federation re- 
cently awarded the dates for the aviation meet- 
ings to be held throughout the world this year. 
jMore than $500,000 in prize money will be offered 
in 1910 for events held under the auspices of the 
federation. 

Fourteen meets are scheduled between April 
loth and November 2d, for which the total sum of 
$416,000 has already been promised. This does 
not include the meets at Berlin, St. Petersburg, 
Milan, in England and in the United States. 

.According to the rules of the Internationale 
Aeronautique Federation, no city may be granted 
exclusive dates for an aviation meet unless at 
least $40,000 in prize money is offered. No amount 
so far has been guaranteed for the American and 
two English meets, but it is certain that more 
than $40,000 will be offered at each of these, as 
exclusive dates have been granted the clubs behind 
the meets. The Berlin. St. Petersburg and Milan 
dates are not exclusive, therefore it is probable 
that the amount of monev that will be offered in 
these three cities will not reach the limit. 

The longest dates awarded are those secured bv 
the Aero Club of America. This meeting will 
close the series of official flights, the week being 
devoted to competition for the Gordon-Bennett 
Cup. The -American dates are from October iSth 
to November 2d. Several cities have bid for the 
aviation meets awarded to the L^nited States, but 
no selection will be made until all the bids are in. 

AMERICAN EVENTS 

October iSth to 25th. . .International Balloon Race. 

Place not yet decided upon. 
October 25th to November 2d. .International .Avia- 
tion meet. 

Place not yet decided upon. 

FOREIGN EVENTS 

jMarch nth to 19th Olympia, England. 

April 3d to loth Cannes. 

April loth to 25th Nice; $46,000. 

May loth to i6th Berlin. 

Jlay 14th to 22d Lvons. 

jMav 20th to 30th Verona; $42,000. 

June 5th to 12th Vichy. 

Tune sth to 15th Budapest: $120,000. 

June iSth to 24th St. Petersburg. 

Tune 26th to Tulv :oth Rheims; $40,000. 

July nth to 17th England. 

Tuly 14th to 24th Rheims to Brussels: cross- 
country event. 

July 24th to .August loth Belgium; $40,000. 

August 6th to 1.3th England. 

August 25th to September 4th. .Deauxville: $48,000. 

September Sth to i8th Bordeaux; $40,000. 

September 24th to October 3d Milan. 



ONE DOLLAR 

will pay for a Year's Subscription to 

Aircraft 



Hugo C. Gibson, the well-known New York gas 
eng-'ne authority, intends to make his debut as an 
aeronaut with a Romme monoplane, installed with 
a Reaua-Gibson motor, of which he is the inven- 
tor. Mr. Gibson hopes to fly from New York to 
Albany some time during the spring. 



West Park section of Ced 
mnounced to th 
top all flying m 



)Z And one year's reading of this 

t public that he will • -ii j • l^^ 

achines from passing magazine Will Set you rignt on 
;;: mechanical flight. 



March, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



35 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 



15 cents a^ line 

Seven Words to Line 
Nothing Less than 6 Lines Accepted 

CASH WITH ORDER 

10 per cent. Discount for Six Consecutive 
Insertions all credited sixth insertion 



I have designed a flying machine wliich combines 
an aeroplane and helicopter. This machine will 
rise straight up in the air without a running start ; 
the planes being turned edgewise offer little resist- 
ance in the air when raising and when the desired 
iieight is reached they are hitched forward, thus 
sustaining the weight of the machine. The pro- 
pellers are thus pitched forward and used exclu- 
sively for driving the machine ahead. From results 
obtained from several small models I think it will 
make a great success. I would like to communicate 
with a gentleman of money who would like to 
Hnance the building of a large one. Address 
1. W. B., care of Aircraft, 37 E. 28th Street, New 
York. 



\VrANTED. A Practical Aviator 
of experience. One who is 
thoroughly acquainted with every- 
thing pertaining to mechanical 
flight. Address at once: 
Aerial Demonstration Company, 
154 Nassau St., New York 

ANOTHER first-class WRITER can be 
used in tbe Editorial Department of 
AIRCRAFT. Applicant for position must 
understand the aeronautical subject thoroughly 
and give full information and references when 
writing. 

Address: The Lawson Publishing Co. 

37 E. 28th Street. New York 



PATENTS 

FLY! THAFS THE THING! 

BENNETT S. JONES 

PATENT ATTORNEY 
611 rth Street, Washington, D.C. 
Can secure you a Patent tliatwill PROTECT 
your invention on a flying: machine, for a 
moderate fee. Advice Fi-ee. 
Printed copies of Airsliip patents lOc. eacli 
WRITE TO-DAY 1 

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r M I C n I O AND PAY 

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Best Services 

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent lawyer 

612 F St. N. W., WASHINGTON, D. C. 

BAMBOO 

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ALL SIZES IN STOCK 

J. DELTOUR, INC. 

49 SIXTH AVE., NEW YORK 

Telephone 5565 Spring 



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Edgar T. Smith Geo. L. Sanborn 



SOARING BLADES 

Made to Order, Jlttachahle 
to ^our Aeroplane or Glider 

They increase the speed to nearly double the motor 
power, push machine if motor stops over 20 miles p. h., 
which permits gliding and prevents accidents. Any 
height can safely be attained. Blue prints for aeroplanes 
with full patent rights, maintaining automatic equilibrium, 
also furnished. For terms apply to 

R. DRESSLER 

CONEY ISLAND : NEW YORK 

AEROPLANES, GLIDERS, 
MODELS, PROPELLERS 

Designed and built, or made to your own design 

Giiciers, Parts and Aeronautic Supplies in Stock 
AERO MOTORS 

FRED SHNEIDER 1020 E. irsthSt, New York 

New York Agent for ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY 



SAMUEL F. PERKINS 

SCIENTIFIC KITE FLYING 

Aerial Advertising 

By Aeroplane Kites and Balloons 

SrECiAL Attention is called to the Spectacular Night Ad- 
vertising in which enormotis beams or brilliantly colored search- 
light rays {visible for five miles) are thrown upon "ads" suspended 
thousands of feet in the skv. 

110 Tremont Street, Boston, Massachusetts 



GREEN'S ENGINE 

BUILT FOR THE JOB 



is designed especially for the 



It is not an automobile 
k. From first to last it is 
requirements of an aerial 
unning unde 



id continuous 



'. modified 
;onstructed 
machine- 
full load. 



irelv 



:iple 



EVERY part of the Green AeH 
purpose it is intended to fulfil, 
or made to do duty for aeroplane wt 
with a special view to the peculia 
tightness, efficiency, and consistent ; 
Green's Aerial Carburetor embodi. 
existence by the requirements of av 
which go to form the Green engine 

PvU particulars sent on application. 

The GREEN'S MOTOR PATENTS SYNDICATE, Ltd. 

55y, BERNERS STREET, LONDON. W. 

Makers for the Patentees: The Aster Engineering Co., Ltd. 



1 parts 
made it so great a success. 



36 



A I R C R A FT 



March, igio 



AERONAUT LEO STEVENS 

Leading Balloon and Airship Constructor of the World 

REPRESENTING THE 

CONTINENTAL RUBBER CO. 

OF HANOVER, GERMANY 

MAKERS OF THE FINEST AND STRONGEST BALLOON AND 
AEROPLANE MATERIAL IN THE WORLD 




Passenger 

Aeroplanes 

and 

flying 



w. 

MORRELl 

SAGE 

Engineer 



ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS 
MODELS DEVELOPED 

CONTRACTOR TO THE U. S. GOVERNMENT 

AND 

NINETY-FIVE PER CENT OF THE CLUBS IN THIS COUNTRY 
Also Representing the Santos Dumont Aeroplane 



The Wilcox Propeller 



AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE 

CARTON & LA CHAMBRE 

Balloon and Airship Builders 
OF PARIS, FRANCE 



ADDRESS 

Box 181, IVIadison Square 
New York 



March, njio 



A I R (' R A F T 



PROPELLERS 




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6 Ft., $50 7 Ft., $60 

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OUR 6 Ft. PROPELLER GIVES 200 Lbs. THRUST AT 1200 R. P. M. 




SMALL ONES FOR MODELS 

$5 to $7 



1 



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REQUA GIBSON CO. 

225 West 49th Street 
NEW YORK CITY 



PHONE 



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COLUMBUS 



38 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 



INTERNATIONAL 

SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS 

FOUNDED 1908 

The First Private School Established in the World 
The Only Aero Institute in U. S. A. Directed by a Licensed Pilot 

FOUNDER-DIRECTOR 

ALBERT C. TRIACA 

Pilot Aero Clubs of America, France, Italy 
Ex-Technical Director Foreign Department New York School of Automobile Engineers 




THE AERODROME OF THE I. S. A. 

With Aeroplane Sheds, Gas, Shops, Lecture and Model Hall, Ladies' and Juniors' Rooms. 

A private mile track for experiments is located at Garden City, L. L, adjacent to Hempstead Plains, where flights of lo miles 

in straight line can be made. (Take 34th Street Ferry or Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn, L. I. R.R.) 

On April 3rd, Mr. A. C. Triaca, assisted by a competent staff, will begin the first 8 weeks' practical 
course in aviation, limited to 10 students. 

Home Study Courses in Aerostats, Dirigibles and Aviation, prepared by Lieut.-Colonel G. Espitallier 
of the French Balloon Corps. 

Private lessons in all branches of Aeronautics for Ladies and Gentlemen. 

Juniors' Class with contests for Kites and Models. 

I. S. A. SUPPLY DEPARTMENT 

Sole Agents U. S. A. and Canada for the CHAUVIERE INTEQRALE PROPELLERS, holders of all the records 

for Dirigibles and Aeroplanes. HUE (Paris) Aeronautical Instruments. LEO STEVENS, Aeronaut, manufacturer COM= 
PLETE LINE of Imported and Domestic Aeroplanes, Balloons, Dirigibles, Motors, Fabrics and parts. 

Models and full size apparatus made. Estimates and consultations given. Illustrated lectures arranged. 

Subscriptions taken for Foreign Aero Magazines 

I. S. A. Aerodrome, Garden City, L. I. (near the Garage) 



PHONE 1 



NEW YORK OFFICE: ^Tf H. DUCASSE CO., 735 Seventh Avenue [ ,84. bryant 
PARIS OFFICE : 52 Rue Servan, Paris 



March, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



39 



Henry FARMAN Biplanes 



Are the best 
the safest, 
most rehable 
and easiest 
to drive 



A FEW RECENT RECORDS 

Grand Prix de Champagne (H. Farman). 

Passenger Prize (two passengers and aviator) (H. Farman). 

Grand Prize of Blackpool (H. Farman). 

Speed Prize (H. Farman). 

Distance and Speed Prize, Doncaster (Sommer). 

Height Record by Paulhan (300 yards). 

WORLD'S record distance (234 kms.) (H. Farman), 

WORLD'S record time (4 hrs. 18 mins.) (H. Farman). 

WORLD'S record for Height (4,165 feet) (Paulhan). 

Longest town to town record, Mourmelon Chalons and back (Paulhan). 

At the Los Angeles meet Paulhan won the First Prizes for Height, 

Endurance and Passenger-Carrying Contests with a Henry 

Farman Biplane. 

IVIICHEUN CUP (H. r ARM AN) 



Works: Camp de Chalons, Marne. Offices: 22, A v. de la Grande Armee, Paris 



Contractors to the French War Office 



What Kind of a Motor Do You Want? 

Let us answer: 

1st, A reliable motor 
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Curtiss Motors 

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CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES 

Built in All Sizes. New Models of Highest Type and Greatest Efficiency 
Send for Catalosue 4 XX 

CURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD 

HERRING-CURTISS CO., Hammondsport, N. Y. 




40 



AIRCRAFT 



March, igio 



]> <> T I o e: 

'-piIE CIIl'RCH AEROPLANE CO.. of Brooklyn, X. Y., will g^ive 

' daily exhibitions of their models in actual flight at the BOSTON 

SHOW, February lOth-23rd. The bigg^est "hit" at the January \\'ash- 

ington Show 1 Catalog" ready soon — free on request. Oftice and sales- 
room, 15 M\-rtlc A\'enuc, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



THE HALL'S SAFE COMPANY 



p. O. BOX 8A6 

Principal Office and Factory 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 



Manufacturers of the HIGHEST 
grade of Screw Door and Square 
Door Bankers' Safes and Vaults 




Salesroom 

393 BROADWAY 

Between White and NA/alker Streets 

NEW YORK 



Makers of 

HALL PATENT April 3. I906> 

FIRE PROOF SAFES 



DO YOU TRAVEL? 

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is used to-day in thousands upon thousands of representative business houses 
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ROYAL TYPEWRITER COMPANY 



Royal T_\ pe« riter Building 



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Rotary Motor 



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The "Wizard of Aviation" 




USED BY 



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And All Other Leading Foreign Aviators 



Holds World's Records 
DISTANCE — DURATION — HEIGHT — SPEED 

PRICES 

50 H. P. $2600 100 H. P. $4800 

Terms : One-third cash with order, balance on delivery 



SEGUIN & CO., General Agents 

1610 Wright Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Anticipating a big inquirj" for our Motors after the Los Angeles Meet, we have made special arrangements with the factory- 
and are holding a few of our Motors subject to immediate deliver>' 



BOOKS 



We have compiled a list of the very best aeronautical books w^ritten in the English 

language and offer them for sale to our readers. Earnest students 

of Aerial Flight should read every book in this list. 



Make all Drafts, Express or Post Office Orders payable to 
THE LAWSON PUBLISHING CO., 37-39 East 28th Street, New York, U. S. A. 



Artificial and Natural Flight, by Sir 
Hiram S. Maxim. Being a de.scription of 
his own experimental work and the devel- 
opment of flying machines generally $1.75 

POCKETBOOK OF AERONAUTICS, by H. W. L. 

Moedebeck. Containing many features of 
aerial travel and a splendid text-book for 
the beginner or the aeronautical engineer. . 3.25 

Vehicles of the Air, by Victor Lougheed. 
One of the very latest aeronautical books, 
covering almost every detail of the science 
of Aviation 2.50 

Aerial Navigation, by A. F. Zahm. A book 
written by one of the world's great scien- 
tists who has made an extensive study of 
the aeronautical subject for the past 20 years 3.00 

Airships in Peace and War, by R. P. 
Hearne, with an introduction by Sir Hiram 
Maxim. A popular account of the progress 
made by the different countries of the 
world in Aircraft 3.50 

Aerial Navigation To-Dat, by Chas. C. 
Turner. A finely illustrated work on the 
principles of Ballooning, Aviation, Aerial 
Law, Military Aeronautics, the aerial ocean 
and the industrial side of flight 1.50 

The Problem of Flight, by Herbert Chatley. 
A most instructive work written principally 
for aerial engineers 3.50 

The Force of the Wind by Herbert Chatley. 
A scientific treatise, dealing with the subject 
of wind pressure in relation to engineering 1.25 

My Air Ships. By Santos-Dumont. The 
thrilling story of this intrepid Brazilian's 
wonderful success in aerial navigation, told 
in an entertaining way, free from techni- 
cality. With 55 full-page pictures from 
photographs. 12mo, 400 pages 1.50 



Handy Man's Workshop and Laboratory, 
by A. Russel Bond. A popular work on 
almost everything pertaining to the every- 
day life of the mechanic. 370 illustrations 
and two chapters relating to flying $2.00 

Conquest of the Air, by Alphonse Berget. 
A book covering the history, theory and 
practice of the science of aeronautics, with 
explanatory diagram and photographs. . . . 2.50 



The Conquest of the Air, by A. Lawrence 
Rotch. A subject treated by an accepted 
authority in a manner appreciated by a 
popular, as well as a scientific audience. . . 1.00 



Airships Past and Present, by A. Hilde- 
brandt. A general sketch of the past and 
present state of the art, together with its 
problems, presented in a way that can be 
understood by everybody 3.50 



Aerodynamics, by F. W. Lanchester. Con- 
stituting the first volume of a complete 
work on aerial flight, with appendices on 
the velocity and momentum of sound waves, 
on the theory of soaring, flight, etc 6.00 

Aerodonetics, by F. W. Lanchester. Con- 
stituting the second volume of a complete 
work on aerial flight, with appendices on 
the theory and application of the gyroscope, 
on the flight of projectiles, etc 6.00 



All the World's Airships, by By Fred T. 
Jane. Being the first annual issue, con- 
taining photographs of almost every flying 
machine built up to 1909 '. . . . 10.00 



"Born Again." A philosophic novel written 
by Alfred W. Lawson. Has nothing to do 
with the science of aerial flight. The ninth 
edition of cloth bound copies being ex- 
hausted, a few paper cover books being 
in stock can be had for fifty cents each . . . .50 



l-COLOR CO. , NEW rOBh 



AH<U 





1 a r!c.nte ct C.i 



BALDWIN'S 

VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL 

WINS 



LAHM BALLOON CUP— 697 Miles. Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon " New York" 

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE 

35 Hrs., 12 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Ballocn " New York'' 

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD 

48 Hrs., 26 Mins. Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial 

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD 

24,200 Ft. Harmon and Post, Balloon " New York," St. Louis Centennial 

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 

30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 
GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES 

QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 
2nd— 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 

2nd— BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE— Glenn H. Curtiss 



BALDWIN^S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL 

USED IN THE U. S. GOV. DIRIGIBLE AND SPHERICAL BALLOONS 

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the 
same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and 
ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of 
oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double- 
walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A 
man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to 
spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, 
width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming 
balloon material, and which, through its superior qualities and being an absolute gas holder, is 
bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon 
must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS. 



AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY 

Prices and Samples on application 

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN, Box 78, Madison Square, NEW YORK 



: April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 




THE KHEDIVE OF EGYPT WATCHING THE FLYERS FROM THE GRAND- STAND AT HELIOK UJ ^. 



CONTENTS — APR.il. 1910 



Cover Drawing 

Summary of Human Flight 

How Stevens Builds a Balloon 

Editorial 

The Wright-Curtiss-Paulhan Conflict 

Are the Wrights Pirates? 

Law and the Air 

Foreign News 

Big Men of the jMovement 

The New Maxim Aeroplane 

Club News 

News in General 

Rapid Development of Aviation as Shown by Statistics 

A. Holland Forbes, Yachtsman and Aeronaut 

The Wrights' Contentions Groundless 

Criticism of the Court's Decision in Wright-Paulhan Suit 

The Internal Work of the Wind 



. G. A. Coffin 

jNIrs. J. Herbert Sinclair 

Ada Gibson 

G. F. Campbell Wood 

Victor L. Ochoa 

Denys P. IMyers 

. Albert C. Triaca 

Sir Hiram ■Maxim 

Compiled by Ada Gibson 

Mrs. J. Herbert Sinclair 

G. F. Campbell Wood 

Louis Paulhan 
. Israel Ludlow 
S. P. Langlev 



AIRCR.AFT 



Published Monthly by The Lawson Publishing Company 

37-39 EAST 28TH STREET, NEW YORK, U. S. A. 



TERMS TO SUBSCRIBERS 

In the United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippine Islands, 
Hawaiian Islands, Cuba (including Postage), One Dollar per year. 

Ten Cents the Copy, of All News Dealers. 

Foreign Subscriptions, Two Dollars per year. 

In changing order give old as well as new address. 

Advertising copy must be in band by the 10th of month previous to 
date of publication. 

Only high-grade advertisements of thoroughly reliable firms are 
solicited. 



WHEN YOUR SUBSCRIPTION EXPIRES 

One month before a subscription expires we enclose a renewal blank 
on which you will write your order for the renewal. 

When first notified that your subscription will expire, you should 
send your renewal at once, in order not to miss a number. New sub- 
scriptions which are received by us on or before the 15th of any month 
will begin with the issue of that month. If received after that date they 
will begin with the following month's issue. We cannot enter subscrip- 
tions to begin with back numbers. One month's notice is necessary 
before a change of address can be made. 



[Copyright, 1910, iy The Laivson Publishing Co.] 



42 



AIRCRAFT 



Afril, igio 



FRANCAISE AMERICAINE AEROPLANE CIE. 






1777 BROADWAY 
NEW YORK CITY 

OFFICE 316 

AEROPLANES 

MOTORS 
PROPELLERS 

OF CONSEQUENCE 

This Company, having long since passed the experimental stage, proposes to give its patrons, at the lowest price, the 
benefits achieved by its experts who have for years been profound students of Aerial Navigation. 

POSITIVELY NO INFRINGEMENTS 





DESIGN 

MATERIAL 

CONSTRUCTION 

FINISH 

FLIGHT 

PRICE 



RIGHT 



MONOPLANES, BIPLANES -WITH MOTORS, PROPELLERS, COMPLETE FOR ASSEMBLING AND FLIGHT 

FIRST PRIZE AT FIRST TRIAL 
IN AMERICA FOR FLIGHT 

First to Make Monoplanes, Biplanes, and Aeronautic Motors 

Employing Only the Best Designers and Experts of Aerodynamics 

Our Product is therefore Scientifically, Mathematically and 

Mechanically Correct 

For excellence of worlcmanship, construction and durability, we stand without a peer. Our up-to-date method of lieeping 
in touch with each new improvement and embodying it in our product, stamps us as being without competition. 

WE own our own AERODROME, which is fully equipped to meet the demands of the PUBLIC. We control 
the EXCLUSIVE OUTPUT and RIGHTS in PATENTS OF THE FRANCAISE AMERICAINE AERONAUTIC 



MOTORS 



25 h. p. 
50 K. p. 



COMPLETED AEROPLANES IN STOCK. 

BRAINS IN BUILDING. GOODS TO DELIVER 
Delivery 30 days. Prices from $1,200 to 93,000 complete. Terms on application 



THE FRANCAISE AMERICAINE AEROPLANE CIE. 

1777 Broadway, New York, U. S. A. 



AIRCR.AFT 



Vol. I. No. 2. 



NEW YORK, APRIL, 1910 



SUMMARY OF HUMAN FLIGHT 

By Mrs. J- Herbert Sinclair 




Continued from March Aircraft 
(HE growth of ballooning during its early history 
having spread to almost every quarter of the globe, 
the inventive genius of man set to work to devise 
ways to direct or at least deviate its course, in- 
stead of permitting it to be entirely at the mercy 
I'i tlie winds, and, like all other strides men have 
taken during the past towards progress, met with 
innumerable failures and set-backs — so many in 
fact, that it is remarkable that the tenacity of en- 
deavor along this line was not abandoned as being 
ahogetlHT fruitless. 

And like in all laborious steps taken by man in his eternal 
march onward, ridicule and satire were the rewards of his efforts 
in this direction. 

This public derision was naturally increased by the many sense- 
less ideas and suggestions, given out by that class of impractical 
inventors who never take the trouble to investigate the efforts of 
their predecessors, to avoid perpetuating their mistakes with 
the really reliable searchers. 

It might here be said that they are as numerous now as they 
were in the eighteenth century ; in fact at no time were there 
more weird and impossible suggestions being made in connection 
with aerostatics and aerodynamics, than at the present time. 

It is the intention of this article, however, to mention the 
names of those who had either a direct, or, in some instances, an 
indirect connection with the general advancement of actual flight. 
It must be acknowledged that the progress made in aerostatics 
during the past 120 years was slow and tedious, and that only 
during the last few years was the progress sufficient to warrant 
the general public taking more than a passing interest in it. 

The first ideas advanced to guide a balloon were taken from 
water-craft, sails, oars and rudders being utilized for the pur- 
pose. This did not accomplish what was expected, owing to the 
fact that the sails and the balloon being immersed in the same 
fluid there was no chance of leverage, and the sails fell limp and 
useless, onh' acting as an extra weight for the balloon to carry. 
Guyot constructed the first elongated balloon. Its long axis 
was horizontal and its shape that of an egg ; the broader end was 
supposed to face the wind and sails were counted on for pro- 
pulsion, a radical mistake in principle, as explained. 

The air offers an immense resistance to the proper motion of 
a balloon and nothing short of propellers driven at high speed 
have enabled one to overcome it, even in calm weather. 

From the system attempting propulsion by oars evolved that of 
paddle wheels mounted upon a shaft and projecting over the 
sides of the car. 

While this move was a slight improvement, still experimenta- 
tion along this line but served to demonstrate the unwieldy shape 
of the spherical, or nearly spherical balloon, and resulted in a 
gradual increase in the length and decrease in the diameter of 
the gas-bag of dirigibles. 



General Meusnier played a prominent part in the progress of 
aerostatics by introducing the use of air-bags inside of the bal- 
loon. Meusnier was a thorough scientist who carefully studied all 
works relating to the air and the shapes of bodies offering the 
least resistance to it. He discovered that an elliptical shape was 
the most suitable, and in order to attain the least possible resist- 
ance, he adopted a boat-shaped car to run horizontally beneath the 
gas-bag. He was the first to advocate the necessity of an abso- 
lutely rigid connection between the car and the gas-bag of a dirig- 
ible balloon. But while his plans for the construction of a 
dirigible were very carefully arranged they were never carried 
into effect, owing to the great cost required to do so. He was 
killed in 1793 at Mayence, fighting against the Prussians, and 
from that time until the middle of the Nineteenth Century little 
or nothing was done to advance the art. 

In 1851 Giffard succeeded in constructing" a small steam engine 
of 5 H.P., which weighed but 100 pounds, and then set to work 
immediately to test its usefulness in connection with a balloon. 
He therefore constructed a cigar-shaped bag 144 feet long and 
40 feet diameter at the centre, and having a capacity of 88,000 
cubic feet. A heavy pole 66 feet long was attached to the net 
covering the envelope by means of ropes, at the end of which was 
placed a triangular sail-like rudder. The car containing the 
motor and propellers was carried 20 feet below the pole. The 
three-bladed propeller was 11 feet in diameter and driven at the 
rate of no revolutions per minute. The total weight of the air- 
ship, including a 3SO-pound boiler and one passenger, was VA 
tons, and had a carrying capacity of one-fourth of a ton of coal 
and water. With this and a subsequent balloon (built longer and 
narrower) Giffard did much valuable experimental work, but 
after designing a mammoth dirigible of 1,750,000 cubic feet, to 
which was to be fitted two engines and which would have cost 
$250,000 to construct, he became blind and died in 1882. 

In 1872 Dupuy de Lome built for the French Government a 
dirigible with a cigar-shaped body iiS feet long, 49 feet diam- 
eter at the centre, and with a capacity of 122,000 cubic feet. It 
carried 14 men and attained a speed of 9 feet per second. 

In 1873 Paul Haenlein built a dirigible in Germany, which at- 
tained a speed of 15 feet per second. It was 164 feet long, 30 
feet in diameter, and had a capacity of 85,000 cubic feet. The car 
was located close to the body, and a 6 horse-power Lenoir gas 
engine with four horizontal cylinders was used. The gas for the 
engine was taken from the balloon as needed, and its loss over- 
come by filling out the air-bags. It consumed 250 cubic feet of 
gas per hour. The envelope was lined on the inside with a 
thick rubber coating and a thinner one on the outside, thus mak- 
ing it airtight. Coal gas was used and trials were usually made 
close to the ground and for short distances only. Insufficient 
funds to pay the cost of experimentation made it necessary to 
discontinue the trials and for ten years afterwards no progress 
at all was made in the construction of airships. 
To be continued in May Aircraft 



44 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



RIPPINGi PANEL 



niPPiNQ C0(?0 




VAUVC CORO PASSlNCj 
XHROUGiH INTCRtOR 
or BAUUOON 



APPENDIX 



SUSPENSION LINES 



VALVC CO HO 



BAGS or BALLAST 



DRAG, ROPE 



- ^TOQLCS 
,--AN&HOR ROPC 
_. A.(NCHOR 



Figure i 
descriptive diagram showiftg the construction of a spherical balloon 

Drawing by the Rcqua-Gibson Co. 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



45 



HOW STEVENS BUILDS A BALLOON 



By Ada Gibson 




lion of how a 



T it not too much to say that balloon-making has 
now gotten to be a fine art among the leading 
manufacturers. Prominent among these is A. 
Leo Stevens, who is as celebrated a manufacturer 
of balloons as he is a pilot of them. 

Elsewliere in this numl)er of Aircraft occurs a 
liiographical sketch of Stevens's aeronautic career 
;ik1 the following information concerning the 
manufacture of balloons in his New York and 
Hoboken, N. J., shops affords an exact explana- 
modern balloon is made, and as such mav come 




Figure 



A. YAW'S SEAT 

B. HINGE POST 

C. HALF VALVE CLOSED 



HALF VALVE OPEN 
HINGE 
OPERATIVE CORDS 



G. STRAPS FOR NETTING 

as a revelation to man}' on the care and ingenuity displayed in 
this very modern industry. 

The fabric with which Mr. Stevens makes his balloons is a 
mixture of cotton and linen. This cloth is woven out of spe- 
cially long thick fibers which gives it greater strength and dur- 
ability than if made from short fibers, the linen also adding to 
the strength. 

Silk is now very seldom used, as it has recently been discov- 
ered that it is rather dangerous, on account of the static elec- 
tricitj- which is found in the air. Another material sometimes 
used is the imported Continental cloth. This is made up of a 
number of laj'ers of cloth vulcanized together and rubbered out- 
side. It may consist of one or more layers of material, the num- 
ber varying with the strength required for the purpose to whicii 
it is to be put. 

The first process that the unfinished cloth is put through after 
its arrival at the factory, is that of a thorough examination for 
flaws. This operation shows the amount of time which is of ne- 
cessity expended on every small part used in the construction of 
a balloon, as just the minutest defect in the weaving would make 



it pervious and render the whole envelope useless. The exam- 
ination is made by drawing the material over rollers which are 
fixed close to a window in the same manner as an ordinary win- 
dow shade, the room being dark, except for what light comes 
through the material and the thin spots or flaws being detected 
b}' the extra light coming through them. After it has gone 
through this examination the next process is to pass it through a 
set of I'ollers which are attached to one side of a vat, or tank, 
containing size. It is put through these rollers, passed through 
the size in the tank and is taken up by, and wound around a 
roller fixed on the opposite side of the tank. By this means it 
is impossible to get any crinkles or creases in the material, as 
it is kept perfectly straight throughout the whole operation. This 
is another case, where, if the process were defective the ma- 
terial would become useless, as it would be impossible to pro- 
duce a perfectly shaped balloon without perfectly flat material. 
After the material is quite dry, it is laid out in very long lengths 
on the floor preparatory to being cut out. 

The envelope of a balloon is built up of a number of circular 
sections of different sizes sewn together, each circle being made 
up of a number of wedge-shaped pieces, according to the size 
cf the circle necessary to form the shape required, and as there 
are from 12,000 to 25,000 of these pieces in one balloon, it re- 
quires great care and ingenuity in laying out the templets or 
patterns b}- which the material is cut. To entirely prevent the 
l"j5sibility of an error each piece in each circle is numbered and 




Figure 3 



clamping ring 
valve doors 



SPRING ANCHOR.ACE 
SPRING 



E. STRAPS FOR NETTING 



46 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



has to be joined to its corresponding number, and in the same 
manner each circle is numbered and has to be joined to its cor- 
responding circle, thereby developing the shape desired. The 
numbering of the pieces and circles also facilitates the building- 
up of the balloon, as it renders it possible to have a number of 
hands working on all parts at once, without the slightest chance 
of a mistake occurring by getting the pieces mixed and wrongly 
placed. The sewing together is done by a special machine which 
is known as a double stitcher and v.'hich is a very interesting 
piece of machinery, inasmuch as it does two rows of stitching 
and turns in the edges all at the same time. The machine is 
driven by an electric motor and the parts to be stitched are fed 
into it by girls, as shown in figure 4. After the circles are all 
made and stitched together the ne.xt operation is most important, 
that of finishing off, which consists in the setting out and work- 
ing with heavy silk, of a number of holes around the top of 
the envelope through which the bolts iitted in the valve ring 
have to pass, and by so doing attaching the envelope to the valve. 
It is imperative that the holes should exactly correspond in posi- 
tion with that of the bolts, because should they be the slightest 



▼" 






18 


^■1 


1^ ^%, r 


~'«i^ 




r 


9 


mKaMMM^^^^^-ft 






^ 


sf 



l''i(,l.KE 4 
REliNFORCING AND STITCHING SEAMS IN ENVELOPE 

out of position, it would cause a dragging of the envelope which 
would spoil its shape entirely. 

Balloons have what is called a ripping panel, which is 
a panel let in the side of the envelope. It is about 25 
feet long and 15 inches wide. It is made by first cutting 
. a piece out of the envelope, stitching it round and reenforc- 
ing it with extra material. Then a little above the top 
of the opening, a piece of wood is securely fixed ; this is to 
prevent any tearing away of the balloon proper when ripping 
the panel out. The panel itself consists of a piece of fabric 
slightly larger than the piece previously cut out of the balloon. 
This also has a piece of wood fixed to the top end, to which 
the ripping cord, with which the pilot performs the operation of 
ripping, is attached. The cord is carried down into the car, the 
end is rolled up and put in a red pocket made especially to ac- 
commodate it. Tape is usually used for the purpose instead of 
cord, to enable the pilot to distinguish it from the valve cord 
when it is dark, and it is red to denote danger to passengers un- 
familiar with its use. After the panel is stitched over the aper- 
ture, the stick in the loose flap at the upper end is lightly tied 
to the corresponding stick in the envelope, so as to hold it ui 
position, but allow it to be pulled away when required. When 
finished, this panel gives the envelope the appearance of having 
been patched, as shown in figure i. This ripping panel is used 
when making a descent. The pilot of the balloon first makes 




Figure 5 
arranging balloon prepar.atory to inflating 

sure he is going to land in the right place, then just before the 
car touches the ground he pulls the ripping cord and rips the 
panel out. This allows the gas to escape from the envelope with 
such rapidity that it is entirely empty in thirty seconds. The bal- 
loon is carried just a short way out during the thirty seconds 
that the gas is escaping and lands to one side of the car at the 
limit of the suspension lines This does away with any danger 




BALLOON PARTIALLY INFLATED 

of the car being dragged along the ground and also makes it pos- 
sible to make a hasty landing. 

After the envelope is constructed it is varnished. This work 
is done at the Hoboken factory. Here the balloon is spread out 
on tables and varnished by eight or ten men at the same time, 
as it is necessary that it be gone over practically all at once on 
account of the tendency of the varnish to become tacky, and caus- 




FlGURE 
READJUSTING SAND-BAGS AS BALLOON EXPANDS 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



47 



ing trouble by sticking the envelope together wherever it should 
happen to touch. After it has been varnished all over it is kept 
iiillated with air, which is continually pumped into it for three 
days, then deflated, and the same process of varnishing and in- 
flating is repeated five times. While still inflated for the fifth 
time a coat of varnish is put on the inside ; this is done to 
render it absolutely impervious, the air tending to drive the 
varnish through the fabric to the outside and fill up the pores. 

After the last coat of varnish is put on, all seams are pencilled, 
or, in other words, varnished again with a small brush ; it is 
then allowed to stand inflated for three days to make quite sure 
that there is no leak. After it has been proved tight, the whole 
envelope is rubbed down with French chalk and is ready for use. 




;IluV\l.\i, iu.-iIHu.X ul .-.\.\U-l;.-\GS AND NET AFTER E.ALLOON IS 
INFLATED 

At the very top of the balloon is a large valve, which is one 
of the most important components of a balloon (see figure 3), for, 
used in conjunction with the ballast, it is the pilot's only means 
of control. The intention being that no gas shall escape from 
the balloon, except when intended by the pilot, the valve is 
made so as to remain closed by the pressure of the upward 
tendency of the gas against it, and in addition, springs are used, 
acting in the same direction, so that, in order to open the valve, 
it is necessary to exert considerable force This valve is really 
a double valve, and each semi-circular half is arranged as a 
swinging door, both being hinged on a common post, which is 
set as the diameter of a circle, so that the valve acts much like 
a butterfly's wings, the valve being open when the wings are lying 
close together (see figure 2). A cord is attached to each door or 
wing of the valve and taken down to the car, rolled up and 
placed in a pocket fixed on the inside of the car for that purpose. 
The circle, or rim referred to forms the frame of the whole valve 
and consists of two rings with bolts and fly-nuts for fastening 
them together. In assembling the valve to the envelope, the 
nuts and one ring are removed, the buttonholes in the envelope 
accommodating the bolts, and the loose ring is placed on and 
tightened down by the nuts, so as to make a gas-tight joint be- 
tween the envelope and the ring. 

The netting which encases the balloon is also made on the 
premises. It is made of cord of small dimension, no larger than 
ordinary wrapping cord, which Mr. Stevens imports from Italj-. 
The netting is made on a frame with an iron needle. First of 
all a strong rope ring is woven, and from this starts all tin- 
cords used in the netting. The cords are placed over pegs fixed 
in the frame, then wound over the netting block, which is jusl 
an ordinary piece of wood cut to the size of the mesh requircil 
in any particular part of the net, and with the needle it is knit 
into an ordinary sailor, or reef knot. This kind of knot is used, 
because the greater weight it is made to bear, the tighter it be- 
comes. The netting is started with from ninety to three hun- 
dred cords, according to the size of net required to cover the 
balloon, and is worked down to eighteen cords, where it joins 



the suspension lines. When the net is finished there is an equal 
strain on every thread, and it fits the envelope perfectly tight. 
The cords are attached to the suspension lines through small 
wooden eyes, grooved around the outer edge, in which grooves 
the cords run, thus allowing the balloon to sway about as car- 
ried by the wind, while the car remains perfectly level. These 
eyes are a great improvement on the old-fashioned, cumbersome 
wooden pulleys which were used in days gone by. 

Mr. Stevens has introduced a special system in the knitting 
of his nets which facilitates keeping the balloon in its correct 
shape, as the gas expands it during the process of inflating. To 
do this, it is necessary that the sand-bags which hold the bal- 
loon down (see figure 6), be attached to the netting in the same 
circle all around, and as there are hundreds of circles and meshes, 
it would be quite easy to miscount them. To do away with 
this difficulty, Mr. Stevens conceived the idea pi using al- 
ternately, colored and natural cord, which makes it much 
easier to trace the mesh required, and rather adds than otherwise 
lo the appearance of the balloon. 

When the rope ring at the top of the netting has been fixed 
to the valve by means of the straps provided on the valve for 
the purpose, the balloon becomes a whole (as the envelope has 
.ilready been attached to the valve), and is -now ready to be in- 
flated for use. 

Before inflating the balloon, the concentrating ring, which 
fits around the top of the appendix is slipped on, and the balloon 
is carefully spread out, with the valve laying exactly over the 
entrance to the envelope at the top of the appendix (see figure 5). 
It is then ready to be filled with hydrogen gas, which is made 
by the action of sulphuric acid on iron, water being added for 
diluting purposes. 

Hydrogen gas is generated in vats or tanks, about si-x feet 
in height and six feet in diameter. It requires about two hundred 
and fifty pounds of iron, and the same quantity of sulphuric 
acid, with one hundred and fifty gallons of water, to generate 
one thousand cubic feet of gas, but a great deal depends upon 
the man in charge of the plant as to the quantity actually ob- 
tained. 




FlGI"EE 7 
TYING UP THE APPENDIX 



AIRCRAFT 



April, iQio 



Three covered tanks placed side by side are necessary for gen- 
erating hydrogen (see figure 9). The iron is put into the first 
one and it is then half filled with water. Through a hole in the 
cover of this tank a lead pipe is inserted and reaches nearly 
down to the iron in the bottom of it. Connected to the top of 
this pipe, but outside the cover, is a lead funnel, through which 
the acid is poured into the tank. On the opposite side is another 
pipe, which only passes just through the cover, and as the gas 
generates, it rises and passes through this pipe into the next 
tank which is about one-third full of water. The second tank 
is called the washer, as the gas onl)' passes through the water 
on its way to the third tank, where it passes through lime, after 
which it is carried along a pipe or tubing, the other end of 
which is attached to the appendi.x, into the balloon. 

When the balloon is fully inflated, the gas pipe is discon- 
nected, and the appendix is tied up with a narrow strip of cot- 
ton material to which a string is attached (see figure 7) ; this is 
to prevent loss of gas while making further preparations for 
the trip. The string is carried down into the car and when the 
proper time comes, which is as soon as the balloon gets away, 
a sudden jerk on the string will break the material with which 
the appendix is tied, leaving it open. After the appendix is tied 
the balloon is allowed to rise several feet from the ground to al- 
low the load-ring to be attached to the suspension lines, and the 
car to the load-ring. Figure 8 shows the method of attaching the 
load-ring and the car to the balloon. Twenty-eight short lengihs 
of rope are spliced on to the ring and at the loose end of each 
a toggle is fastened. The suspension lines, of which there are 
eighteen, are each finished off with a loop which is slipped over 
the toggle. The car of the balloon has ten ropes by which it 
is attached to the load-ring. These ropes are passed down one 
side of the car, under the bottom and up the opposite side, be- 
coming a part of the car, by being woven with the wicker of 
which the car is made. The end of each car rope is spliced in 
a loop (which makes it an endless rope) and is slipped over one 
of the ten remaining toggles, in the same manner as the sus- 
pension lines. This method of attachment is the simplest one 
imaginable, and as safe as it is simple. After attachment all 
is ready for the start, as the car has previously been fitted up 
with everything necessary for the journey. 

A balloon equipment consists of the following: anchor and 
anchor rope : a drag-rope, which is fastened to the concenfat- 
ing ring and is always hanging down from the outside of the 
car, this being one means of equilibrium; a statoscope, which in- 
dicates whether the balloon is rising or falling ; a barometer, with 
a self-registering chart; a compass, which indicates which way 
the balloon is travelling ; seventy-five to a hundred sand-bags, as 
ballast ; rugs ; lunch basket ; a cover to fit the car and a cover for 




Figure 8 
showing method of attaching load-ring and car to balloon 



the deflated envelope, making two convenient packages for ex- 
pressing to any desired point. Everything appertaining to a bal- 
loon, with the exception of the envelope, will pack into the car, 
which makes transportation quite easy. 

The balloon being built and now ready to start, all that is 
desirable for a delightful day of exhilarating, lung-filling sport, 
are clear weather, congenial companions and a favorable breeze. 



MANHOLE TO CLEAN 
TANK OUT 



LC^O PIPE THROUCiH 
WHICH ACID PASSE 




Figure 9 
hydrogen gas generating plant 



Drawing by the Rcqua-Cibson Co. 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 




A SPECIALIST 



IN THE OLDEN DAYS, when our industrial 
life was not quite so complex as at present, the 
village barber was qualified to pull teeth, preach a 
sermon, administer to the lame, shoe horses and do 
many other things as his daily avocation. He also 
talked about flying machines on rare occasions ; but 
he never became an expert on anything. He was a 
general all-round botch, and his information on any 
subject was ridiculously faulty. 

In these days men are trained along certain special 
lines, which enable them to become experts. One 
man will devote his whole time and attention to the 
study of one subject, while another man will give all 
of his time to the study of another, and so on. No 
one ever thinks of going to the barber nowadays to 
have his teeth repaired or his automobile shod. These 
are the days of the specialists, and they are patronized 
because by giving all of their time to one little branch 
of human endeavor they acquire greater knowledge 
and skill than they would if trying to learn a dozen 
vocations at once. 

AIRCRAFT is a specialist. It is interested in noth- 
ing else but balloons, flying machines, kites, etc., and 
that is all you can expect to find in it at any time. 

But upon this subject it is an expert, and anyone 
who is anxious to secure absolutely reliable informa- 
tion concerning the science of aeronautics or the aero- 
nautical movement generally, must read this magazine. 

We employ only expert Editors, and publish articles 
written only by men who are in the front ranks of 
aeronautical writers. 

There are some people foolish enough to think they 
can acquire a general knowledge of aerial flight from 
the newspapers or nonsensical articles appearing in 
general magazines, but you always know these men 
as soon as they begin to discuss their subject. 

If this great subject is worth knowing at all it is 
worth knowing right, and we advise everyone inter- 
ested in it to subscribe for a magazine that makes 
aerial flight its specialty. 

o o o 

The Aeronautic Society of New York is to be con- 
gratulated upon its selection of Hudson Maxim as 
President for the coming year. A more capable leader 
could not be found anywhere. The make-up of Maxim 



consists of exceptional intelligence, untiring energy, 
plenty of enthusiasm and a considerable knov/ledge of 
mechanical flight ; he has also sufficient means to back 
him up in his undertakings. 

Lee S. Burridge, that calm, considerate logician, was 
elected Vice-President and the indefatigable Hugo 
Gibson, a Director ; which simply means that the Aero- 
nautic Society has a triumvirate of very brainy men, 
who, when once they get working harmoniously to- 
gether, will produce results beneficial to the entire 
aeronautical fraternity. 

o o o 

" How could a human being live ten miles up in the 
atmosphere, where there is little or no oxygen to 
breathe? " inquires an anxious reader, referring to our 
Editorial in the March number of AIRCRAFT on 
" High Flying." 

How DOES a human being live in a submarine boat 
fifty feet under the water? is a question we might ask 
of the inquirer and his answer to our question would 
probably answer his own. 

Take a supply of oxygen along for the purpose. 

The drawback of flying at high altitudes is not the 
lack of oxygen, which can be taken up for the purpose, 
but the lack of air pressure. Man's ingenuity to over- 
come OBSTACLES will, however, find ways and 
means to overcome this difficulty just as he has found 
ways and means to overcome every other drawback 
met with in his path towards progress during the past. 

o o o 

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, builder of the only war 
dirigible the United States Government owns, and 
whose name will always shine forth as one of the 
greatest pioneers of aerial transportation, has entered 
the field of aviation and constructed a biplane. 

Baldwin's long experience as an aeronaut and his 
superior knowledge of everything pertaining to air- 
craft generally, will aid materially toward his ulti- 
mate success with a heavier-than-air machine. 

o o o 

We are always ready to publish any good article re- 
lating to air-craft, whether partisan or otherwise, as 
long as it offers genuine information tending to throw 
light upon any question or controversy. Publishing 
the articles, however, does not always mean that we 
accept the opinions expressed therein. 



so 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



THE WRIGHT-CURTISS-PAULHAN CONFLICT 




By George F. 

5AD it occurred but three short years ago, it 
IS doubtful whether the legal conflict now being- 
waged over the Wright Brothers' patent of 1906 
\\ou!d have caused more than a flicker of interest 
ijutside of those directly concerned. 

As it is, the struggle over the question, whether 
the Wrights' emulators in the field of mechanical 
flight are also their imitators, has elicited a show 
of interest which would be surprising were not 
Its very causes — the lightning-like developments 
of the last two years and the strange possibilities they suggest 
to any but the least creative of imaginations — not themselves far 
more surprising. 

It is a truism that the most complex and intricate questions and 
those most difficult of a solution equitable to all concerned are 
also those of which the most opinionated views are held : the 
Wright-Curtiss and Wright-Paulhan suits are no exception to the 
rule aiid the depth of conviction of the Wrights' partisans as 
to what should be the outcome of the litigation is only equalled 
by that of the anti- Wrights. 

When the many-sided aspects of the case, together with the 
intricacies of the patent-laws, the ambiguities and delicacies of 
interpretation to be contended with, and also the obvious sin- 
cerity of the litigants and the far-reaching consequence a decision 
one wa}' or the other may have, are considered, it seems more 
hesitancy should be shown in jumping at conclusions, in either 
direction. 

Broadly speaking, the Wrights claim that anyone who makes 
profit out of an aeroplane in which the lateral stability or equi- 
librium is maintained through the simultaneous action of a rear 
vertical rudder and of any contrivance to increase or diminish 
the wind-resistance or air-pressure on one side of the main 
planes, is infringing one of their patents. 



Campbell Wood 

the Bleriot XI increase the air-pressure on one side and dimin- 
ish it on the other by a deformation or warping of the main 
surfaces or wings ; a very simple system of wires and pulleys 
acts on the rear-edge of the extremities of the wings in such a 
way that when one side is pulled down the other side is pulled 
up ; the angle made by the planes with the direction of flight — 
usualh' referred to as angle of incidence or of attack — is thus 
made larger on one side (increasing the resistance to forward 
and downward motion) and smaller, null or negative on the 
other side (diminishing the resistance to forward and down- 
ward motion). Thus in straightaway flight, if the aeroplane is 
leaning to the right, a greater angle is given to that side of 




HERRING-CUETISS BIPLANE, SHOWING INTERMEDIATE PLANES FOR 
LATERAL CONTROL 

Every aeroplane, be it a Wright or a Bleriot, a Voisin or an 
Antoinette, a Herring-Curtiss or a Farman, or any other of the 
many varieties now being turned out, has a vertical rudder, in 
the same way that every boat or ship has, although it is a de- 
batable point whether it acts in just the same manner. 

Alost aeroplanes of the present dav — the Voisin biplanes are 
a signal exception in this regard — also have means to increase 
the wind-resistance or air-pressure on either side of the main 
planes, and some have the means to diminish it on one side when 
it is increased on the other, with the idea of adding to the ef- 
fectiveness of the operation. 

Of the four machines concerned in the present law-suits — 
the Wright, Herring-Curtiss, and Farman biplanes, and the Ble- 
riot monoplane of the " Cross-Channel " type — the Wright and 




Photo fioin " Aiisliips in Peace and War" by R P Hcarne. 

HENRY FARM AN BIPLANE. SHOWING HOW THE " AILERONS" HANG 
DOWN WHEN NOT IN FLIGHT 

the main planes, to make it rise, and a smaller one to the left 
side to lower it — and the aeroplane will quickly assume an even 
keel. In the Wrights' machine and, they claim, in the Bleriot 
also, the difference of resistances produced on either side will 
create a turning tendency towards the side made to offer a 
greater resist.ance to forward motion — the right side in this case 
— and it is to remedy this that the rear rudder will be turned 
in the opposite direction — to the left. When making a turn it is 
necessary to tilt the machine down, towards the inside of the 
curve, like with a fast-moving land-vehicle. The outside edge 
being warped to obtain this lift will create a retarding effect 
tending to turn the machine the opposite way to that it is de- 
sired to go, but the tilt of the machine, for reasons unneces- 
sary to analyze here, will itself create a stronger turning effect 
in the proper direction, and it is this conflict of forces at the 
outset of a turn which makes the exact operation of wing-tips 
and rudder, while turning, a subject of such ardent controversy. 
In the Herring-Curtiss machine the main planes are rigid and 
their shape cannot be changed by the operator; on either side 
of the biplane and between the rriain planes are two small aux- 
iliary surfaces hinged on their forward edge and so connected 
that one will turn up and the other turn down, when the opera- 
tor leans one way, and vice-versa. The added resistance of the 
one turned down will create a lifting effect on that side of the 
aeroplane, but Curtiss contends that in his machine no retarding 
effect on one side and accelerating on the other — in other words, 
no turning movement — is brought about ; these small planes, he 
argues, do not normally make any angle with the line of flight, 
being parallel with it when neutral ; thus, when they are operated 
the one turned up makes just as great a retarding angle as the 
one turned down, and the only effects of the manoeuver are to 
right the machine — as desired — and to offer a very slight check 
to the speed. 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



51 



Tlic Wriglits answered that this supposed the angle of inci- 
dence of Ciirtiss's main planes to he rigorously constant (for 
there could only be one fore-and-aft tilt of the machine in 
which the auxiliary planes would be both absolutely parallel to 
the line of flight), and that this did not occur in practice, for 
tlie slightest change in the power produced by the engine or n\ 
the weight carried — such as a loss of weight through consump- 
tion of fuel and oil — would cause a machine to move at a 
changed angle with the line of flight, when flying horizontally; 
also, the angle would be materially changed, when seeking dif- 
ferent levels, and it was doubtful if the small surfaces ever 
exactly counter-balanced each other, when acted on, for their 
use in itself would change the general angle of incidence, through 
the slight check in the speed of the aeroplane which their com- 
bined resistance to forward motion brought about. 

When in Los Angeles, and more recently, at Hammondsport, 
N. Y.. Curtiss made flights with his rudder tied up, to prove that 
the use of the auxiliary surfaces had no turning effect on liis ma- 



vane on a horizontal axis, and remain parallel to the line of 
flight, following horizontally in the wake of the planes like 
a flag does vertically on the stern of a swift steamer, on a calm 
day. Paulhan could not therefore claim that they counterbal- 
anced their retarding influences, as Curtiss does for his machine. 
He does claim, however, that when not acted on, they are both 
perfectly free to flap in the wind and, because they support noth- 
ing, cannot be considered as part and parcel of the main sup- 
porting surfaces. Whether they would become part of them, 
when starting ofif the ground or when going up a grade — like in 
his great flight at Los Angeles, for instance, where, for over 
forty minutes, he kept climbing at an average vertical rate of 
a hundred feet a minute — would seem to rather depend on the 
slack in the controlling ropes ; the greater the angle of incidence 
the longer the rope would have to be to enable the ailerons to 
fly freely in the line of flight — at a corresponding angle with the 
planes. 

The wording of the Wright patent is as follows: "... 




P.\ULH.\X S HENKY F.\rOI.J.X BIPLANE WITH WHICH HE BEAT THE WORLD S HEIGHT RECORD L.AST .T.\XU.\RV, SHOWING THE POSITION 
OF THE HINGED " AILERONS " WHEN IN FLIGHT. THE PROPER SPEED OF THE AEROPLANE BEING FORTY-FIVE JULES AN HOUR, IT IS CON- 
STANTLY MEETING A " WIND " OR CURRENT OF AIR OF THAT SPEED WHICH SUPPORTS IT LIKE A NATURAL WIND SUPPORTS A KITE. 
THIS FORTY'-FIVE MILE " WIND " TENDS TO PUSH THE AILERONS UP IN THE LINE OF FLIGHT AND KEEP THEM THERE. 



chines. The idea was that any tendency to turn would have been 
clearly noticeable, for no rudder would have been available to 
correct it. but Curtiss would, no doubt, be required to make 
several official tests under diff^erent conditions of load, power, 
and grade of flight, and in a wind sufficiently perceptible for its 
pufifs to call for the use of the auxiliary planes, for them to be 
accepted as refuting evidence of the Wrights' contention. 

The Farman biplane, which is the machine in which Paul- 
han has been breaking American and World's records in the 
West, has neither warping wings, nor auxiliary surfaces between 
the main planes ; it has, however, four such surfaces hinged on 
the rear and extreme part of either plane ; they are referred 
to by the Wrights as a hinged portion of the main surface and by 
Paulhan as a " flap," added to the main planes. In France, they 
are called " ailerons," — little wings. 

The contention was made that when Paulhan pulled the right 
ailerons down, to increase the resistance on that side, the left ones 
were pulled up, but it would appear that only the ailerons of 
one side are worked at a time and no negative angle is made 
by the others ; these are then totally uncontrolled, like a weather 



" causing that side of the main supporting planes to assume 
" greater angles of incidence . . ." but Paulhan's counsel did not 
feel he could build his case on the argument that the French- 
man used auxiliary non-supporting planes to get his lifting efifect. 
The argument returned would have been, no doubt, that the 
lowering of the ailerons did give an increased angle of attack to 
that side of the main planes and that the distinction in the cause 
made no difference in the result. 

It is, nevertheless, surprising that more importance was not 
given by Paulhan's representatives to this side of the question, 
and it seems likely that much more will be made uf it at the 
re-hearing of the case. 

Practically the whole history of man's attempt to fly from the 
legend of Daedalus and Icarus to the present day was gone over 
by both sides in the recent hearing before Judge Hand, where 
the Wrights successfully battled to obtain a temporary injiuiction 
against Paulhan. 

This was done, either to show how the Wrights had succeeded 
where hundreds had failed before them, or to show that nianv 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



of their immediate predecessors had formulated the principles 
and conceived the ideas embodied in their flj'er. 

The Wrights conceded that the vertical rudder had been 
known and used long before them, but they claimed the first 
practical conception of warping wings. 

The relation of the efforts made in this direction some de- 
cades ago, by the Comte d'Esterno, by Le Bris, and by Mouil- 
lard were fairly easily met by the Wright forces, who showed 
how vague, unsatisfactory, inconclusive, and, in some cases, un- 
tried, had been their conceptions to increase the air-resistance 
on one side of a winged machine. The very ingenious, but 
terribh' complicated, steam-driven flying machine of Ader, the 
French electrical engineer and telephone inventor, was then 
brought up. Like Mouillard, .Ader had journeyed to many wild 
climes for the express purpose of watching the great soaring birds 
of the tropics on the wing, and had even gone so far as to im- 
port from India, some large vampire-like bats, which he let 
loose in his laboratory, in Paris, and tirelessly watched, in his 
efforts to wrest from nature the secret of flight. He discarded 
flapping-wing machines, but his conceptions, nevertheless, re- 
mained far too close to nature to be practical, and it would ap- 
pear to be more their lack of simplicity than the want of a 
suitable motor, which prevented his realizing his life dream. 
His machine of 1890 had warping wings, and, like those of 
the Wright machines, they were so arranged that when one was 
warped down the other was automaticalh' warped up, but this 
faculty was complicated with many others, as ingenious as they 
were superfluous. 

This machine is now generally admitted to have skimmed a few 
inches above the ground for fifty or sixty yards on the after- 
noon of October the ninth, 1890, and thus to have been the first 
mechanically propelled machine to have ever lifted itself clear of 
the earth, but nothing shows that the problem of equilibrium 
was in any way solved, nor was it in his later machine, the 
" Avion," which is credited with having covered a thousand feet 
in continuous flight, in 1897. 

The famous gliding experiments made in Germany and Eng- 
land by Lilienthal (1891-96) and by his disciple Pilcher (1897- 
99) were then broached, as well as those carried out by Herring 
and Avery, at about the same time, on the shores of Lake Mich- 
igan and under the direction of Octave Chanute, the " Grand Old 




SEMI-INDEPENDENT CONTROL OF RUDDER AND WING- WARPING ON 
WRIGHT BIPLANE USED AT FORT MYER IN igoS BY ORVILLE 
WRIGHT (the first FLYING MACHINE TO EVER MAKE A CON- 
TINUOUS FLIGHT OF ONE HOUr). 

THE TWIN LEVERS TO BE CONTROLLED BY THE AVIATOR's RIGHT HAND 
AND STANDING AT AN ACUTE ANGLE TO EACH OTHER IN THE 
PHOTOGRAPH ARE THOSE WHICH ACTED ON THE RUDDER AND 
wings; they could only move in a FORE AND AFT DIRECTION 
AND MOVED TOGETHER, BUT THE AVIATOR COULD SLIGHTLY ALTER 
THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE RUDDER's DEFLECTION TO THE WING- 
WARPING BY BRINGING THE LEVERS TOGETHER WITH HIS FINGERS. 




INDEPENDENT CONTROL OF RUDDER AND WING-WARPING ON WRIGHT 
BIPLANE USED IN FRANCE IN I908 BY WILBUR WRIGHT (THE 
FIRST FLYING MACHINE TO EVER MAKE A CONTINUOUS FLIGHT 
OF TWO HOURS) AND EMBODIED IN ALL WEIGHT MACHINES BUILT 
SINCE THEN. 

THE SINGLE LEVER IN MR. WRIGHT's RIGHT HAND CONTROLS THE 

vertical rudder when moved backwards and forwards and 
the wings when moved from side to side. (see diagram 
opposite). 

Man " of American aeronautics, who was later to be for the 
Wrights, a collaborator, a counselor, and an adviser. 

But none of these had solved the problem and the two first 
had perished in their attempts to do so. 

The balancing ideas of Mattulah, as exposed in an affidavit 
of Professor Zahm, of Washington, and the patent of Boswell 
for an " airship-rudder," in which vertical and horizontal sur- 
faces were actually connected for steering purposes, were also 
brought up to quash the Wrights' claim to priority, but the 
Court was of the opinion that where conceptions had not been 
executed, some proof should be shown, in the light of later ex- 
periments, that, if executed, they would have been capable of 
fulfilling the purpose for which they were designed. 

It was then contended that Ader, Maxim, and Langley would 
ha\e flown had they had the modem gasolene engine at their 
disposal, but the Wrights objected that the engine of their flyer 
of lOOj weighed far more to the horse-power than the steam- 
engmes of these famous scientists, and that much of the four 
bundled thousand dollars spent on the problem by these three 
was represented by the remarkable engines they turned out — 
enguies which were recognized as marvels of compactness, light- 
ness, and ingenuity. 

In the case of filaxim's huge machine it would not have been 
possible to obtain such a ratio of efficiency per horse-power in 
a small engine, and the smaller the flying-machine the greater 
its chances of success, but with Ader and Langley, the objection 
appeared to be well founded. 

It was also pointed out that Langley's last model had a gaso- 
lene engine, and a difference of views was expressed as to the 
cause of the final plunge of his machine into the Potomac; but 
w ith Judge Hand unsatisfied that priority had been proven by 
Paulhan, either in a successful conception of increasing the in- 
cidence of flying-machines' wings — although the priority of the 
idea was admitted — or in the use of such appliances in conjunc- 
tion with a vertical rudder, the whole question resolved itself 
in whether Paulhan's machines operated as the aeroplane de- 
scribed in the Wright patent of 1906 and whether the present- 
day Wright flyer itself did so. 

The latter part of the question came up first. 

The Paulhan legal forces had failed to convince the Court 
that anyone had designed a practical steering device or combi- 
nation before the Wrights ; they had argued in vain that any 
such device was, after all, only an adaptation of the principles 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



S3 



of nalure, observed for hundreds of years in birds and lish, that 
only tlie difference in the engines at their disposal and in 
their personal skill as aeroplane-drivers and operators had pre- 
vented the predecessors of the famous brothers from doing as 
well as they did, and that as principles of nature and personal 
skill could not be made the bases of an operative patent, no 
claim of infringement could be sustained; they had failed thus 
far, but the history of the Wrights' progress in the art of me- 
chanical flight bade fair to afford them an argument of some 
legal potency. 

As mentioned above, the Wright patent calls for the simul- 
taneous use of a rear vertical rudder and of a contrivance en- 



Angle lever 
^ connection 







Steerind ruAder 
cofftrol. 



^^«r—- -.'It'"'"'"! 



From " The Conquest of the Air." by .-Uthonse Berget. 

DIAGRAM SHOWING HOW IN THE PRESENT-DAY WRIGHT BIPLANE A 
SINGLE LEVER IS MADE TO INDEPENDENTLY CONTROL THE WARP- 
ING WING-TIPS AND THE VERTICAL RUDDER. 

abling the operator to create a difference in the incidence of the 
wing-tips, when the occasion so requires, for balancing or turn- 
ing purposes, but it also qualifies the manoeuvre by calling for 
" means whereby the said vertical rudder is made to present to 
" the wind that side nearest the side of the main planes having 
" the smaller angle of incidence." 

It must be borne in mind that this patent, although granted 
only in igo6 was filed early in 1903, at a time when the Wrights 
had practically solved, on their gliders, the problem of lateral 
equilibrium in a straightaway flight, but eight months before 
their first, and epoch-making flight in a motor-driven aeroplane, 
eighteen months before they succeeded in making their first turn 
(September 15, 1904) and two and a half years before they 
were able to make turns with any reasonable degree of certainty. 
In the glider or motorless aeroplane they were operating at the 
time the patent was applied for, the turning of the rudder was 
entirely dependent on the warping of the wings — the controlling 
wires being purposely so connected that when the incidence 
was increased on the right side, for instance, the rudder turned 
to the left. 

The Wrights have since stated over their signature * that it 
was in September, 1905, that they suddenly made the final dis- 
covery which enabled them to henceforth undertake turns with 
safety. From then on, their flights, which had previously never 
exceeded five minutes in duration, rapidly increased in length 
* Century Magazine, September, 1908. 



and nothing short of a lack of fuel or an over-heating of the 
engine would stop them. 

They were thus able to announce to the world — in October, 
1905 — that they had evolved a practical flying-machine. 

How could it be asserted, Paulhan's counsel demanded, that, 
previous to the discovery they themselves claimed to have made 
in 1905, the Wrights' aeroplane was practicable for turning pur- 
poses? And how could it be asserted that this patent (made out 
more than two years before this discovery as to how turns 
should be made), did not embody an impracticability of ma- 
noeuvring? "Even if the machine attacked and the present 
" Wright machine did act similarly, argued Paulhan, there could 
" be no infringement as they ncitlicr of them came under the old 
" Wright patent." 

As to why the Wrights did not or could not obtain further 
patents relating to their improvements of 1905, no opinions were 
vouchsafed : certain it is that the brothers ask no leniency from 
the Courts in this regard ; they maintain that their patent is 
sufficient in all respects, that it entails no impracticability of 
manoeuvring and that the later developments in steering-facili- 
ties are not indispensable. 

It is believed by many that the improvement of 1905 consisted 
in rendering the rudder-control and that of the wing-tips partially 
or totally independent of each other — as they now are in the 
Wright machines. 

It is hard to construe the wording of the patent as indicating 
anything but a direct connection between rudder-control and 
warping, so that the rudder would act as it actually did in the 
glider or in the model-glider shown in Court. 

But Judge Hand seemed inclined to give this a broad inter- 
pretation, if it could be shown that the present-day disconnected 
rudder would, by force of necessity, always be turned to the 
side indicated in the patent. 

An argument ensued as to the comparative effects of an aero- 
plane-rudder and that of a boat or ship ; the Wright Brothers' 
representatives expressed the opinion that they acted in a radi- 
cally different fashion, but the Court seemed to consider the dis- 
tinction more apparent than real ; certainly the rudder-action of 
a power-propelled boat is totally different from that of an air- 
craft, through its very simplicity, but who would say that the 




PHOTOGRAPHIC REPRODUCTION OF THE ORIGINAL SKETCH MADE IN 
COURT, FEBRUARY lOTH, BY WILBUR WRIGHT, TO EXPLAIN TO 
JUDGE HAND HOW, IN A TURN. THE RUDDER MAY PRESENT TO 
THE WIND THE OPPOSITE SIDE TO THAT WHICH NORMALLY 
MEETS IT. 

THE MAIN BODY OF THE AEROPLANE AND THE SIMILARLY-SHAPED 
FORWARD RUDDER ARE EASILY RECOGNIZED. 

THE AEROPLANE IS MOVING FROM RIGHT TO LEFT AS THE LOWER AR- 
ROW SHOWS ; THE DIRECTION OF THE CURRENT OF AIR STRIKING 
THE REAR RUDDER IS SHOWN BY THE OTHER ARROW. 

AS C.-kN BE SEEN, THIS CIRCULAR CURRENT STRIKES THE RIGHT SIDE 
OF THE RUDDER, EVEN WHEN THE LATTER IS PERCEPTIBLY TURNED 
TO THE LEFT. 

warped wings and tilted rudder are not only comparable, bat 
positively suggestive of the combined, helpful, corrective or 
counteracting cooperation of rudder and sails in a sailing boat 
or vessel ? The flver moves in three dimensions and the boat 
in two, it is true, but the forward horizontal rudder is there to 



54 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



take care of one dimension and it is doubtful, furthermore, if 
an aeroplane ever tilts as much as a sailing-boat. The differ- 
ences are, of course, obvious enough, for the aeroplane makes 
its own wind and its control is all exercised in one element — 
being analogous, on this point, to a submarine — but a rudder is 
a rudder for all that, and has the same general effect, whatever 
may be the fluid in which it is propelled and however tenuous and 
elastic that fluid may be. 

So thought Judge Hand, and a certain deadlock ensued in the 
proceedings. 

" Is there not some moment when making a turn " — the Court 
wanted to know — " in which the rudder is turned on the side 
"of greatest incidence?" but the oft-repeated query received no 
elucidation until Wilbur Wright himself, who had so far re- 
frained from interrupting his counsel, quietly stepped forward, 
pencil in hand, and drawing the Court's attention to the words 
in the patent : " is made to present to the ivind that side nearest 
" the side of the main planes having the smaller angle of inci- 
" dence," and to the fact that the " wind " referred to is, of 
course, the artificial flow of air made by and met by the aero- 
plane — a flow, which is, of necessity, exactly opposed to the 
direction of flight — made a rough sketch, in which the circular 
course of the machine, when turning, and the exactly opposite 
circular course of the " wind " were shown by curved and paral- 
lel arrows. 

He went on to explain that the aeroplane being rigid in its 
longitudinal axis could not itself assume any curve and that, 
because of this, the rudder, when in what would ordinarily be a 
neutral position, would nevertheless, in a turn, be undergoing a 
certain pressure on one of its sides and might even be doing 
so when slightly turned towards the other side. Thus, with the 
rudder turned toward the side of the main planes presenting the 
greater incidence, it would still be "presenting to the wind" that 
face nearest the side of smaller incidence, and only when this 
occurred would the rudder ever be turned to the side of greater 
incidence. 

The Judge's puzzled expression changed to one of compre- 
hension, on Wright's explanation, and from this moment it ap- 
peared that only a challenge of its accuracy or an acquiescence 
to it as regards the Wright machine coupled with an assertion 
that Paulhan's machine acted in a contrary manner, could save 
the Frenchman's case. 

The Court was on the verge of ordering an attachment of 
the prize-money being now won by Paulhan, pending its decision 
on the injunction, when, in the same dramatic manner that 
Wright had stepped in to turn the scales in his favor, the op- 
posing expert, Mr. Israel Ludlow, came forward with a perti- 
nent question concerning the exact turning manceuvres of a 
Wright aeroplane-driver and on Wiibur Wright's answer de- 
clared that Paulhan's affidavit showed that he acted in quite a 
different manner. 

He also dwelt on the difference in the mode of construction 
of the Wright and the Farman, asserting the latter had far 
greater natural stability. 

It is reasonable to suppose that the turning influence of warp- 
ing the wings is far greater than that of operating ailerons, and 
it is likely that, in turning, the change of incidence of the planes 
is a greater factor in the Wright machine than the handling of 
the rear rudder : in fact, the first Wright gliders had no verti- 
cal rudder at all. In the Farman, on the other hand, the main 
factor might well be the rudder and the ailerons merely the 
assistants. 

As was to be feared for Paulhan, however. Judge Hand con- 
sidered this a distinction without a difference, and, being satis- 
fied that both ailerons and rudder are brought into play, rendered 
a decision against him, and granted the Wrights a temporary 
injunction, even as Judge Hazel had decided against Cur- 
tiss. The use of the ailerons may be far more casual and un- 
usual than the continual, bird-like warping of the Wrights' wings, 
but, thought the Court, it is the principle itself which is in- 
volved and not the frequency of its use or its mode of appliance. 



Certainly if Paulhan discards his ailerons, the Wright brothers 
would have little to say, but the most enthusiastic partisans of 
the famous French bird-man cannot but think of such a wing- 
clipping operation, without some misgiving; in fact, there is 
every reason to believe that had Paulhan the choice of dis- 
carding either ailerons or rudder, it would be the latter he would 
sacrifice. 

The discussion has chiefly waged over the Farman machine, 
because tha.t is the one Paulhan has been doing nearly all his 
flying on in America and the one, be it noted, which at this writ- 
ing holds all world's records of height, duration, and distance, 
with and without passengers. 

But the fate of the Bleriot in this country is also at issue. 

It is the impression of the writer that, as far as Paulhan's Ble- 
riot is concerned, all the argumentative eloquence indulged in was 
sadly wasted, as he has been for some months in possession of 
information convincing him that the warping devices of these 
particular Bleriots were removed before they were delivered to 
Paulhan, at Pau, last December, and that the wings were thus 
fixed and immovable. 

Whether because of this change, or for any other reason, Paul- 
han cannot count on making a good showing with the Bleriots, 
except in perfectly calm weather, which is perhaps the reason 
his counsel here were never informed that there could be no 
question about the right of the Bleriots to make whatever flights 
they were capable of. 

The arguments adduced against the Wrights, however, are of 
interest, in case it is sought to use here unmodified Bleriots of 
the standard type. They were succinctly as follows : " The Ble- 
" riot is a direct descendant and derivative of the early types of 
" monoplanes, from which all its faculties have been taken. 

" It has the surfaces, the ve-rtical and the horizontal rudders 
'" of the first monoplane ever conceived, that of Henson in 1S42 ; 
"its tail is of the well-known Penaud type (1871). Ader's Hole 
" of 1890 is obviousty its ancestor : single surface, single tractive 
" propeller in the prow, the Bleriot and Eole have in common, 
" whilst the Wrights' is a biplane, with twin propulsive propellers. 
" in the rear. 

" It is true that like the Wright machine, the Bleriot lias 
"warping wings and a vertical rudder, but Ader's conception cer- 
" tainly numbered the former among its attributes, and drawings 
" representing its profile appearance show a vertical rudder (let 
it be said in parentheses, however, that Ader, who hated to get 
away from nature, did not deem a rudder a necessity). 

" Thus the best ideas of the unsuccessful Ader were taken 
" up by the successful Bleriot." 

Bleriot himself, in a recent interview, expressed the opinion 
that the simultaneous use of wing-tips and rudder was not 
patentable, but that the single lever for the purpose, was ; in 
other words, that the Wrights could only claim a patent on the 
means used by them and not on the principle involved. 

Bleriot added that he would be willing to pay a royalty for 
the single lever, as he considered it a desirable improvement. 
The hero of the Channel Crossing also held that, in his ma- 
chines, most of the balancing was done automatically by the 
long tail with which they are fitted, and that this is why, if 
necessary, the warping mechanism could be done away with and 
the monoplane would still be capable of flight. 

Paulhan made several short flights at Los Angeles with his 
Bleriot, the wings of which were thus paralyzed, as explained 
above, but like Curtiss's contention, Bleriot's would have to be 
proved by actual experiment in disturbed air. The reference to 
the tail, however, is significant. 

The present litigation has divided the flying-machines now in 
America into just two classes: the non- Wrights and the Wrights, 
and it is curious that this distinction coincides with one of the 
main bases of classification of aeroplanes : those with tails and 
those without (taking the word " tail " at its usual aeronauti- 
cal meaning of a iixed horizontal surface in the rear). 

With the exception of the Cody biplane, in England, the Wright 
is the only successful machine normally built without some fixed 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



55 



horizontal surface in the rear; and as, when tilted, horizontal 
surfaces develop vertical resistances, the assertion that a " tail " 
exercises a certain effect, as regards lateral balance, seems a 
fairly plausible one. 

The Wright brothers, however, would probably meet any such 
(lank mo\-cnicnt on their positions with the statement that they 
adapted a tail to the machine they sold to the Army recently 
:.nd saw no reason to modify their manreuvres to obtain latc-al 
iMiitrol, in consequence of the change. 

Whether the Wrights themselves realize just what the forces 
are which they have to contend with when changing the equilib- 
rium or course of their flyer, was another point brought up, al- 
though its relevancy was not very clear. 

It is to be hoped a decision in the matter will not be deemed 
necessary: aeronautical experts are agreed on the broad lines 
of the question, but their testimony on the finer points raised 
would be liable to differ as much as that of their confreres in 
handwriting : the debate over tilt, drift, and side-slip, center of 
pressure, inertia, and centrifugal force would wax heated in- 
deed and the difficulty of deducting absolute facts from a maze 
of learned hypotheses would be the onlv obvious point in the 
controversy. 



When all is said and done it would seem as if the views of 
Wilbur and Orville Wright were at present being sustained ; 
Curtiss and Paulhan have obtained rehearings, however, and the 
tight will, no doubt, continue from Court to Court for many 
months to come. 

Whether the Wrights will ultimately gain their point, it is 
at this time hard to say, but if it is for a moment admitted that 
they will do so, there is still room for ample discussion on what 
might variously be called the social, moral, and sentimental as- 
pect of the case : whether their attitude and action would not 
retard the progress of their country in the new art, and, if so, 
whether they would be justified in bringing about such a state 
of affairs. 

This side of the question is just as open to debate as its 
legal aspects — which is saying anything but little — but it would 
be beyond the scope of an article which merely aims at opposing, 
in the simplest manner compatible with the complexity of the 
questions at issue, the claims made on either side in what prom- 
ises to be as " Celebre " a " Cause " in the annals of Aeronautics, 
as the Bell and Selden lawsuits were in those of two other of 
the greatest inventions of modern times. 



ARE THE WRIGHTS PIRATES? 



By V. L. Ochoa 




[OW that the " mysterious " \\'right Brothers have 
unveiled themselves and are attempting to appro- 
priate all the glory attached to the building of 
living machines, and all the money resulting from 
tlie manufacture of them, now that they are at- 
tempting to enjoin other inventors from reaping 
the just reward of their hard work, it may be 
well to consider one or two flying machines, which 
i,2j were constructed many years before the Wrights 
^^ produced anything worthy of notice, and to ask 




SIR HIR,\M S. MAXIM IN HIS LABORATORY 

these brothers of mystery just how many ideas they appropri- 
ated from the long list of inventions which preceded theirs. 

Among the earlier of the more serious attempts made to con- 
struct a machine that could fly, were those of the great Peter 
Fenimore Cooper, who suffered the loss of one eye in seeking 
to find an explosive suitable to an engine that would propel a 
machine of the helicopter type. 

In i8go. Ader. a French electrical engineer, in France, made 
the first mechanically propelled flight. The Ader machine pos- 



sessed all the essentials of the now famous Bleriot machines, 
which, it must be said, fly at a loss of 60 per cent, of their 
power. 

About the same time (i8gi to i8g6) Lilienthal, the German 
engineer, was keeping Europe thrilled with his daily flights with 
gliders. 

And all this time the most stupendous experiments and work 
yet made by man were being carried on by the one who may 
rightly be called the father of the aeroplane as it is made to-day. 
This m.an was Sir Hiram S. Maxim ; his machine may be said 
to have embodied in all essentials the very features employed 
by the men now flying. 

In 1894, after years of protracted and searching experiments of 
the most painstaking kind — experiments %vhich cost the relatively 
enormous sum of nearly half a million dollars — Sir Hiram S. 
JNIaxim constructed at Baldwyn Park, Kent, England, an aero- 
plane of remarkable design and marvelous workmanship, a ma- 
chine, the dimensions of which were 104 feet from tip to tip of 
the main planes, a machine possessing a vertical front rudder 
similar to that now used by Paulhan and by the monoplane- 
builders, Bleriot, Antoinette, Santos-Dumont, and other flyers. 
This great machine also had the main planes superposed just as 
the Wrights, Farman, and others have theirs to-day. It was 
also mounted on wheels as are those of Farman, Curtiss, Bleriot, 
Dumont, and others. 




MODEL OF MAXIM S MACHINE, SHOWING FORE AND AFT HORIZONTAL 
RUDDERS AND THE SUPERPOSED PLANES 



56 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



The Maxim aeroplane, the largest ever constructed, had two 
huge propellers nearly i8 feet in diameter, between and to the 
rear of the main planes, and placed much as are now located 
the well-known twin propellers of the Wright Brothers, These 
propellers were also connected to the shaft of the engine just as 
Wrights' are on their flyer. 

The wheels of the machine ran on two rails, while the Wrights 
run theirs on trucks and wheels and one rail, leaving their wheel- 
trucks on the ground after starting; only in this respect does 
their running-gear differ from Maxim's machine, which left the 
ground nine years earlier. 

The lifting surfaces of this great aeroplane had a spread of 
6,000 square feet and were capable of lifting several tons. To 
understand its enormous size one has only to understand that 
the Wright aeroplane has but one-tenth of the lifting surface 
employed by the Maxim machine. Maxim's steam engines de- 
veloped power enough to propel his great machine at tremendous 
speed, and could have kept it aloft for many hours ; this power 
amounted to 360 H. P., and the propellers gave a direct thrust 
of 2,164 pounds, whereas the engines of the Wrights, which are 
only about 25 H. P., could not possibly impart to their twin 
propellers a thrust of more than 230 pounds, and perhaps not 
as much as that. 

By careful comparison it will easily be seen that the Wright 
Brothers succeeded in most ingeniously reproducing the main 
features of Sir Hiram S. Maxim's ill-fated machine, though 
somewhat on a miniature scale, copying most faithfully his ap- 
pliances, even as far as the starting rail used for the purpose of 
launching the machine at the requisite speed for sustentation. 

On pages 148 to 158 of McClure's Magazine for January, 1894, 
as well as in the Scientific American of April, 1894, a full and 
detailed account is published over the signature of H. J. W. 
Damund. It is replete with illustrations of Maxim's machine, 
which actually flew, only to wreck itself at the very threshold 
of success. 

Mr. Octave Chanute, who made and experimented several 
gliders in the closing decade of the last century, and who is 
credited with having furnished the Wrights with suggestions and 
data, was, no doubt, thoroughly conversant with Maxim's work 
and machine, and there is little doubt that the Wrights through 
him, if not through the direct reading of daily reports and mag- 
azine articles, came into possession of the facts. It was nine 
years after Maxim (in December, 1903), that they made their 
first flight in a miniature imitation of Maxim's machine, to which 
were added their own ideas. 

Here is Sir Hiram Maxim's own account of his experiments 
with his large machine and here are all the tell-tale photographs 
which will convincingly show just where the Wrights may have 
got their forward rudder, their superposed planes, their twin 
wooden screw propellers to the rear, their shaft connections, their 
starting rail device. It is taken from pages 134 to 138 of " Arti- 
ficial and Natural Flight " : 

" When fully equipped, my large machine had five long and 
narrow aeroplanes projecting from each side. Those that are 
attached to the sides of the main aeroplanes are 27 feet long, thus 





THIS PICTURE SHOWS THE TWIN PROPELLERS AT THE REAR OF THE 
MAIN PLANES. THEIR ENORMOUS SIZE CAN BE READILY AP- 
PRECIATED. 

bringing the total width of the machine up to 104 feet. The 
machine is also provided with a fore and an aft rudder made on 
the same general plan as the main aeroplane. When all the aero- 
planes are in position, the total lifting surface is brought up to 
about 6,000 square feet. I have, however, never run, the ma- 
chine with all the planes in position. My late experiments were 
conducted with the main aeroplane, the fore and aft rudders, and 
the top and bottom side planes in position, the total area then 
being 4,000 square feet. With the machine thus equipped, with 
600 pounds of water in the tank and boiler and with the naphtha 
and three men on board, the total weight was a little less than 
8.000 pounds. The first run under these conditions was made 
with a steam pressure of 150 pounds to the square inch, in a 
dead calm, and all four of the lower wheels remained con- 
stantly on the rails, none of the wheels on the outriggers touch- 
ing the upper track. The second run was made with 240 pounds 
steam pressure to the square inch. On this occa'sion the ma- 
chine seemed to vibrate between the upper and lower tracks. 
About three of the top wheels were engaged at the same time, 
the weight on the lower steel rails being practically nil. Prepara- 
tions were then made for a third run with nearly the full power 
of the engines. The machine was tied up to a dynamometer, and 
the engines were started with a pressure of about 200 pounds to 
the square inch. The gas supply was then gradually turned on, 
with the throttle valves wide open ; the pressure soon increased, 
and when 310 pounds was reached the dynamometer showed a 
screw thrust of 2,100 pounds,* but to this must be added 
the incline of the track, which amounted to about 64 pounds. 
The actual thrust was, therefore, 2,164 pounds. In order to 
keep the thrust of tlie screws as nearly constant as possible, I 
had placed a small safety valve — ^ inches — in the steam pipe 
leading to one of the engines. This valve was adjusted in such 
a manner that it gave a slight puff of steam at each stroke of 
the engine, with a pressure of 310 pounds to the square inch, and 
a steady blast at 320 pounds to the square inch. As the valves 
and steam passages of these engines were made very large, and 
as the piston speed was not excessive, I believed if the steam 
pressure was kept constant that the screw thrust would also 
remain nearly constant, because, as the machine advances and 
the screws commence to run slightly faster, an additional quan- 
tity of steam will be called for and this would be supplied b}^ 
turning on more gas. When everything was ready, with care- 
ful observers stationed on each side of the track, the order was 
given to let go. The enormous screw thrust started the machine 
so quickly that it nearly threw the engineers off their feet, and 
the machine bounded over the track at a great rate. Upon no- 



.\EHOPLAXE 0.\ THE TU.\CK READY TO ST.\RT 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



57 




THE MAXIM AEEOPLVNE (IN TIIL TR >LK TIED i P TO THE DYNAMOMETER 



t.cing a slight diminution in the steam pressure, I turned on 
more gas, when almost instantly the steam commenced to blow 
a steady blast from the small safety valve, showing that the 
pressure was at least 320 pounds in the pipes supplying the en- 
gines with steam. Before starting on this run, the wheels that 
were to engage the upper track were painted and it was the 
duty of one of my assistants to observe these wheels during the 
run, while another assistant watched the pressure-gauges and 
dynagraphs. The first part" of the track was up a slight incline, 
but the machine was lifted clear of the lower rails and all of 
the top wheels fully engaged on the upper track when about 
600 feet had been covered. The speed rapidly increased, and 
when 900 feet had been covered, one of the rear-axle trees, 
which were of two-inch steel tubing, doubled up and set the 
rear end of the machine completely free. The pencils ran com- 
pletely across the cylinders of the dynagraphs and caught on the 
underneath end. The rear end of the machine being set free, 
raised considerably above the track and swayed. At about 1,000 
feet, the left forward wheel also got clear of the upper track 
and shortly afterwards, the right forward wheel tore up about 
100 feet of the upper track. Steam was at once shut off and the 
machine sank directly to the earth, imbedding the wheels in the 
soft turf without leaving any other marks, showing most con- 
clusively that the machine was completely suspended in the air 
before it settled to the eaith. In this accident, one of the pine 
timbers forming the upper track went completely through the 
lower framework of the machine and broke a number of the 
tubes, but no damage was done to the machinery, except a slight 
injury to one of the screws. 
In my experiments with the small apparatus lor ascertaining 



the power required to perform artificial flight, I found that the 
most advantageous angle for my aeroplane was i in 14, but 
when I came to make my large machine, I placed my aeroplanes 
at an angle of i in 8 so as to be able to get a greater lifting 
effect at a moderate speed with a short run. In the experi- 
ments which led to the accident above referred to, the total 
lifting effect upon the machine must have been at least 10,000 
pounds. All the wheels which had been previously painted and 
which engaged the upper track were completely cleaned of their 
paint and had made an impression on the wood, which clearly 
indicated that the load which they had been lifting was consid- 
erable, ^loreover, the strain necessary to double up the axle- 
trees was fully 1,000 pounds each, without considering the lift 
on the forward axle-trees which did not give wa}' but broke 
the upper track." 

In the Cosmopolitan magazine of October, 1892 (on page 202), 
Sir Hiram S. Maxim wrote a very lucid description of his aero- 
plane and in the Cosmopolitan of November, 1892 (on page 89), 
John F. Holland also published a fully illustrated article of his 
own conception of an aeroplane, which also had superposed 
planes, rear propellers, and a vertical rudder such as the Wrights 
now use. 

In 1896, Professor Langley flew his steam-driven aeroplane 
models, which also had two propellers on the rear of the planes, 
as well as a vertical rudder. 

About the same time Pierre Mouillard, of France, is credited 
with inventing warping wings. 

These events all took place many years before the " mysteri- 
ous " Wright Brothers built an aeroplane that could fly. 



LAW AND THE AIR. 

By Denys P. Myers 

CmUiiiucd from March Aircraft 




HE regime of air usage will make necessary the 
recognition of aircraft in various functions. In 
a previous article it was pointed out that to fol- 
low the analogy of the sea and to suppose the 
atmosphere as divided into a territorial and 
" high " air seems to be the most satisfactory 
legal solution of that problem. This makes the 
air " free," no state having in it any more rights 
than are required for its protection. From this 
point of view, then, it will make considerable dif- 



ference what sort of machine you travel in, whether it is your 
own or engaged in public service. 

Commonly we do not think of such distinctions, or of what 
they imply ; yet they are of the utmost importance in respect to 
shipping, and, by analogy, in respect to aircraft. International 
law now considers ships under five distinct categories, viz : Do- 
mestic and foreign private ships belonging to individual citizens, 
auxiliaries, which, while privately owned, are fitted for con- 
version to public uses, public vessels devoted to peaceful purposes 
and public warships. Separate sets of rules and privileges gov- 



S8 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



ern the action of each kind of vessel, modified when they are 
in home ports and more stringent when they are in foreign ports 
or territorial waters. 

These regulations depend upon the right of a state to preserve 
its entity, and commercial necessity has rendered it obligatory 
that as much freedom as is consonant with the sovereignty of a 
state shall be granted all foreign shipping within its jurisdiction. 
A large number of regulations have been internationally agreed 
upon, such as the use of the Plimsoll mark to indicate loading 
capacity, the general signal code, and the sanitary rules, while 
such matters as clearance and specific port rules are left to a 
great extent to the individual states. 

It is to such a system that aircraft will doubtless have to be 
assimilated, when they take their place formally in the cate- 
gory of traffic vehicles. 

Legal theory as regards aerial jurisdiction is even now widely 
divergent, but all writers agree on this point. M. Paul Fau- 
chille in a report to the Institute of International Law in 1902 
on the juridical regime of aerostats submitted a code which 
may be quoted at the outset of this discu.ssion, with necessary 
alterations to include aeroplanes. He says : 

"Art. I. — Aerostats (and aeroplanes) are of two kinds: pub- 
lic and private. 

Public aerostats (and aeroplanes), that is to say, engaged in 
the service of the state, are military or civil. Those are con- 
sidered as military which are under the command of an officer 
of the army or navy commissioned by the military authority and 
provided with a military crew. All balloons (and aeroplanes) in 
command of a civil functionary of the state and provided with 
a crew named by the state, or its representatives are considered 
civil- Both kinds bear a flag having the form of a pennant, but 
at different points determined by Art. 2. 

Air other aerostats (and aeroplanes) are private. 

It matters little for the determination of their character 
whether balloons are free or captive, that is, attached to the 
earth by a cable. Their form and the number of individuals com- 
posing the crew are likewise without influence." 

" Art. 2. — All public or private aerostats should bear constantly 
attached to the middle of their envelope the national flag. Pub- 
lic, military, and civil aerostats shall bear their respective pen- 
nants, the first upon the side of their baskets, and the second 
upon their envelope, beneath the national flag." 

This last article, it can readily be seen, is adaptable to aero- 
planes. The provisions regarding the flag are based upon the 
fundamental necessity that everything that flies, just as every- 
thing that floats, must be under the jurisdiction of some state. 
This can only be indicated by the outward sign of a flag, which, 
be it noted, will undergo modification for aerial uses. 

It is a demonstrated fact that even the best of eyesight is very 
pool for colors at a distance; and national flags are based on 
color schemes, generally of little variet\'. The best unaided eye 
can distinguish color only at a distance of some thousand yard.s 
but it can distinguish form many times that far. M. Fauchille 
puts the limit at over 10,000 yards. Moreover, aircraft will move 
swiftly, a condition unfavorable for observing colors. He ac- 
cordingly proposes a choice of flags in respect to form. The 
suggestion appears good, since they would fly against the air 
and be readily observable, whereas the ordmary flag would be 
indistinguishable at anj' height. 

This much proposed, we have a method for telling what man- 
ner of aircraft is in the air. What duties and privileges will 
the various kinds have while in territorial air or in respect ,to 
landing? The auxiliaries, built so as to be convertible to pub- 
lic uses, need not be separately considered, since they are at am^ 
particular time either public or private. 

.For public and private vessels the flag is the outward and 
visible sign of its status. In the " high " air and above the soil 
of its own state, the aircraft, public or private, will be within 
the jurisdiction of its own state, which is exclusive for all pur- 
poses. 

Here again enters the difficulty due to diverging theories. 



According to the idea of a " free " air, no state or property 
owner will have any right in the atmosphere beyond what is 
necessary for his preservation and the conservation of his prop- 
erty. In common law this would mean that no genuine law of 
trespass could exist for an aeronaut, so long as he was flying 
and did no injury to habitations, crops, or other property. 
Actual damage, of course, would be actionable, however com- 
mitted and wherever its origin. But the proposition precludes 
the setting up of a sign " NO AERIAL TRESPASS " and main- 
taining the validity of the prohibition in any such sense as one 
could place upon a similar sign on his lawn and prosecute one 
who disregarded it. 

This statement may sound far-fetched, but it seems to be a 
fact that actual ownership of the air is impossible. The old 
dictum about owning the land up to the heavens seems to refer 
not to dc facto ownership, but to the right of usage. Two analo- 
gous developments in law illustrate the point. One is the doc- 
trine of the hinterland, by which Germany acquired its South- 
west Africa colon}'. According to this contention a nation that 
occupies a foreshore has a preferred claim to all territory inland 
to where some other state has established or shall establish pos- 
session. The sovereignty is inchoate until fixed by occupation, 
but is nevertheless valid as against any other state. The other 
doctrine is that of mining law, by which a property owner pos- 
sesses a vein outcropping on his estate. Only an arrangement 
with him will allow a miner to work the vein at that apex, but 
he must be working it himself to prevent an adjacent owner fol- 
lowing it through to the apex within his boundaries. Both 
doctrines arose out of the body of logical law to meet special 
cases, and, when all is said, the proposition set forth above ap- 
pears the most just and satisfactory in regard to aerial occu- 
pation. 

Each state of the Union will probably indulge in legislation to 
vex the souls of the sky pilots and their case ought to be within 
the purview of the Interstate Commerce Commission. The de- 
mand for federal legislation bearing upon automobile traffic 
should hasten the day when aircraft also will have certain rights 
guaranteed to them by the nation. Any such statutes, as relating 
to private aircraft, will lay down what rules it pleases, but as 
such laws will doubtless be inspired by interested aeronauts in 
all cases they will probably be liberal enough to render the air 
fairly satisfactory as a medium of traffic. Public airships and 
aeroplanes, to a large extent, will be independent of state laws, 
being engaged in state business 

When aircraft venture abroad their status as public or private 
will come more sharply into view. A public machine is bj' cour- 
tesy entitled to ex-territorial treatment. That is, constructively 
it is considered as a portion of a foreign sovereign state and 
is therefore regarded as superior to any local or state laws and 
regulations. At least, such is the practice regarding public ships, 
and that is the basis adopted here for forecasting the legal 
control of aircraft. So strict is the law that (Schooner Ex- 
change vs. McFadden, 7 Cranch, 116) when Napoleon captured 
an American vessel, which later returned to its home American 
waters on public French service, its libel was barred to the 
original owners because of its status as a public foreign war- 
ship. 

Private vessels in foreign waters are subject to what juris- 
diction pleases the affected state. The French practice is coming 
into general use. It is, to assume no jurisdiction over foreign 
merchantmen within her ports save in cases where the act affects 
soine person other than those belonging to the ship, where the 
local authorities are expressly called upon to interfere, or when 
the order of the port is disturbed. Aeronauts certainly could not 
complain if no greater restrictions upon their liberty in foreign 
aerial territory were enforced. This freedom would come as 
the result of the theory adopted here, that the air is free like 
the sea and the nations shall assume only that amount of con- 
trol over it and its craft as is necessary to protect their own 
paramount interests. 

To be continued in Aircraft for May 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



59 



FOREIGN NEWS 

By Albert C. Triaca 




end's 



in the 



while 



ing to Pau work extends below the body for about three- 
, a 120 h.p. fourths of its length. The propellers are attached 
racing machine, hit a tree, turned over, caught to its sides, 
fire, and burnt poor Johannssen to death. 

The first British naval airship will be launched 
in a short time. The crew will consist of officers 
ILngland and men from the warship Vernon, and they are 

now undergoing a course of instructions. The air- 
The British army appears at last to have se- ship was designed by Mr. Spencer for the pur- 
cured a workable airship. pose of patroling the North Sea. It will be of the 
It IS 170 feet in length with pointed ends. Fin- rigid type, and will be the largest of its kind in 
like projections are on either side. The frame- the world except the Zeppelins. 



THE NEW ENGLISH ARMY DIRIGIBLE, SHOWING 
THE REM.-\RK.\BLE SH.^PE OF THE PLANES 
ANB RUDDERS. 



Large 
Bregi m 
Ayres, o. 



Argentine Republic 



Austria 




Herr Wiesenbach made an extended trial 
his Wright biplane, flying for 56 minutes, 
covering in that time a distance of about 
kiloms. In the afternoon Herr Wachalowski v 
up on his Henry Farman machine and flew 
15 mins. 20 sees.; while later he flew for 11 n 
this time taking a passenger with him. 

Belgium 

M. Georges Erichant, a well-known Be 
sportsman, has just founded four prizes of 
each. The first will be used to provide a cup for 
a balloon contest, while the others will be awarded 
by the Belgian Aero Club to the Belgian aviators 
who fly and carry on an aeroplane the greatest 
load in a given time. 

Canada 

Mr. J. A. N. McCurdy has recently been length- 
ening his flights on the aeroplane Baddeck No. 2, 
over the ice of Baddeck Bay, Nova Scotia. 



:e of the first Danish aviators, 
February loth in a motor accident MODERN ELECTIONEERING METHODS AS EXEMPLIFIED BY J. T. C. MOORE-BRAEAZON OF ENGLAND. 




THE ABOVE If THE REMAEK.\BLY APPROPRIATE MONUMENT WHICH NOW MARKS THE PRE- 
CISE SPOT IN THE NORTF.VLL MEADOW, NEAR DOVER, WHERE THE IMMORT.\L BLERIOT 
LANDED ON THAT HISTORICAL MORNING LAST SUMMER, AFTER FLYING ACROSS THE ENG- 
LISH CHANNEL ; THE EXACT LOCATION AND SHAPE OF THE FAMOUS LITTLE MONOPLANE 
AS IT LAY AFTER LANDING AT SEVEN MINUTES PAST FIVE JULY 2STHj WERE EASILY 
DETERMINED BY THE DOWN-TRODDEN GRASS AND WORN-OFF PATCHES MADE BY THE EAGER 
CROWDS DRAWN TO THE SPOT THAT DAY. 

THERE IS A QUESTION OF ERECTING A MONUMENT ON THE SPOT ON THE FRENCH COAST 
FROM WHICH THE BLERIOT ROSE^ THIRTY-SEVEN MINUTES BEFORE IT ALIGHTED ON THE 
E.XGLISH TURF. 

IN STRANGE CONTRAST TO THIS SPIRIT OF COMMEMORATING GREAT .\ERONAUTIC ACHIEVE- 
MENTS, WAS THE DECISION OF THE PARISIAN MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES NOT TO ALLOW 
THE ERECTION OF A MEMORIAL STONE AT BAGATELLE OPPOSITE THE SPOT WHERE SANTOS- 
DUMONt's LITTLE FLYER LIFTED HIM IN THE AIR ON AUGUST 22D. I906. 



Many automobiles were used prior to the recent 
Parliamentary elections, spreading electoral litera- 
ture and placarded with electoral posters. 

Mr. Moore-Brabazon, the eclectic English sports- 
man, used his biplane for the same purpose. On 
the radiators, on either side of him, appeared the 
slogan, " Any peer is better than Napier, so we'll 
err if we don't vote for Wheeler." 

This is the aeroplane which last winter won the 
large prize offered for the first mile flight oi a 
British-built aeroplane bv a British subject. It is 
also the machine on which Mr. Moore-Brabazon 
facetiously took up as a passenger a small pig, 
with the label, " I am the first pig to fly," thereby 
holding myriads of his countrymen to their agree- 
ments to do certain things '* when the little pigs 
begin to fly," the equivalent of the American 
" when the hens have teeth." 



The first flight ever 
credit of H. G. Fergus 
succeeded in flying on 
self, in Lord Downshii 



Tiade in Ireland is to the 
n, of Belfast, who recently 
i monoplane built by him- 
:'s Park, at Lisburn, 



The number of flying machines at present being 
built in England is variously estimated at between 
five hundred and one thousand. 

At the time of the recent elections, the Aerial 
League of the United Kingdom seized the occa- 
sion to send out a letter to all candidates for 
Parliament, asking them their opinions on aerial 
defense, and further asking whether they were pre- 
pared, if elected, to vote an adequate aerial navy 
for Great Britain, for, as a matter of fact, people 
who have reallv studied the question are more 
than a little upset at the enormous lead which 
Germany has obtained in forming her air-fleet. 
As a result of these letters 316 Parliamentary can- 
didates replied that they were favorable to the 
formation of an adequate aerial fleet, nine replied 
that they were doubtful about it, and four said 
they did not believe in it at all. 

England will be to the fore next summer in 
aviation. Already four flying weeks are in prepa- 
ration. Two of them will be international, with 
$40,000 in prize monev at each. 

At all four it is hoped there will be a worthy 
representation of English aviators, among whom 
may now be mentioned — as practical flying men — 
J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon (winner of the' Daily Mail 



6o 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



$5,000 prize for the mile flight) ; Hon. C. S. Rolls, 
Mortimer Singer, Claude Graham-White and S. F. 
Cody. The localities and dates of the meetings 
are appended: Bournemouth, July nth to i6th ; 
SoLithport, August 6th to nth; Edinburgh, in 
June; Wolverhampton, date not fixed. 

Bournemouth and Southport will be the two in- 
ternational fixtures. 



looking 
aeroplane 



'ith some curiosity at 
price list, which has 



France 



The French War Offic 
Corps will direct the ntw 
as the " Service Aerona 

Profess. 



:ided that the 
al department kn 



tique. 



• d'Arntouial at the Ecole Superie 
d'Aeronautique has made the statement that p 
hydrogen can be obtained from coal-gas by low- 
ering its temperature to the point of liquefaction; 
evaporation can be used instead of heat to change 
the liquid hydrogen into gas. 

The Technical Committee of Aerial Locomotion 
has decided on the suggestions of Commandant 
Bouttieaux to turn over to the War Office the plans 
of the dirigible of the rigid type, which Mr. Spies 
has offered to the Government, and which will be 
the longest air-cruiser ever built in France. Two 
motors of 120 h.p, each will drive its two pairs of 
large diameter wooden propellers. 




At Alpreck, 



Eoulo 



!:ne-Sur-Mer, Captain Sa 

remarkable man-liftinj 

ily five large kites, con 



with Madame Sacouney. 




THE 1910 BLKRIOT 

KNOWN ALSO AS THE BLERIOT XI BIS, IS SIXTEEN INCHES SHORTER THAN THE " CHANNEL " 
type; its fuselage or main body is ENTIRELY COVERED OVER WTH CLOTH ; THE SHAPE 
AND SURFACE OF THE RUDDERS ARE QUITE DIFFERENT AND THE FIXED PORTION OF THE 
TAIL STARTS FROM THE OUTSIDE OF THE HORIZONTAL RUDDERS AND TAPERS TO THfi 
MAIN PLANES. 



Egypt 

THE HELIOPOLIS MEET 



Th 



first great concourse of aviators of rgio took 
ce in Southern California, which one of the 
vest civilizations in the world is turning into 
: earth's garden spot; the second took place in 
ypt, where the gigantic mementoes of one of 
most ancient of civilizations afforded a weird 
:kground to the evolutions of the latest crea- 
ns of n- 



Syrians, Arabs, Bedo 
hand, and on the oth. 
ering of Europeans a 
Cairo at thit 
out to the a 
Cairo hoteh 
Palace and 
The only 
before the m 
Engl 



the 



Sudanese, on the one- 
ultra-fashionable gath- 
Americans who come to 
d who motored 
great numbers, 
more distant Ghezir 



the 



ddent occurred 
when Mortimer Singe 
sportsman. 



days 



ust when flying near the ground and sustained 



broke 



the fall. 



ing did the two " aviation weeks " 
present an analogy: the climate of the sites chosen 
for them, for Egypt and Southern California are 
precisely similar in this, and no other country 
entirely shares the similarity. 

1 hose who triumphed in the dry, bracing air 
of the land of the Pharaohs were Rougier and 
Metrot on Voisin biplanes, Le Blon and Balsan 
on lacing Bleriots. 

1 hose who graduated from the fledgling class 
and gave promise of becoming great flyers were 
Hans Grade, the German inventor who drove his 
tLmarkable little monoplane (a cross between a 
Sdutos-Dumont " Demoiselle " and a Bleriot of 
the Channel " type) with unerring skill; Riems- 
c'\ Lk who piloted the Herring-Curtiss biplane 
IK came over here to get last winter; Duray, who 
1 >mises to be as great an aviator as he was a 

I ing motor driver; Sands, an American pupil of 

I itham ; Hauvette-JMichelin, another Antoinette 

1 1 and the Baroness Raymonde de Laroche, 

\ ho =:howed the gaping thousands that aviation 

not destined to be solely a man's game. 

Madame de Laroche made a continuous flight of 
* cr twelve miles in her Voisin, thereby securing 
11 title and license of aviation-pilot of the Aero 
Club of France. 

1 he only unlucky one was the great Latham, 
of w horn so much had been expected and who 
smi--hed two of his machines. 

Gieat crowds turned out every day to cheer the 
fl} erb a picturesque array of Cairoans : Copts, 



A propos of the Heliopolis meet, a contemporary 
wrote " it was of course the first flying ever seen 
in Egypt "; one feels inclined to echo: " of 
course," but it only goes to show that in avia- 
tion news probability should never be taken for 
Gertaintv, and Aircraft for one will never do so. 

The first flying seen in Egypt was last Decem- 
ber, when the Belgian sportsman, Baron Pierre de 
Caters, made some remarkable flights over the 
desert in his Voisin. 

Below is a summary of results of the HeliopoHs 
meet: 
Grand Prize of Egvpt for total distance in week: 
(Voisin), '95* miles, $5,000; 2 Le Blon 
38i miles, $2,000; 3 Balsan (Bleriot), 86^ 
m; 4 Metrot (Voisin), 86 miles, 
is Prize for height: i Rougier (Voisin), 
Rougier (Voisin), 719 feet; Rou- 



Rougi< 
(Bleriot), 



feet. 



(Voisin), 633 feet; 2 Latham (Antoinette), 

Empain Prize for greatest distance 
flight: I Metrot (Voisin), 53^- mile 
Rougier (Voisin) 40A miles, $2,000: 
Bleriot), 31^ miles, $1,000; 4 Balsan 



Speed Pri2 
riot), S' 7" 
Balsan (Ble 



on ten kilometers: i Le Blon (Ble- 
^-5; 2 Rougier (Voisin), 9' 30"; 3, 
ot), 9' 50" 2-5; 4 Grade (Grade), 



e kilometers: i Balsan (Bleriot). 
)n (Bleriot) 4' 2" 3-5: 3 Duray (F; 
5; 4 Sands (Antoinette), 4' 22". 



cently; he will cc 
carrying. 

Lazare-Weiller 
chine with which 
flights at Le Man 
aeroplane has flow 

Santos-Dumont'j 
plane building ha 
constructor. M. ' 

monoplane that w 



biplane 
yet buil 
and has 
face. 



the li| 
Ready 
spread 




THE OFFICIAL POSTER OF THE HELIOPOLIS 
AVIATION MEET. WHAT ARE THE IMPRES- 
SIONS OF THE BEDOUIN, MASTER OF THE 
DESERT^ OBSERVING THE KINGS OF THE AIR? 

Henry Farman has been 
with his_new aeroplane, which i; 
some points usually associated 
construction. In his first trial he 
sengers for sixteen minutes at r 
an hour; this was followed up by 
two minutes under sim" 
5th. This is the first three-man flight 
exceeding an hour in duration. 

Mr. Sommer, one of the first pupils of H 
Farman, and now a manufacturer of aeropl; 

r^rrJpH nr. a " tiseful load " of 210 kil 

ntinue his experiment 

has presented tl' 
Wilbur Wright 
IS to the Ministry 
vn almost 4.0C0 mi! 



he will be able to fly 
lew monoplane. 
jhtest machine, 
for flight, it weighs 7, 

of 45 square yards of 



FLYING ABOVE THE SANDS OF EGYPT : AN ANTOINETTE IN ACTION AT HELIOPOLIS 



April, iQio 



AIRCRAFT 



6i 




1 dirigible or an aeroplane 
:hat the Empress regarded 



s Majesty added 
r-craft as danger- 



The Deutscher Luftschiffer Verband has decided 
o furnish every aerostat, dirigible, or heavier- 
ban-air apparatus with a log-book containing all 

the information about their construction and 

power. 



The dirigible of Professor 
is being built at Reinau; th< 
will be 13S meters long and i; 
Like the Zeppelin, it will c 
small balloons, but whereas 
sixteen or seventeen such ba 
to have eleven. 

The Clouth dii 



.\CCIDENT IN EGYPT. THE CHILDREN OF THE DESERT COZING .\T THE WRECK. 



Italy 

The Italian dirigible " Leonardo da Vinci " re- 
centlv made several flights around the Cathedral 
of M'ilan: its crew were, no doubt, jealous of the 
evolutions made by the military dirigible " I Bis " 
around St. Peter's. The Leonardo da Vinci sub- 
sequently met with an accident, which, ho 
entailed no injury to the 



The committee in charge of organizing the great 
/iation meet near Milan in September has de- 
ded to devote $60,000 to the prizes; $10,000 of 
is ofltered by the municipality of Milan. 



of 



th 



Among the aeroplanes now quartered at th 
Aerodrome of Bovolenta, near Padua (which ' 
•under, the auspices of H.R.H. the Prince 
Udine) are one Voisin biplane, two Santos-D 
mont " Dragon Flies " and three Bleriots. 



Germany 




The Germans are considering the p 


roblem of 


how aeronauts are to determme their 1 


3caiion at 


night or in a fog. Dr. Bidlnigmaier c 


f the im- 


perial observatory at Wilhelmshaven has 


proposed 


a very simple adjunct for the equipmt 


nt of the 


aeronaut which will enable him to loca 


e his po- 


sition with some measure of accuracy w 


thout the 


use of eye or ear as dependent upon 


terrestrial 


signals. The instrument in question 




called " duplex compass. 




Emperor William of Germany has cc 


nfided to 


Count Zeppehn that he will never experience the 


sensation of flying. Following the ex 


ample set 


by Alphonso XIII. when he made a simi 


ar pledge 


to Oueen Victoria of Spain, he has pro 


mised the 


Empress that he will make no ascent. 


either in 



: Dantzlg, 
diameter. 



iitly had several 



The Zeppelin North Polar Exploration Com- 
mittee met here to-day under the presidency of 
Prince Henry of Prussia. Count Zeppelin, Pro- 
fessor Hergesell and Professor Lewald were 
among those present. The committee discussed 
the programme of the summer's work, which will 
be devoted to a preliminary expedition for the 
liurpose of studying ice conditions. The Govern- 
ment will be asked for the use of the exploring 
vessel Poseidon for about two months. 

The expedition will start for Spitzbergen July 
ist on an excursion steamer, and there will trans- 
fer to the Poseidon. A Norwegian ice steamer 
will be used for the purpose of forcing an entrance 
into the polar ice, and the expedition will return 
at the end of August. Apparently no airship will 
be taken for summer use. 



Hungary 

The Hungarian Automobile Club is planning for 
a long-distance flight competition this summer, 
under the auspices of its aviation section. 

The municipality of Budapest has given $40;ooo 
to the committee in charge of the Budapest Avia- 
tion Meet, June 5th to 15th. 

Greece 

The aeronautical education of the Greeks is ap- 
parently still to be made. When the Belgian avia- 
tor, Baron de Caters, arrived at Athens recently 
on his way home from Egypt, with the idea of 
showing the Hellenes the road to the sky, he re- 
ceived so little encouragement and such poor ac- 



The 



ell-kn 



Sicili: 



sportsman, 

intends organizing aviation trials during 
ual Targa Florio Auto Race Meet at Pa- 




EVEN SAINT I'ETER S OF ROME LOOKS SMALL 
TO THE MODERN SKY-PILOT. WHAT WOULD 
MICHAEL-ANGELO SAY TO THIS SNAPSHOT 
FROM THE ITALIAN AERIAL WARSHIP, PART 
OF THE BOAT-SHAPED CAR OF WHICH IS 
VISIBLE IN THE UPPER LEFT CORNER? FROM 
HIS SELF-MADE EXILE, THE VATICAN GAR- 
DENS, HIS HOLINESS THE POPE GAZED ON 
THE GRE.\T APPARITION, JUST AS HE HAD 
WATCHED A YEAR AGO WILBUR WRIGHT 
SOARING OVER THE CAMPAGNA IN THE DIS- 
TANCE. 



From Turin comes the n 
new Faccioli- biplane was t 

cess on the aerodrome of La Veneria, near ] urin. 
Several short flights were made, the machine beins 
piloted bv the son of the inventor. The trials 
were witnessed by the young Prince of L^dinc. 
King Victor's cousin, and he begged to be taken 
for a trip, but the inventor declined the respon- 
sibility. 




RurciER FL^•I^■(; xy 



■LK )]■ 



An ; 



, be opened in Milan 



IT SO HAPPENED THAT ON SEVERAL DAYS OF " AVL\TION WEEK THE USLTAL CERt^LEAN 
SERENITY OF THE SKY OF LOWER EGYPT W.\S DISTURBED BY THE "SIMOUn"; ONLY THE 
MORE INTREPID AVIATORS DARED TO FACE THE HOT SAND-LADEN GUSTS OF THE DESERT- 
WIND. 



62 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 







CUDINC IN japan: the first heavier-than-aie machine to soar in the land of the rising sun. 

THE JAPANESE INSCRIPTION BENEATH THE PICTURE READS AS FOLLOWS : 
"snapshot OF THE FLIGHT OF THE FRENCH NAVAL OFFICER LE PRIEUR NEAR THE SHINOBADZU POND^ THE 26tH DAY OF THE 

I2TH MONTH OF THE 42D YEAR OF THE MEJL" 

IN THE CORNER : M. LE PRIEUR POSING FOR THE ORIENTAL CAMERA-FIENDS 



ommodations a.. _. 
nd sailed from Pi 



id that he gave up the idea 
ith his unappreciated 
Voisin. 

And this is the land of Daedalus and Icarus; 
but a few months will change this apathy for en- 
thusiasm, as it has everywhere else. 



Japan 

Near Shmobazzu, a French naval officer made 
two successful flights some weeks ago with a 
glider of the Voisin type. He was assisted by 
two members of the Aviation Committee of Tokio. 
Watch the Japs when once they get started. 



Monaco 

Since his return from Egypt Rougier has been 
on the Riviera. He recently made several sen- 
sational flights about jMonte Carlo, at one time 
flying a couple of miles out to sea. 

At the Motorboat Meet of Monaco (ist to 14th 
of April) we will find the hydroplane Ricochet 
XXII, the famous gliding boat, the Brasier Des- 
pujols; the Due II, a semi-hydroplane, and others. 

Norway 

An Aero Club has been formed at Christiania. It 
is to become affiliated to the International .'Vero- 
nautique Federation. M. H. Mohn, the meteor- 
ologist, was elected President. 



It recE 


ntly ca 


me to light that Grand 


Duke Alex- 


ander, 


f Russ 


a, has been visiting P 


aris for the 


purpose 


of studying the various kin 


ds of aero- 


planes 


nade i 


n France for their su 


itability for 


military 


purpos 


es. He was instructed 


to purchase 


a large 




of them for the Russi 


n arm.v. 



Servia 

Belgrade will have this month a series of exhibi- 
tion flights by M. Bleriot, who seems to have a 
predilection for flying in the Balkan States, having 
already soared in the air of Roumania and Turkey. 

Spain 



FOREIGN CLUB NEWS 



Great Britain will probably be represented in the 
oming Gordon Bennett Aviation Race by J. T. 
Joore-Brabazon, Mortimer F. Singer and John 



the As 



Lord Charles Stuart Rolls 



Dr. Gans-Fabrice has 
completed his plans for 
to cross the Atlantic Ocean in 
that he will start on the trip 
itarting point ha. 



that he has 

dventurous attempt 

lirship, and 



ne of the best 
'ill be the Eng- 
ett Balloon Cup. 



chos 



but it 
the Island 



The ball. 
and 49 ft. broad, 
of hydrogen. Th( 
dola, is shaped lik 



11 be 
f Tt 
ellipti 



the 



■iffe. 



His Majesty King Edward, recognizing the good 
work done by the Aero Club of the United King- 
dom, has granted to the Club, as a mark of appre- 
the coast of Port- ciation, the right to use the prefix: Royal, and ac- 
corded his patronage to the Olympia Flight Ex- 
hibition. 



car take 
t a subma 
nd fitted V 



shape, 162 
IS 6,000 cub 
the form c 
ne boat. 



ft. 



, 4-h.p. motor. 
ed to keep the bal- 
loon in the course of the African trade winds, the 
aeronaut's idea being to make the voyage entirely 
without mechanical propulsion by keeping within 
the air currents which took Christopher Columbus 
on liis voyage of discovery. 

To obviate all danger that might arise from the 
expansion of the gas under the influence of 
changes of temperature the balloon has two en- 
velopes, between which an air current constantly 
circulates. 

S>vitzerland 

San Moritz, the well-known winter resort of Eu- 
ropean fashion, has received the visit of Captain 
von Engelhardt. the German officer instructed by 
Orville Wright in the past autumn, and of Santos- 
Dumont; they have of course brought their flyers 
with them, and the former has already made some 
flights. 



v'ing machine model club has been formed 
idon, the first in England. 

Aviation Section of the English Motor 
has decided not to restrict itself to heavier- 

ir m.achincf. 



Several hundred 
the English Women 



Aerial League. 



The Societa Aeronautica Ttaliana has named as 
its representatives Nino Piccoli and Albert C. 
Triaca for the Gordon Bennett Balloon Race, and 
Albert C. Triaca for the Gordon Bennett Aviation 
Race. 

The Dirigible Committee of the Aero Club of 
France is studying the possibility of receiving by 
wireless information concerning barometric press- 
ures on different points of the Atlantic Coast. 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



63 




THE TEI-LOEATED SPANISH DIRIGIBLE TORRES OUEVADO, WHICH IS NOW" AT SARTROUVILLE, 
FRANCE 



the Voisin system was o 
■ nixlicHiv on the machine bull 
IMh.i to the date of the pa 
I .in^i.|uently this was held 
lication, and the verdict was 
favor of i\I. Clement. 



on by 

1908. 
pub- 



Mr. Capazza, Vic 
Frangaise de la Nav 
neer in aeronautics, 
man: "I certainlv a 
briel Voii 



Far 



San 



•Dun 



th 



sident of the Societe 
n Aerienne, and a pio- 
tly said to a newspaper 
'. scientists such as Ga- 
Wright 



,vho 



folio 



■mg_ 



al work, but 
little use for the armchair experts who loudly 
prophesy that aeroplanes will this year be flying 
at two hundred miles an hour on the strength of 
their precious formulas and calculations." 

Seen in an English magazine: 

Lost— An Aeroplane 

Sir: I wish to inform the readers of your maga- 
zine that I lost a self-propelled aero model. Any 
reasonable expenses will be paid to finder of the 



We will repeat the " 
out charge, on the chanc 
drifted into this hemispht 



BOOKS 

L'Aviation. . . This is a volume by Commandant 
Paul Renard, brother of the famous Colonel Re- 
nard. It contains his six lectures on aviation 
made in 1909 at the " Societe d'Encouragement 
pour I'Industrie Nationale." Le Navire Aerien. 
Mr. L. Marchis, the author, who was nominated 
to the aviation chair at the Sorbonne in Paris, has 
here brought together, in a substantial volume, his 
lessons in aerostatics and aviation. This book, 
which is in itself, a very complete review of aerial 
navigation in both the theoretical and practical 
field, will be a genuine help to manufacturers, sci- 
entists and inventors. 

MISCELLANEOUS 



Shortly afle 
nps ope 



the 



■ Republique " disaster, the 



public 



■iptK 



'ith 



to replacing the airship. Altogether 312,000 francs 
were contributed, and 40,000 francs were spent in 
providing for the widows of the two adjutants. A 
committee asked the various principal constructors 
to name the lowest price at which they would 
supply their dirigibles or aeroplanes. In conse- 
quence of their patriotic action in giving very low 
prices, it has been possible to order two dirigibles 
and four aeroplanes, which with the dirigible 
which Messrs. Lebaudy are presenting to replace 
the ill-fated " Republique," will give the French 
Government a very imposing aerial fleet. The 
largest dirigible, of 7,000 to 8.000 cubic meters, 
will be built by the Astra Company, while the 
other airship will be a Zodiac of 1,400 cubic 
meters. 

The aeroplanes will be of the Henry Farman, 
Maurice Farman, Bleriot and Wright types. 

To what are English inventors turning their 
minds to-day? The records at the Patent Office 
show that the branches of invention which re- 
ceived the most increased attention during 1909 
were aeronautics, motors for road vehicles and 
advertising schemes. 

A few years ago the individual who entered the 
Patent Office with an application relating to a fly- 



ing 


machine ran 


the 


isk of being regarded as a 


har 


mless lunatic. 


It 


s yet too early 


for any ex- 


act 


classification 


be 


available of the 


vanous ap- 


plic 


ations made 


durir 


g the past yea 


r, but the 


ind 


X for the firs 


thre 


e quarters show 


3 that close 


upon a thousand 


inventions relating to 


aeronautics 


wer 


e brought to 


the 


notice of the 


authorities 


dur 


ng the twelve 


mon 


hs. 





An action has just been fought in Paris in 
which the Voisin Frtres sued M. A. Clement for 
an infringement of their patent controlling gear, 
by which the whole control is effected by one 
organ (lever or wheel). M. Ck^ment cited an old 
patent of Penaud and Gauchot of 1876, but the 
court held that it was not a valid patent, as it had 
never been worked. However, the court also held 




ON ITS RECENT TRIP FROM BRACCIANO TO NAPLES AND RETURN, THE ITALIAN WAR DIRI- 
GIBLE NO. I BIS MAINTAINED AN AVERAGE SPEED, OVER THE 325 MILES, OF OVER 
TWENTY MILES AN HOUR; WITH THE WIND, THE SPEED TOUCHED FIFTY-FOUR MILES AT 
TIMES ; WHILE AGAINST IT, IT OCCASIONALLY FELL AS LOW AS ELEVEN. THE DIRIGIBLE 
IS HERE SEEN ON ITS COURSE. 



64 



AIRCRA FT 



April, igio 




BIG MEN OF THE MOVEMENT 



JAMES GORDON BENNETT 

AMES GORDON BENNETT was born in New 

York, May i, 1841. It would be hard to say 
whether he is better known by his position in the 
newspaper world as the proprietor of the New 
York Herald or by his untiring efforts to pro- 
mote international competition in every kind of 
sport. 

It would seem as if the mere name of Gordon 
Bennett Cup implied of itself the blue ribbon of 
the particular sport referred to. 

For many years the Gordon Bennett Cup was 
the annual international automobile race par ex- 
cellence, the race for which months in time and 
thousands of dollars in money were spent in prep- 
aration. Then motorboating received its share of 
attention from Mr. Bennett, and finally he turned 
his attention to air-craft. 

When the International Aeronautic Federation 
was organized in igo6, Mr. Bennett presented it, 
for annual competition, with the handsome silver 
Gordon Bennett International Balloon Trophy 
which has since been so hard fought for by the 
most skilful pilots in the world. For the first three 
years Mr. Bennett gave with the trophy each year 
the sum of $2,500 in cash, and as a result the sport 
progressed rapidly. 

It was first held in Pans, and won by Lieu- 
tenant Lahm, the sole representative of the do- 
nor's country; held at St. Louis in 1907, the Cup 
recrossed the Atlantic, being won by Germany ; 
Switzerland then came to the fore — in 1908 — and 
now once more America has " lifted " the famous 
*' Coupe Internationale." 

When the heavier-than-air machine had been de- 
veloped to the stage where several aviators had 
succeeded in actually flying, Mr. Bennett donated 
another trophy to the International Aeronautic 
Federation, this time for annual competition by 
■-than-air machines, and to this magnificent 



trophy , _ 
year to the wini 
the trophy becor 
resented by the ■ 
petition takes pi; 
prizes were 



both will be 



th 



fought 

auspices 



this cou 
Df the Ae 



ntry du 



Club of 



Is it necessary to mention Mr. Bennett's further 
claims to the gratitude of his countrymen? Who- 
ever has read the story of the cruise of the " Jean- 
nette " will have realized in what esteem and ad- 
miration the members of that famous expedition 
held its organizer. 

The first land that Commander de Long trod in 
two years was a hitherto unknown island lost in 
the arctic wilderness of ice, north of Siberia. 
After effecting a landing on It he did two things: 
one was to raise the Stars and Stripes and the 
other to name the new land Bennett Island. 

Another famous expedition promoted by James 
Gordon Bennett was Stanley's famous search for 
Livingstone " through darkest Africa." 

Mr. Bennett was also instrumental in establish- 
ing a new line of transatlantic cable. 



IT would be ir 
sort of a biography of Mr, 



cash were added, $5,000 to go each 
ler of the trophy. In each case 
les the property of the Club rep- 
vinning pilot until the next com- 
ice. As all the world knows both 
last year by Americans, and th 



HENRY DEUTSCH 

(de la MUERTHE) 
impossible to give the very briefest 
Henry Deutsch in 
few lines, as his work in the promotion of 
aerial flight is very extensive, so that what we 
are offering herewith are but a few impressions 
of this intelligent business man and courteous 
sportsman. 

Henry Deutsch (de la Meurthe) was born in 
Paris on September 26. 1864. and at the present 
time he is associated with his brother as the head 
of the firm of " The Sons of A. Deutsch." 

Mr. Deutsch is best known in the world of sci- 
ence and sport for his generous encouragement 
toward the advancement of both automobiles and 
air-craft, although he also enjoys the distinction 
of being a patron of art and artists. 

He was one of the founders of the Automobile 
Club of France, and also of the Aero Club of 
France, and he has not only devoted large sums 
of money towards the encouragement of aero- 
nautics, but he personally takes an active part in 
demonstrations of aerial flight as well. He con- 
ceived the idea of using motors in air-craft even 
before they were used in automobiles, and during 
the early stages of the automobile industry he 
made suggestions along this line in an address 
delivered at the Paris Exposition of 1900. A few 
months afterwards he founded the famous Deutsch 
prize, offering one hundred thousand francs to the 
aeronaut who would make a voyage in the air 
from the ground of the Aero Club of France at 
St. Cloud and. traveling around the Eiffel Tower, 
arrive back at the starting point within half an 
hour. This prize was won by Santos-Dumont, 
October 17. igoo. 

A little later, together with Mr. Ernest Arch- 
deacon, he founded another prize of fifty thousand 
francs to be awarded to the aviator who would fly 
in a heavier-than-air machine within a closed 
circuit of at least one kilometer, without touching 
the ground. This prize was won by Henry Far- 
roplane on January 13, 1908, 



at Is 



Moulii 



(Fr; 



itsch also expended nearly two hundred 
thousand dollars in building, altering and experi- 
menting with his large dirigible, " La Ville de 
Paris." which later he generously offered to the 
French Government when the ill-fated war dirig- 
ible "Patrie" was lost near Verdun. 

Realizing that the rapid development of aerial 
locomotion required specially trained men with 
both theoretical and practical knowledge in the 
construction and operation of the different kinds 
of air-craft, he took the first steps toward the 
foundation of an Institute of Aeronautics in St. 



COLGATE HOYT 

pOLGATE HOYT, a man of prominence in 
*^-^ every field of endeavor in which he has de- 
voted his energies, a patron of progress, in every 
sense of the expression, was born in Cleveland 
sixty-one years ago. 

The son of Hon. James M. Hoyt, an eminent 
practitioner at the bar, Mr. Hoyt may have thought 
of following in his father's footsteps and duplicat- 
,n eye-injury compelled 



hardv 

land. 

He 



store of Colwells & Binghj 



of Cleve- 



later a partner of his father in buy- 
ing and selling real estate, and has continued to 
this day to have substantial real estate interests 
and holdings in Cleveland. 

Removing to New York in 1881. he became a 
partner in the staunch Wall Street firm of James 
B. Colgate & Co. 

In 1SS2 President Arthur appointed him Gov- 
ernment director of the Union Pacific Railway, 
and in 1B84, backed by a large stock interest, he 
was elected a regular director. 

After several years he and his colleagues trans- 
ferred their interests to the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road, and Mr. Hoyt was elected a member of the 
Executive and Financial Committees of the Board 
of Directors of that road, and Vice-President of 
some of its principal branch lines. In 1S84 he be- 
came actively identified with the Wisconsin Cen- 
tral Railroad, and pushed the continuation of this 
line west to St. Paul and south to Chicago, at 
which latter point he helped organize and finance 
the Chicago & Northern Pacific Railway, owning 
large terminals in the center of the city. In 1889 
he became Vice-President of the Oregon & Trans- 
continental Company. Organized and financed the 
noted Spanish-American Iron Mines of Cuba, now 
a part of the Pennsylvania Steel Co.'s properties. 
In 1889 became identified with the Missouri, Kan- 
sas & Texas Railway Company, and for twenty 
years served on the board and as Vice-President. 

Mr. Hoyt's name is a familiar one to all those 
interested in the newer forms of locomotion. 

There is little need to dwell on his position in 
the automobile world; his administration as Presi- 
dent of the Automobile Club of America, the 
representative national body of motordom, comes 
instantly to mind. It was during this administra- 
tion that the A. C. A.'s beautiful club house in 
New York was financed and built. 

Mr. Colgate Hoyt is only one more of the many 
prominent and conservative men in the country 



Cyr-L'Ecole, France, giving the sum of one hun- 


turning their beneficent interest in the direction of 


dred thousand dollars to begin with, and an al- 


aeronautics. 


lowance yearly of three thousand dollars. 


An early member and enthusiastic supporter of 


This Institute will be opened for business May 


the Aero Club of America. Mr. Hoyt is keenly 


first, with several complete departments directed 


alive to the startling possibilities of air-navigation. 


by the most competent men in France. 


The Aero Club has already numbered him 


The generosity of Mr. Henry Deutsch (de la 


among its officers, and it is on just such men as 


Meurthe) was one of the main factors tending 


he that it counts to spread its doctrine of progress 


toward the remaiVable progress made in aero- 


and to give the country the position it should oc- 


nautics in France during the past few years. 


cupy in aerial matters — the first. 



April, igio 



6S 




BIG MEN OF THE MOVEMENT 



J. C. McCOY 

I C. JIcCOY of New York: here is another emi- 
^ • nent sportsman, a man of prominence, wealth 
and high social standing who has taken up aero- 
nautics from both sporting and scientific stand- 

^°In business Mr. JVIcCoy is a banker, being Presi- 
dent of the Perth Amboy Trust Company of that 
city, as well as a director in several other bank- 
ing institutions in New York and Providence, R. I. 

Aeronautically Mr. McCoy enjoys an interna- 
tional reputation, being known wherever balloon- 
ing as a sport is indulged in. 

Thousands of men are nowadays interested in 
aeronautics, and hundreds are actively going in for 
it and " getting olif the ground," but such was not 
the case only a very short while ago. 

In ballooning as a gentleman's pastime, Mr. 
JIcCov mav be said to be something of a pioneer. 

■' One " i's the number of his license as an Aero 
Club pilot, he being the first man to qualify as 
such. 

In the second holding for the Gordon Bennett 
Cup balloon race, that of St. Louis in 1907, he 
finished fourth, with a distance of 736 miles. He 
was forty hours in the air, and beat all records for 
pilots of the Aero Club of America for distance 
and duration. 

He again had the distinction of representing his 
country in the following race for the Cup, that 
held at Berlin in 1908. 

This year fog spoilt Mr. McCoy's chances of 
finishing " in the money." Last year Mr. McCoy 
did not take part in the Gordon Bennett Cup 
Race; he was nevertheless indirectly responsible 
for his country and club's victory in the event. 

None of the usual Aero Club pilots were able 
to go to Switzerland to represent the Club, but 
Mr. Mi.x. an American and Club member resid- 
ing in Paris, undertook, at Mr. Cortlandt Field 
Bishop's suggestion, to carry the American colors 
at Zurich, if that very necessary adjunct — a bal- 
loon were available for the purpose. 

It is here that Mr. J. C. McCoy stepped in and 
offered to the Club the use of his full-sized racing 
balloon, the ultimate victor in the race, " Amer- 
ica II." 

It is Just such acts of sportsmanship and dis- 
interestedness as this which make the Aero Club 
proud of its governing board. 

Being one of the founders of the Aero Club of 
America. ^Ir. McCoy has been repeatedly elected 
director of that organization from its very incep- 
tion. 

During 1907 and 190S he acted as First Vice- 
President, and in the fall of the latter year was 
elected President of the Club, serving in that ca- 
pacity until January. 1909, when he resigned in 
order to go around the world. 

Mr. McCoy, who is a great devotee of traveling, 
is at present engaged on a second circuit of the 
planet; let it be hoped for the still greater enjoy- 
ment of the trip, that his third " circular " voy- 
age will be accomplished without the aid of either 
railway or steamboat, or any other mere land or 
water vehicle! 



A. LEO STEVENS 

A LEO STEVENS, America's foremost bal- 
• loonist, was born in Cleveland in 1873. It 
was scarcely twelve years later that he made his 
first ascension, and by the time he was fourteen 
he had achieved sufficient fame to be known far 
and wide as the Boy Aeronaut. 

Stevens was just fifteen years of age when he 
built his first balloon; at eighteen his career came 
near to being suddenly and dramatically ended; he 
" landed " in Lake Erie, and was not rescued until 
the following day, having spent the entire night 
in the frigid waters of the great inland sea. 

When little more than a lad he became profi- 
cient as a parachute-jumper, and when stdl in his 
teens an air-trip from the shores of Lake Ontario 
to South Carolina added a further stock to his 
accumulated laurels; this was at the time one of 
the longest balloon voyages ever made. 

It was in 1893 that he started manufacturing bal- 
loons in New York. Eight years later he built the 
first dirigible to float in American air and stem 
an American breeze; his engine was a De Dion- 
Bouton, imported from Paris, and with the excep- 
tion of Santos-Dumont's, the only one used on 
an air-craft at that time. Certainly only light 
breezes could be successfully cofjed with by this 
early type of airship, but as a pioneer it has its 
place in the history of American aeronautics. 

In the middle of the last century ballooning had 
many adepts in this country, chief among whom 
was the immortal Wise, but for many years the 
sport had more or less fallen in disrepute. 

Among the men to whom a debt of gratitude is 
due for re-establishing the art of ballooning and 
placing it before the world as one of the grandest 
and safest of sports and pastimes perhaps none 
is more deserving of it than Leo Stevens. 

An early member of the Aero Club of America, 
he did much to promote the sport, and when the 
Count de la Vaulx— the holder of the world's dis- 
tance record— and Charles L^vee, came over from 
Paris, Stevens was closely associated with them in 
their endeavors to encourage American ballooning. 

Ballooning had long been looked upon as a dan- 
gerous sport, but when Mrs. C. J. S. Milli 
Franklin, Pa., rose in Stevens' basket on 
gust n, 1906. that era may be said to have been 
ended; since then an appreciable minority of 
Stevens' passengers has belonged to the fair sex. 

Besides being a member and pilot of the Aero 
Club of America, the Aeronautic Society, the Aero 
Clubs of Ohio, Pittsfield, of North Adams and of 
New England count Stevens among their mem- 
bers, and he is honorary member of the Columbia 
University Aero Club. 

Three years ago he was appointed instructor to 
the LInited States Balloon Corps, and trained the 
Signal Corps in the handling and care of aerostats. 

The International Race at St. Louis was run 
under his guidance, and those connected with 
ballooning will appreciate his ability in this direc- 
tion, when it is said that the great gas-bags soared 
aloft at their allotted time, with the regularity and 
punctuality of trains leaving a terminal station. 



Au- 



COUNT VON ZEPPELIN 

/"OUNT FERDINAND VON ZEPPELIN, the 
'^ designer of the greatest and in some respects 
the most remarkable and most successful aircraft 
ever built, was born July 7, 1S38, at Constance, 
on the shores of the lake, over which his genius 
was, half a century later, to reveal itself to an 
astonished world. Count von Zeppelin has prob- 
ably devoted more time to the study of aeronau- 
tical problems than any man living; in fact, they 
may be said to have occupied the major portion 
of his already long life. 

It was only after these years of patient study 
that von Zeppelin, then a general in the German 
Army and adjutant to the King of Wurtemburg, 
after deciding on the lighter-than-air type, con- 
ceived the idea of constructing a large and rigid 
airship which should preserve its shape under all 
conditions. 

This idea was not favorably received by the 
Prussian Ministry of War, and the Count accord- 
ingly organized a company to build the largest of 
all airships. A site was given by the King of 
Wurtemburg, at Manzell, on the shore of Lake 
Constance, and in i8g8. a great floating shed was 
anchored off the shore; it was secured at its front 
end, which thus always faced the wind. In the 
shed a strong aluminum frame, having 16 sides, 
but of generally cylindrical appearance. 420 feet 
long, and 39 feet in diameter, with bomb-shaped 
ends, was put together. The interior was divided 
in 17 compartments, each holding an ordinary 
balloon; they had a combined volume of 390,000 
cubic feet. The metal frame was covered with 
cloth, and this mode of construction was followed 
out in all the latter Zeppelins. In fact, so. re- 
markably did practice confirm the earnestly 
thought-out theories of the great inventor, that 
except in motor power, the present Zeppelins 
differ but in detail from the first one. The latter 
had the separate compartments, four propellers 
and two engines which have afforded ever since 
such a high guarantee of safety to this type of 
airship whenever it is in its element. The first 
engines used were two 16 h.p. Daimlers; those 
destined for the latest Zeppelins are expected to 
sh them with 500 h.p. and propel them at 



40 



hou 



It is not too much to say that the most mar- 
vellous air-voyages ever made by any type of 
aerial machines are to the credit of Zeppelm's 
great craft. It would be beyond the scope of a 
succinct biography to relate the many journeys 
the giant ships have made over Germany and 
Switzerland. Suffice it to .say that they hold all 
records for dirigible balloons for distance covered 
and duration of flight. 

-As an instance of how safe a trip in a Zeppelin 
is considered in Germany, it may be said that 
such precious human freight as the King of Wurt- 
emburg. Prince Henry of Prussia and the Crown 
Prince of Germany have traveled in these mighty 
dirigibles, which more than any contrivance yet 
built by man deserve the much-abused appellation 
of airship, for ships of the air they certainly are. 



66 



AIRCRAFT 



April, iQio 



THE NEW MAXIM AEROPLANE 



By 



Sir Hiran\ S. Maxim 

(From London Flight) 



SIX years ago I commenced making drawings 
with a view to building a flying machine with 
a petrol motor, but I did not finish it at that time, 
as I had a lot of other work on hand. 

All the flying machines which have been built 
in recent years do not differ much from my origi- 
nal Baldwyn's Park machine, except as regards 
size and the kind of motive power employed. 

About eighteen months ago, in making a care- 
ful study of the whole subject, it appeared to me 
that the Baldwyn's Park type of machine, with 
slight modifications, was still the best that could 
be devised. I therefore decided to make another 
machine, on practically the same lines, but very 
much smaller, and to drive it with a petrol en- 
gine. 

I made the drawings, and about twelve months 
ago started to make a new light engine and a re- 
liable carburettor, in fact, everything relating to 
my present flying machine. 

The engine which I designed has four cylinders, 
each 5 ins. in diameter, with a common stroke of 
5 1 ins. The cylinders, pistons, connecting-rods, 
and the crank-shaft, are made of a special brand 
of "'Vickers" steel, which perhaps is the strongest 
and toughest steel that has ever been produced, 
in fact, I have never ■ seen anything to compare 
with it. It has a tensile strength of 57 tons, with 
an elongation of 14 per cent. This is remarkable, 
and it enabled me to make all the parts of ex- 
treme lightness and still have a reasonable factor 
of safety, moreover, the great lightness of the 
moving parts enables the engine to run faster if 
required than it would if the parts were heavy. 

In order to get a high speed if required, I made 
all the passage ways and valves of the engine 
very large and free. I had noticed at the various 
places on the Continent where I had seen flying 
machine engines in action that they worked very 
badly and unsteadily, the exhaust being very ir- 
regular. A study of this question demonstrated 
only too clearly that the great trouble was with 
the carburettor; the explosive charge was not 
thoroughly mixed, or perhaps not mixed at all, 
and never of a uniform density. 

I therefore experimented on a carburettor and 
made one that would produce gas of a uniform 
density, and it was found that when the air and 
the gas were thoroughly mixed before they en- 
tered the cylinder at all, the petrol engine be- 
haved exactly as a gas engine does. The exhaust 
was perfectly regular, and, as a well-known steam 
engineer said in witnessing the running of my 
engine, " It runs as steady as any steam engine 
I have ever seen, and altogether different from 
any other petrol engine." 

This engine has a forced circulation, and every- 
thing about the engine, including the spindles of 
the exhaust valves, is cooled, so there is never 
any overheating. 

A new system of oiling is also used. A small 
pump, having a bore of li in., and a stroke of i* 
in., is so arranged and driven by a train of gears 
and " clockwork," that the piston is raised against 
the resistance of a spring, and liberated four times 
in a minute, and the spring is of sufficient strength 
to produce a pressure of 120 lbs. per sq. in. on 
the oil, the result being that every part of the 
engine, including the gudgeon-pins, is thoro;ighly 
lubricated four times a minute, and it has been 
found that no excess of oil gets past the piston 
into the explosion-chamber. 

The screw propellers are three in number. One 
is placed directly on the screw shaft, and runs, of 
course, the same speed as the engine, and takes 
the place of a fly-wheel; the others are very much 
larger, and revolve at a much slower rate. 

Two of the screws, the small one, and one of 
the large ones, rotate in a right-hand direction, 
and the other one in a left-hand direction, but the 
left-hand screw has a finer pitch than its mate, 
and revolves at a higher velocity, just high enough 
so that its gyroscopic action is equal to the gyro- 
scopic action of the other two screws, and the 
rotating parts of the engine; therefore there is no 
gyroscopic action at all when the screws are con- 
sidered ensemble^ as the left-hand screw exactly 
neutralizes the gyroscopic action of all the other 
rotating parts. 

The framework of tlie machine has been made of 
American yellow pine of a very fine quality. Al- 
though it is not quite so strong as spruce per 
square inch, it is really stronger than spruce when 
considered in terms of its own weight. More- 
over, spruce was difficult to obtain. 

The machine has fore and aft rudders fbalanced) 
and one horizontal rudder also balanced. 

The main part of the machine is made up of six 
aeroplanes; the central section carries the ma- 
chinery and the driver, and the two side sections 
are simply superposed wings, but they are not 
level. The outside ends are raised very much 
above the central section, and their surfaces are 
curved in such a manner that when the machine 
is in the air whichever side is the lower will lift 
the most. This ensures lateral stability, without 
the necessity of any machinery. 

I know that some mathematicians might dispute 
this, as they believe, or think they believe, that 



the 



ssure on the aeroplane is always perpen- 
aicuiar to its surface, but if they would give the 
matter one moment's .careful consideration they 
would know that such is not the case. 

It would be the case, I will admit, if the whole 
machine was mounted on a shaft, and could rotate 
in the air after the manner of a windmill, but the 
machine is not mounted on a shaft, it is suspended 
in the air and resting on the air, and falling 
through the air at the rate of 6 or 7 miles an hour. 
True, it is going ahead at the same time, but 
nevertheless it is falling as relates to the air, 
therefore its downward motion through the air, 
while traveling, has the same effect as it would 
if the machine was not traveling at all, but simply 
falling through the air. Therefore, the side that is 
lowest and presents the best angle to the wind, 
and also presents a lifting effect farthest from the 
center of gravity, must lift the most, and have a 
strong tendency to keep the machine on an even 
keel. 

The center of gravity, however, is very low, 
ery much below the center of lifting effect. 
tends to keep the machine 



Th 



ght side up. 

I have also applied a device which I invented 
and patented many years ago, which enables the 
pilot to vary the pitch of the wings while the 
machine is still in flight; but instead of doing it 
after the manner of the Wright Brothers, I strictly 
adhere to my original patent, the wings being 
moved in one direction by hand, and in the re- 
verse direction by a spring. But this device I do 
not think will be absolutely necessary on account 
of the shape of the wings and the arrangement of 
the weights. 

In making this machine I have sought to group 
all the parts together, as near as I can. in line 
(tandem) in order to reduce the atmospheric re- 
sistance as much as possible, and to have what 
there is of it in the path of the screw, that is, the 
motor, the driver, the densest part of the frame- 
work, the magneto, steering-gear, and the petrol 
tank are all placed in line very low down, and all 
in the path of the small screw, so that if it should 
take, we will say, lo-h.p. to overcome the resist- 
ance of these parts, the lo-h.p., having been ex- 
pended on the air itself, would draw the air for- 
ward in the direction of flight, so that the screw 
would be running in air which was already ad- 
vancing, and fully 80 per cent, of the energy would 
be recovered by the screw. 

It is the same also with the two large screws. 
All the parts that offer considerable resistance are 
forward of the screw, so that as much as possible 
of the energy lost in atmospheric resistance will 
be recovered. 

The width of the aeroplanes fore and aft is 6 
ft. 6 ins., and they are 6 ft. 6 ins. apart. 

I have not given so much curvature to the aero- 
planes as one would find on most of the machines 
of the present day, because in my early experi- 
ments I found that, when we consider the liftmg 
effect of an aeroplane in terms of the drift, the 
thin aeroplanes, which are only slightly curved, 
do the best. Quite true, they do not lift so much 
per square foot, but they lift more per h.p., and I 
have preserved the shape which was found best 
at Baldwyn's Park. 

Both the top and the bottom sides of the aero- 
planes are covered with very thin and extremely 
strong waterproof silk. It is altogether the 
strongest and lightest I have ever seen, weighing 
only about 2 ozs. to the square yard. 

This silk is laced on to the aeroplanes with a 
great deal of care, and the whole of it as tight as 
a drumhead. 

The aeroplanes are thin and sharp. The stays 
are of two kinds— oval steel and flat steel, and the 
struts partly of oval steel tubing and partly of 
American pine. 

The total width of the machine is 44 ft. 

One of the novel features of the machine which 
makes it look so much neater and simpler than 
other forms is the manner of constructing the 
frame and mounting the screws. Instead of hav- 
ing a lattice-work frame running round the screws 
to support the aft rudders, the screws are not 
mounted on a rotating shaft, but rotate themselves 
on a part of the framework of the machine. 

In fact, the real foundation of the machine con- 
sists of two steel tubes, to which everything else 
is suspended or attached, and it is these steel 
tubes on which the screw-propellers rotate. 

This enables the principal member of the frame- 
work of the machine to pass directly through the 
center of the screws, as an extension of these steel 
tubes carries all the rudders— fore, aft and vertical. 

The screws being of very large size— over 11 ft. 
in diameter— of necessity have to be made very 
thin, in order to be light, and also in order to 
cut the air with little resistance. They are of 
pine, of the Baldwyn's Park type, which is com- 
mon to nearly all machines at present, but a new 
feature has been introduced. 

As these screws are not strong enough by them- 
selves to stand the thrust without being distorted 
and broken, they are held back by strong steel 
strips 2^2 in. thick, and about li in. wide. 



These strips, having the same pitch as the blades 
themselves, also act as a screw propeller, cutting 
the air keenly, and being very efficient. The 
screws are therefore held in position, their blades 
can neither be twisted nor deformed, and there is 
nothing to prevent their cutting through the air 
with the least possible resistance. By this means 
a very large amount of air can be engaged— a great 
deal more than has ever been engaged before per 
h.p.— therefore there would be less slip than with 
any other system so far invented. 

Moreover, the resistance required for driving the 
machine through the air would be less, because 
everything is much sharper and smoother than 
in any other machine I have ever seen, but un- 
fortunately a large and level field is not obtainatile 
near the Crayford Gun Works at the present mo- 
ment. True. land can be obtained, but it costs 
a lot to get it and to level it off and protect it, so 
I have devised a new system of testing — one that 
I think is quite different from anything suggested 
before. 

I have constructed a tarred sand circular track, 
having a circumference of 2,200 ft. This track is 
25 ft. wide, and in the center I have erected a 
steel mast, to which I propose to attach a steel 
wire rope about 35 ft. from the ground, and to 
hold this rope up by very fine wires from an- 
other support over 100 ft. high. The steel wire 
will have attached to it three branches, which will 
take hold of the machine in three places, and in 
this way the machine will be held on an even keel, 
as far as relates to " port " and " starboard,", but 
will be free to move forward, to ascend and de- 
scend; and will also be free to depress, or elevate 
the forward end, that is, every movement which 
is necessary to make when testing a- machine is 
obtained, while the machine is prevented from fly- 
ing off at a tangent. 

It will therefore be possible not only to try 
the working of the engine, the cooling effect of 
the air, the propulsion of the screws, the lifting 
effect of the aeroplanes, the balancing of the 
weights, and. in fact, everything connected with 
the working of the machine, without any danger 
whatsoever of injury to the pilot or breakage, 
while it affords a unique opportunity for the pilot 
to learn to manipulate all the necessary steering- 
gear, and so forth, and it is very evident that after 
this has been done for a certain length of time, 
the machine may be connected with a single wire, 
so as to find out if all the other movements are 
completely under control, and after this free flight 
ought to be quite simple and safe. 

At any rate, a circular track will always afford a 
very simple manner of teaching men to fly, be- 
cause they can do it without danger to themselves 
or to the machine. 

WINGS 

By Charlton La.wrence Edholm 

npHE hand of man, emerging from the mist 
A Of primal ages, was a hairy fist. 
All blood-bedabbled; for the hand had killed 
Before it learned to sow and reap and build. 
So each new tool was but a weapon fit 
To add new terrors to the blow of it; 
The first rude ax was formed for bloody deed. 
Split skulls before it served the builder's need. 
And thus through ages runs the tale; by worst 
Of uses is the new-found tool accurst. 
Yet we believe what prophet's words record. 
That into plowshares men shall beat the sword. 

For centuries we stood upon the edge 

Of space and yearned, while sparrows from the 

hedge 
Took flight and taunted us. " That I had wings! " 
'Mid stormy music, thus the Psalmist sings, 
" Then would I fly away and be at rest." 
And lo, the wings are ours, a gift, the best 
The genius of our race has forged; a tool 
Fit for our eager age. What says the fool. 
The War-brute? " This is minCy for brawls and 

strife. 
As hawk-wings are the hawk's — for taking life! " 



Well, da 



the 



War- god ! 



the 



till the 



Will kill for you no more. What narrow space 

Holds man to-day apart from brother man, 

A range of rock, a river or a span 

Of channel; and our wings shall overleap 

These dwarfish landmarks. Then what king shall 

keep 
His folk from merging with humanity 
As waters intermingle in the sea? 

Sail forth, winged Argonauts of trackless ai^, 
And as upon your homeward course you fare 
Bring heav'niy treasure. Neither gold nor steel, 
Nor gross and earthly wealth weight your light 

keel; 
Man's Brotherhood, bring that as Golden Fleece 
On sun-blest wings, bright harbingers of peace. 

— Popular Mechanics. 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



67 



Aero Club of America 
By Cha.rles H. Heltman 

ON February 17th the original Aero Club of 
America became a thing of the past. In its 
place there sprung into life a new Aero Club of 
America well worthy of the name. Its head- 
quarters, now being luxuriantly furnished, are lo- 
cated in the United Engineering Societies Build- 
ing, and it was fortunate in securing for its head 
Cortlandt Field Bishop, formerly President of the 
old Aero Club of America. Under Mr. Bishop's 
guidance much work has already been accom- 
plished. 

All the leading Aero Clubs throughout the 
country have affiliated with it. its membership is 
growing rapidly, and it is arranging dates for 
Aviation meets for all parts of the United States. 
Preparations are being rapidly completed for both 
the International Aviation and Balloon Races to 
be held this year. 

On March 24th the Annual Banquet of the Club 
will be held at the Hotel St. Regis, and but few 
seats in the banquet hall still remain unreserved. 
Prominent speakers have accepted the Club's in- 
vitation to deliver addresses. 

When entries closed on February first for the 
International Balloon Race twelve challenges had 
been received as follows: Germany, 3; France, 3; 
Denmark, i; Italy, 2; England, :; Switzerland, 2. 
The Aero Club of America will have three teams 
defend the cup, making fifteen competitors alto- 
gether. 

Entries closed on March ist for the Interna- 
tional Aviation Race, and seven challenges have 
been received as follows: England, 3; Italy, i; 
France, 3. The Aero Club of America will also 
defend this trophy with three teams, making ten 
competitors altogether. 

The places where both these contests are to be 
held have not yet been decided upon, for while 
the place for the balloon race must be named 
March ist, it was impossible to do so because 
the cup. and the official decision of the Interna- 
tional Aeronautic Federation had not been re- 
ceived. So many applications have been received 
to represent America that elimination races will 
have to be held. 

The amount of coal gas consumed during the 
year 1909 was 255.281.79 cubic meters which en- 
titles the Club to eleven votes at meetings of the 
Federation. 

The officers and directors of the new Aero Club 
of America are as follows: President, Cortlandt 
Field Bishop; First Vice-President, Samuel H. 
Valentine; Second Vice-President, Dave H. Mor- 
ris; Third Vice-President. Clifford B. Harmon; 
Treasurer, Chas. Jerome Edwards, Secretary, Wil- 
liam Hawlev. Governors: Cortlandt Field Bishop, 
James A. Blair, Jr.. Philip T. Dodge, Chas. Je- 
rome Edwards, A. Holland Forbes, L. L. Gilles- 
pie, Allan R. Hawley, J. C. McCoy, William W. 
Miller, Dave H. Morris, Charles A. Munn, Samuel 
H. Valentine. 

The following dates have been officially decided 
upon for the National and International meets by 
the Committee of Meets, consisting of A. B. Lam- 
bert, Carl G. Fisher, Allan R. Hawley and Cort- 
landt Field Bishop. The International Balloon 
Race will take place at St. Louis on October 17th, 
and the National Championship Balloon Race 
(which is the elimination race for the Interna- 
tional) will be held at Indianapolis. September 
17th. The date of the International Aviation Meet 
has been fixed for October 25th to November 2d 
but the place has not vet been decided upon The 
Indianapolis Balloon Race will be held on \uzu^t 
i2th and the Illinois Meet will take place on Tuh 
5th and 6th. There will be a prize for balloons of 

capacity of 600 m. to 1,200 m. ; and another prize 



for 



to 



Augustus Post of New York. George P W hite 
of Indianapolis and E. Percy Noll of St Louis 
have been appointed to act as official 
of balloons in all contests. 



Aero Club of Pennsylvania 

By T. T. Tuttle 

A LTHOUGH only a little more than two 
rt months old. the Aero Club of Pennsylvania 
has already established comfortable headquarters 
in the Betz Building. Philadelphia, has averaged 
more than one new member for every day of its 
existence, and is now actively engaged in prepa- 
ration for an aeronautic meet during July or Au- 
gust, having petitioned the National Committee 
on Meets for ten days during this period. 

The Club was organized at a meeting held on 
December 17. igog. and in one session elected of- 
ficers to serve until the first annual meeting, 
April I, igio, adopted a constitution and by-laws, 
appointed committees on headquarters, grounds, 
etc.. and on the following day the committee on 
incorporation prepared the application for charter. 
The Club will apply to the Aero Club of America 
for affiliation as soon as the charter is granted. 



CLUB NEWS 

Compiled by Ada Gibson 

The officers of the Club Eire: rrcsitlcnt. Arthur 
T. Atherholt; First Vice-President. R. H. Beau- 
mont; Second Vice-President, Louis J. Bergdoll; 
Treasurer, Laurence Maresch; Secretary, Jack 
Hiscock; Assistant Secretary, Carl H. Carson; 
Directors, Kev. Cieorge S. Gassner, Robert D. 
Carson, Clarence 1^. Wynne and Thomas T. 
Tuttle. 




HENRY M. NEELY, CHAIRMAN OF COMMIT- 
TEE OF ARRANGEMENTS, AERO CLUB OF PENN- 
SYLVANIA. 



aero clubs, and as : 
ment to hold a large 
M. Neely is chairmai 
of the arrangements, 
bodies of Philadelphi 
Joseph F. Rhodes, C 



of 

result has started a move- 
neet in Philadelphia. Henry 
of the committee in charge 
and already various traders 
have pledged their support, 
il Engineer'of the Club, is 




ADOLF BRODBECK, PH.D., PRESIDENT OF THE 
UT.\H AERO CLUB. 

mapping out is of the regulation three and a 
quarter miles length, and is entirely within the 
city limits. It is also within easy trolley distance 
of any part of the city and is reached by a sub- 
urban line of cars, and by all the steam roads 
entering Philadelphia via the belt line. The Club 
claims for the course that it is the most conve- 
nient for spectators of any course in the world. 
Members of the Club now own a BIcriot and a 



Curtiss machine, and other aeroplanes are in 
course of construction. It is expected that there 
cal entries for the 



Hartford Aero Club 
By Hiram Percy Maxim, President 



ONAUTICAL matters are taking a hold 

re in Connecticut. We have the Aero Club 

T-tford, of which the writer is the President, 

liich is composed of the most progressive 

men in this locality. Regular meetings are 

id plans are already under way for a series 

ng contests during the coming summer. I 

lly have purchased a VVittemann glider, 

angements have been made for the control 

Lviation field on the very extensive mead- 

Ihe eastern bank of the Connecticut River. 

modious hangar or garage for housing 

has been established by the Connecticut 

Company, convenient to these grounds. 

pany has been recently formed by Mr. 

icas of Hartford, and active steps have 

en to secure the agency of different 

:al apparati. Instructions in soaring 

ding will be given by Mr. Lucas during 

ning summer. This is our first publicity 



The University of Pennsylvania 

Aero Club 

By George Atwell Richardson, Secretary 

1 N making the first aeroplane to be constructed 
1 by students of a university, the Aero Club of 
the University of Pennsylvania is following prece- 
dent in taking a leading part in aeronautics. 

Two scholars connected with the University of 
Pennsylvania, Rittenhouse and Hopkinson. were 
instrumental in bringing about the first aerial voy- 
age made by man, on this side of the Atlantic. 

The first ascension ever made was in Paris on 
November 21, 1783, in a Montgolfiere or hot-air 
balloon, and it was just seven days later that the 
Philadelphia ascension took place. It was thus 
the second ascension ever made in the history of 
the world, but it was the Jirst made bv the aid 
of a gas lighter than air (the several balloons or 
gas-bags used in this first American aerostat 
being filled with hydrogen instead of hot air, as 
in the Paris ascension). 

The matter of forming an aero club at the 
University of Pennsylvania was considered at the 
beginning of the college year 1909-10. and one 
month later, November i, 1909, the first meeting 
of what is now known as the University of Penn- 
sylvania Aero Club, was held. Fourteen men, 
who constitute the charter members of the or- 
ganization, were present at this meeting. Various 
plans were discussed and officers elected as fol- 
lows: President, F. H. Dechant: Vice-President, 
E. E. Wright; Secretary, G. A. Richardson; Treas- 
urer, T. F. Rhodes; Superintendent of Construc- 
tion. Carl H. Carson. 

At a meeting held a few days later Mr. H. L. 
Willoughby, Class of 1877, and a well-known mem- 
ber of the Aero Club of America, was elected 
Ilonorary President. 

After the first meeting the membership rapidly 
increased, and there are now about seventy names 
of active members on the rolls, besides those of 
a considerable number of associate members. 

One of the first things done once tlie Club was 
on a firm basis, was to make active preparations 
to build a full-sized aeroplane. A number of 
members guaranteed a certain amount of money 
to start construction. 

Mr. Lawrence Lesh, a protege of Octave Cha- 
nute, and considered one of the best informed 
aeronauts in the countrv, offered his services, 
which the Club gladly a'ccepted. With his aid 
plans were drawn up and actual construction 
started on a biplane during the Christmas vaca- 
tion. The progress since that time has been very 
satisfactory, but has been delayed owing to the 
lack of a suitable engine and several other causes. 
It is hoped, however, to have the machine ready 
for trial flights by the time good weather comes. 
.■Ml the work done, so far, has been done bv stu- 
dent members of the Club. 

Besides the aeroplane and a new type of glider, 
which are under construction, the Club is the 
owner of a bi-plane glider, which was presented to 
it through the efltorts of Mr. Geo. Brooks, an 
alumnus of the University. Gliding practice will 
commence as soon as the weather permits. 

On February 26th the University of Pennsyl- 
vania Aero Club, acting in unison with the .\ero 
Clubs of Cornell and Columbia I'nivcrsities. sent 
out invitations to an Intercollegiate -Aero Con- 
vention to be held in Philadelphia on .\pril ist 
and 2d. The invitations were sent to every col- 
lege in the United States having more than two 



68 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 




■ Boat and Sportsman's 
this city from 21st to 



CHARLES G. GARFIELD. DIRECTOR OF AERO CLUB 
OF ROCHESTER 

hundred students, and also to a number of the 
leading colleges and universities in Canada and 
jMexico. 

This convention will be the first one of its kind 
ever held, and it is hoped that it will be a big suc- 
cess. It is planned to form an Intercollegiate 
Aero Association which will become affiliated with 
the Aero Club of Ainerica, a thing which will put 
flying on a par with every other form of univer- 
sity activities. 



Aero Club of Rochester 
By Arthur E. Pa.rtrldge, Secretary 



THE Aero Club of Rochester, which was 
' ganized in November and incorporated un 
the laws of the State of New York, December 
igog, promises to become a flourishing organ 
tion, as it is composed of sixty-five active mem- 
bers drawn from the best professional and busi- 
ness men of that city. It was organized almost 
spontaneously after the Board of Park Commis- 
sioners had granted the Elbridge Engine Com- 
pany permission to use Reservoir Park, a new 
public property given to the city by George East- 
man, the kodak millionaire, for experimental pur- 
poses by local men interested in air-craft. As soon 
as it became evident that the mayor was inclined 
to take the application from the viewpoint of a 
serious proposition and to regard the question of 
aeronautics as a serious and progressive study, 
many enthusiasts who had been disinclined to 
uncover their ideas for fear of ridicule " hopped 
on the band wagon " and backed up the applica- 
tion. At a preliminary meeting nearly forty came 
to the front, and, when formal organization was 
completed, the charter list was sixty-five, and it 
was decided to close the roll with that number, 
and put further applicants on the waiting list. 
This now numbers a score. 

The officers of the Rochester Club are: Presi- 
dent. Charles H. Ocumpaugh; Vice-Presidents, 
Harry G. Strong, Walter W. Powers and N. R. 
Potter; Treasurer, William J. Trimble; Secretary, 
Clarence W. McKay; Assistant Secretary, Arthur 
E. Partridge; Board of Directors, S. R. Clarke; 
Charles F. Garfield, Clarence W. McKay, C H. 

Ocumpaugh, T. H. j\lcl ~ 

Ernest B. Millard, Lyma 



fill be sane, and no at- 
more at present than to 
ent and participate in 
the progress of aero- 
egulation. Experimental 



Searle 

The policy of the Club 
tempt will be made to do 
assist the general movei 
anything tending toward; 
nautics and its propt 
flights with gliders have bt 
and wheij the weather becomes milder several lo- 
cal ^ men will attempt flights with machines of 
their own invention. Several members are much 
interested in the dirigible, and the Club may rent 
one or two balloons to add to purchases in that 
line which have been or are about to be made. 



Aero Club of Buffalo 
By Dal H. Le^vis, Secretary 

-THE Aero Club of Buffalo is doing everything 
t^ it possibly can to promote the sport of flying. 
M'e are now getting as many models of aeroplanes 
as it is possible, and these, together with two or 
three complete flying machines, we are going to 



exhibit at the Buffalo F 
Show, which takes plat 
the 30th March. 

We propose to hold on April ist, in the Sixty- 
fifth Regiment Armory, the first of a series of 
model aeroplane contests. 

The most important event we anticipate arrang- 
ing for this year is a real aviation meet of possibly 
a week's duration, and it is the present intention 
to have this take place some time in June. 

We are communicating with aviators of more or 
less fame, with the idea of finding out whether or 
not they can participate in our contests, and as 
soon as we are assured of a satisfactory entry, it 
is our intention to " jump right in " and endeavor 
to give the people ' 



rth ; 



The officers of the Club are as follows: Presi- 
lent. John M. Satterfield; First Vice-President, H. 
v. Meldrum; Second Vice-President, Howard A. 
, Third Vice-President, Robert K Root; 
er, George P. Urban; Secretary, Dal H. 
Board of Directors: John M. Satterfield, 



Meldrum, Howa 
,^ Robert K. Root, E. R. Thoi 
George Bleistein, Ralph Sidway. 



Ja 



Atlantic City Aero Club 



March 
of Atl; 
Club 



Atlantic Aero Club w 
loth by a body of promii 
ntic City, N. J. The n 
to generally assist in 



of the art of flying 



organized on 
at business men 
n object of the 
le advancement 




CLARENCE W. M KAY, SECRETARY OF Til 
AERO CLUB OF ROCHESTER 



It 



the 



of the 



Club to I 
June 



itention 
National Aviatio 
which $100,000 in prizes will be 

It is also another bidder for the International 
Aviation Meet which takes place October 2sth to 
November 2d. The many natural advantages of 
Atlantic City, together with its great hotel ac- 
commodations, railway facilities and perfect avia- 
tion grounds, should be of material assistance 
in the securing of this great event for that city. 

A Committee of Meets has been formed, with 
C. W. Bennett, a man of great experience and 
exceptional organizing abilities, as general man- 
ager. 

As an earnest of the faith and enthusiasm of 
the charter members of the Club the sum ^if 
$30,000 was subscribed on the spot. The oflio r^ 
elected include the leading men of the resmi. 
financially, socially and in every way, as the fol- 
lowing list will testify: 

President, John T. White, of the Marlborough- 
Blenheim; First Vice-President, Louis Kuehri^le, 
President of the Marine Trust Co.; Second Vice- 
President, Walter J. Buzby, proprietor of the 
Hotel Denis; Third Vice-President, Carlton God- 
frey, President of the Guarantee Trust Co. ; Treas- 
urer. J. Haines Lippincott, of the Hotel Chal- 
fonte; Secretary, Col. Walter E. Edge, proprie- 
tor of the Daily Press and Evening Union, and 
of the Dorland Advertising Co. Directors: Isaac 
Bacharach, President of the Atlantic Lumber Co. ; 
Albert T. Bell of the Hotel Chalfonte; C. W. 
Bennett, formerly of the Bennett Circuit of Thea- 
ters and Amusement Enterprises; W. J. Cherry, 



President of the United Paving Co.; Harry B. 
Cook, of the Hotel Seaside; Robert E. Delaney, of 
the Hotel Dunlop; William F. Hanstein, of the 
Royal Palace Hotel; Henry W. Leeds, of the 
Haddon Hall; Warren Somers, President of the 
Somers Lumber Co. ; Dr. J. B. Thompson, of the 
Hotel Chelsea and President of the Chelsea Na- 
tional Bank; Allan K. White, of the Marlborough- 
Blenheim; Charles D. White, of the Marlboron?li- 



Blenhein 
Traymori 



ad Daniel S. White, of the Hotel 



sport 



The Aero Club of Washingtorv 

THE Aero Club of Washington was formally or- 
• ganized at a meeting held in the office of the 
Chief Signal Officer of the Army, on January 23. 
igop, by a committee of tvventy-si.x members as- 
sembled for that purpose on the invitation of a 
preliminary committee, who had prepared suitable 
articles of incorporation and tentative constitution 
and by-laws. 

The articles of incorporation were signed by 
twenty-six members, after which a Board of Man- 
agement for the current year was elected, all of 
its offices being filled except the presidency, which 
remained vacant temporarily. The previously pre- 
pared constitution and by-laws were read and 
adopted substantially as read. 

At a meeting of the Board of Management, held 
at the residence of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell 
in May, Mr. Thomas F. Walsh was unanimously 
elected as the first President of the Aero Club of 
Washington, thus completing its organization. 

During the year igog one hundred charter mem- 
bers were enrolled, comprising persons prominent 
in the official and social life in Washington. In 
addition to these, nine honorary members were 
chosen as follows: 

The President of the United States, Count Fer- 
dinand von Zeppelin, Louis Bleriot, Octave Cha- 
nute, Glenn H. Curtiss, A. Santos-Dumont, Law- 
Hargrave, Orville Wright, and Wilbur 



\\i 



ght. 



The aeronautic work of the Charter members 
has been considerable and important, embracing 
scientific researches, writings, lectures, physical 
and practical experiments, ascensions, demonstra- 
illoon and aeroplane practice, govern- 
but these not being done offi- 
lere. Of par- 
■ by 



mental tests, etc., 

cially for the Club are not detaile 

ticular interest to the Club are th 



appli: 



chine 



nuary 



s, and to find suitable aeronautic grou 
convenient to the Capital, which may serve 
ascensions, flights, exhibits and original ex 
ments, thus contributing to the entertainment 
struction and active life of the Club. 

At the annual meeting of the Club on Ja 
loth all of the oiificers for igio were elected for 
ensuing year by a single unanimous vote. They 
are as follows: 

President . Thomas F Walsh. 

1st Vice President Robert Shaw Oliver 

2d Vice Piesident ..Ihomas Nelson Page 
3d Vice President Butler Ames 

Con espondmg Secretary Allerton Cushman 
Recording Secretary Albert F Zahm 

Treasuier Charles J. Bell 




BENNETT, DIRECTOR OF ATLANTIC AERO 
CLUB OF ATLANTIC CITY 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



69 



National Model Aero Club 
By F. S. Crocker 

DIRECTORS of the National Model Aero Club 
arc: President. \V. H. Crocker; First Vice- 
Vrcsidcnt. W. M. Sage; Second Vice-President. P. 
W. Wilcox; Secretary F. S. Crocker; Treasurer, 
M. W Talmage, Leo Stevens, Edward Durant, A, 
Armstrong, L. W. Houck. 

The object o£ this Club is to promote the study 
of the problems of aeronautics as demonstrated 
by the model, to regulate and control all com- 
petitions throughout the United States, and to 
promote exhibitions and contests and to secure 
the dissemination of the latest ideas and discov- 
eries in the problem of flight as presented by 
models of either heavier or lighter than air types. 

It is proposed to offer medals and cups for 
longest flights, best designs and originality of con- 
struction, and to generally control the study of 
aeronautics as applied to machines less than six 
feet in their greatest dimensions. 

CLUB NOTES 

WILMINGTOX, Del., is to have an Aero 
Club, plans for which are being perfected 
and shortly this city will take its place among 
these of the world encouraging experiments in 

David' Snellenburg of Wilmington is the prin- 
cipal promoter of the new Club, and he with 
Robie Seidelinger, the inventor of several models 
of aeroplanes, has succeeded in interesting several 
wealthy residents, who have become enthusiastic 
over the project. 

Before his departure from the scene of his 
aerial triumph in San Francisco, Mr. Louis Paul- 
han, the famous aviator, was made the recipient 
of a token of regard by the members of the Ligue 
Nationale Frangaise in the shape of a solid silver 
loving cup. The presentation was made by Presi- 
dent Raas, who, in a neat speech, expressed the 
appreciation which the league had for tlie avia- 
tor, and complimented him upon the honors he 
had won in the field of aerial navigation. The 
cup is inscribed, '* Hommage de la Ligue Na- 
tionale Frangaise de San Francisco a M. Louis 
Paulhan." 

The Aero Club of Rochester has recently pur- 
chased a Franco-American dirigible balloon for 
racing purposes. It is of the cylindrical type, 
and has a capacity of eighty thousand cubic feet. 
It will be fitted with an Eldridge engine, and if it 
shows speed it will be entered in the Gordon-Ben- 
nett race next fall. The President of the Club, Jfr. 
Ocumpaugh, has announced a trophy for the first 
Rochester-built aeroplane that will start from 
Cobbs Hill and fly to some designated point in 
Monroe County and back. Charles F. Garfield, of 
the Board of Directors, has made an offer of 
two hundred and fifty dollars to the first aero- 
naut to ffy from Rochester to Mr. Garfield's 
country home in Eagle Island. 

An aviation society has been formed among the 
students of Stuyvesant High School, East Fif- 
teenth Street, New York. Mr. Ernest R. Von 
Xardroof, the principal, has given his consent to 




the student body, which will do experimental 
work in the school gymnasium. Several of the so- 
ciety's members have been prominent in the 
model contests held by the Y. M. C. A. in New 
York. 

M the sixth annual indoor meet of Public 
School 77. New York, of which Mr. Edward A. 
Page is the principal, and which will be held at 
the Eighth Regiment Armory, Ninety-fourth 
Street. New York, on .\pril 9th. there will be an 
aeroplane contest open to pupils of elementary 
schools and another open to members of the 
Aeronautic Society. 

The election of new officers of the Aeronautic 
Society of New York took place at the third an- 
nual meeting, held at the headquarters of the So- 
ciety, 1999 Broadway, New York, on February 24, 
1909. Among other business, judges for model 
contests were appointed, and a series of elimina- 
tion trials for the Octave Chanute Cup (flying 
models) were arranged to be held at the Sixty- 
ninth Regt. Armory, New York. The first of these 
.took place on March 3d, when F. M. VVatkins, L. 
J. Lesh and R. S. Barnaby made several very spec- 
tacular flights. The new officers elected are as 
follows: President, Hudson Maxim; First Vice- 
President, Lee S. Burridge; Second Vice-Presi- 
dent, William T. Hammer; Third Vice-President, 
Louis R. Adams; Secretary, Wilbur R. Kimball; 
.\ssistant Secretary, Alva D. Lee; Treasurer. 
Clarence F. Blackmore. Directors: Thomas H. 
Hill, Lee \V. de Forest, Dr. Dwight Tracy, 
Charles Westley Howell, Jr., Carlos de Forest 




0?C.\R NEVVSTROM, VICE-Pr<ESIDENT OF THE 
ILLINOIS ,\EROrL.\NE (LrE. OF CHIC.XCO 



POTTER, VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE AERO 
CLUE OF ROCHESTER 



and Hugo C. Gibson. Membership Committee: 
Dr. Dwight Tracy, Hugo C. Gibson and William 
.T. Hammer. Judges on Model Contest: Hugo G. 
Gibson, A. G. Boucher and Carlos de Forest. 

The -Aero Club of Illinois has been organized by 
one hundred prominent men of Chicago, ;lie ob- 
ject of which is to advance the art of flying. 

The organization of tlie Club was preliminary to 
the securing of a charter from the State of Illinois 
and affiliation of the Association with the Aero 
Club of America. When organization finally is 
completed, and active participation by members 
in aerial flight is under way, closer relation with 
foreign clubs will be promoted. 

The oflicers of the Club are as follows: Presi- 
dent. Octave Chanute; First Vice-President, Tames 
E, Plew; Second Vice-President, Harold McCor- 
mick; Secretary. Robert M. Cutting; Treasurer. 
Charles E. Hartley; Consulting Engineer, Victor 
Lougheed. Committee on Membership. David 
Beecroft. Edward Wilder and Tames E. Plew; 
Committee on Exhibitions and Contests, Victor 
Lougheed. Robert it. Cutting and Harold McCor- 
mick; .Auditing Committee, fudge Charles S. Cut- 
ting. Charles S. Castle and Joseph H. Defrees. 

.\ monster aeroplane meet next summer is now 
under consideration, and the Club hopes to_ stage 
weekly meetings of the members with visiting 
notables. Several members have already purchased 
aeroplanes. ^ ^ ^ 

It is proposed to form an aviation section of 
the New Jersey Automobile Club, to be known 
as the Aeronautic Society of New Jersey, to 




HARUERT, PRESIDENT OF THE ILLINOIS 
AEROPLANE CLUE, OK CHICAGO 



which membersh 
dollars per annu 
mobile Club, an 
object of this s 
aviation in gen 



dolla 



:iety 



be the 



The 
n of 



fostering of 
nautic meets ana otner matters connected with 
the sport. The Aeronautic Society of New Jersey 
will be a regularly incorporated body, and' have 
complete internal management of its own affairs. 
The officials and directors will be elected from its 
membership. The committee appoint: 



the 



include 



C. E. Fishe 



A. B. Le Mas 



negoti; 



Ha 



he Pasadena Aero Club 
onal aviation meet, and S 
Mved a letter from George B 
that he will help to promote th 
ors of the Club have decided upi 
ta course as the ideal place, and 
negotiate with the Baldwin estati 
n lease. Several important annou: 



The Cleveland Ae 



that arrangements were being made with promi- 
nent aviators to lecture before the Club. The first 
of these lectures will be given by M. Sauliner, 
Chief Engineer for the Bleriot Monoplane. 

The Aero Club of the Y. M. C. A. of White 
Plains, N. Y.. has been organized with the fol- 
lowing officers: President, Harold T. Carpenter; 
Secretary, C. Guernsey; Treasurer. Bertram Hen- 
drickson. Jfembers are busy building gliders and 
model aeroplanes. 

The Aero Club of New England has purchased 
a new balloon of 1,600 cubic meters capacity, to 
be called the " Boston 11," from Leo Stevens. 

A meeting of committees representing the Aero 
Club of Illinois and the Illinois Aeroplane Club 
was recently held for the purpose of discussing 
the possible coalition of the two organizations. 

The Aero Club' of Illinois was represented by 
Vice-President Tames E. I^Iew and Victor Loug- 
heed consulting engineer to the Club. The Il- 
linois Aeroplane Club was represented bv Horace 
B. Wild, one of the most widely known 'inventors 
and enthusiastic aeronauts of 'the West; Presi- 
dent, Edward S. Ilarbert; Vice-President. V. A. 
Lamare; and Tohn A. Montgomery. Consulting 
Engineer. As a result of the meeting of the two 
committees it is expected that the clubs .,'ill con- 
solidate in the near future. The members of the 
Illinois .-\eroplane Club are mostly practical me- 
chanics and specialists in aeronautics, and a ma- 
jority of them are working on heavier-than-air 
machines. 

Out of a membership of thirty-five, eleven have 
aeroplanes under construction. Carl S. Bates and 
Horace B. Wild are both building monoplanes. 

The Aero Club of LUah is fortunate in having 
as its President a man of such vast scientific 
knowledge and experience as D. A. Brodbeck. 
who has made a deep study of aeronautics for 
many years past. He was at one time Professor 
of Esthetics in a German university, where he 
made a special study of the esthetic features of 
aeronautics. 



70 



AIRCRAFT 



April, jgio 



NEWS IN GENERAL 

By Mrs. J. Herbert Sinclair 



As the March number of Aircraft went to press 
the first American aeronautical show opened 
its doors in Boston. When looking back at this 
first effort to exhibit the products of the new art 
on this side of the Atlantic, it must not be for- 
gotten to point out its perfect organization for 
which the initiative and energy of Mr. Chester I. 
Campbell are more especially responsible. 

The actual exhibits were highly satisfactory, if 
the new-born state of the art is taken into account. 
Perhaps the conception of VV. Starling Burgess, of 
Marblehead, a biplane presenting many novel fea- 
tures of great ingenuity, was as fine an exhibit 
as any made. Unless we are wholly mistaken, 
Burgess is a name with which aeroplane builders 
will have to count before many moons, just as 
yacht builders have had to for some years past. 

If this promising newcomer had any rivals in 
workmanship they were the Wittemann brothers 
of Staten Island, who are old hands even in so 
young an industry as glider and aeroplane build- 
ing. 

Others deservir 
were Schneider, 
he is a practica 
racy-looking moj 
with their great 
kites; Leo Stevei 
without whose e>; 
be complete. 

The Junior Aero Club's models and the L. A. 
W. rotary engine were also stands about which 
the crowd was wont to cluster. Another popular 
rendezvous was the miniature aviation ground in 
the basement, where the Church Company had toy 
aeroplanes constantly experimented. The Inter- 
national School of Aeronautics had an S-ft. Chau- 
vifere propeller and different models of aircraft 
to show, including a scale model of Captain Bald- 



ng of 


more than ordinary 


notice 


as persistent 


an expenme 


Iter as 


1 man 


ufacture 


r; Morok, 


vith a 


noplan 


e; the 


Perkins br 


others, 


and n 


lulti-eol 


ored assortment of 


ns, An 


lerica's 


premier bal 


oonist. 


^hibit 


m aero 


show could 


hardly 



win's Government dirigible. A fine collection of 
pictures of aeronautical events of interest and a 
complete series of aerostatical instruments by Hue, 
of Paris, were also to be found here. 

Albert C. Triaca represented the Aero Club of 
America, of which he is a pilot, and the Harvard 
Aeronautical Society, the New England Aero Club, 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology were 
also represented. 

Aircraft made a short appearance at the show; 
the large shipment of our first number melted into 
nothingness long before the curtain went down on 
America's first Aero Show worthy of the name. 

We publish a picture of the aeroplane of Mr. A. 
O. Paulson, of Northwood, N. D., which clearly 
shows its novel mode of construction. The ma- 
chine is at present propelled by the aviator, bi- 
cycle fashion, and he claims to have actually lifted 
himself free in this manner. Mr. Paulson intends 
fitting his aeroplane with a gasolene engine. 

J. N. Spalding, of St. Louis, has been building 
a monoplane at Grafton, 111. Mr. Spalding says 
he will make his first flight from Grafton, and, if 
successful, expects to fly across the Mississippi. 
The surface is 2^ ft. by 3 ft. The engine is a 
40-h.p. Curtiss. 

Among the latest inventors of aeroplanes is 
Capt. A. W. F. McManus, U. S. A., retired. He 
claims to have made real progress toward the solv- 
ing of the equilibrium problem. The main weights 
carried are suspended from the plane frame by 
pivots, an arrangement insuring perfect load dis- 
tribution at all times and under all conditions; the 
arrangement is extremely simple and eft'ective, and 
merely leaves to the operator the choosing of his 



Mr. C. Lewis, of Chehalis, Wash., is to build a 
flying machine, but has not yet furnished details. 

David Neil and William Lucas, of Canton, O., 
have been quietly making a series of experiments 
with heavier-than-air machines for the past five 
years; they were so successful with some of their 
models and smaller gliders, that they have recently 
constructed a two-plane machine 30 x 5 ft. in di- 



Mr. Harry Hunter, of Memphis, Tenn., may 
soon be sailing through the clouds above Memphis 
in an aircraft of his own invention. He has al- 
ready drawn the plans of the machine he pro- 
poses to build, and has ordered all the material. 

Pupils in the Sixth Ward Public School of Pitts- 
burg are learning at one and the same time to 
imitate the bird and the fish, an art which they 
name "Aeroplane Swimming." They have long 
enjoyed a fine swimming pool, and their instruc- 
tor. Prof. Walter Shook, has taken up the use of 
small biplanes in his course. 

Sara Herzberger, fourteen years old, demon- 
strated the new game by gliding off a high bal- 
cony on the biplane. As she reached the pool 
she shook her " wings," turned a somersault and 
dived into the water. 

Professor Shook hopes next summer to take his 
human aquatic birds out to the rivers and ponds 
to dive off the bridges and banks. Those who 
have tried it say it is a thousand times more thrill- 
ing than ordinary diving. 

New York has a juvenile school of aviation in 
Eighty-sixth Street which has for its pupils boys 
of Public School No. 77. These boys have be- 
come tutors to others less advanced in the sub- 




GENERAL VIEW OF THE EXHIBITS OF THE BOSTON AERO SHOW 



April, ipio 



AIRCRAFT 



71 



jcct. and are making copies of their best models 
to be used in other schools for instructing classes. 
The boys took orders recently from two New \ ork 
schools, from a school in Raleigh, N. C, and 
from the high school in Adrian, Minn Interest 
is growing so rapidly that it is proposed to found 
a national organization with interstate meets. 

Army men in the South are very proud of the 
fact that two of their number stationed at Fort 
llarrancas. Fla., have built a flying machme which 
has worked successfully. This sucessful flyer is 
the Rhoads-Grosman aeroplane. 

Walter Wellman, the noted balloonist, sailed for 
Paris recently with the avowed purpose of pre- 
paring a balloon flight across the Atlantic, start- 
ing either from France or England. The trip is to 
be made in Mr. Wellman's arctic airship, which 
is to be equipped with new propellers and en- 
gines. 

W. Starling Burgess has taken an order for the 
racing aeroplane to be used by Albert C. Triaca 
in the Gordon Bennett cup-race, in which he will 
carry the colors of his native Italy. 

The latter received Cortlandt Field Bishop. 
President of the Aero Club of America, and sev- 
eral other officers of the Club at his International 
School of Aeronautics, at Garden City, N. Y., the 
other dav, and showed them around the interesting 
establishment. 

The balloon house for the Signal Corps of the 
United States Army at Fort Omaha, Neb., is a 
steel building S4 x 200 ft. and about 81 ft. high 
over all; it is intended to shelter a full-sized 
dirigible balloon, thus protecting it and enabling 
it to remain inflated when not in service, and 
avoiding the delay and expense of deflating it 
whenever it is to be used. The framework is of 
iron; the end of the building is provided with a 
two-leaf sliding door of very unusual dimensions, 
providing as it does an unobstructed opening of 
42 X 65 ft., sufficient for the passage of a full-sized 
balloon. The doors are supported on grooved 
wheels reposing on a bottom rail, and are guided 
by horizontal friction-rollers interlocked with 
transverse upper and intermediate tracks when the 
doors are closed; the principal bearings are on 
the roof truss and on the back rails, and when 
the doors open they bear against a special con- 
struction in the end panel of the building made 
to support them and provide a suitable framework 
for their guide tracks. 

The Wilmington (Del.) Aero Co. has been in- 
corporated to manufacture, buy, sell and deal in 
dirigibles, aeroplanes, engines and devices for 
navigating the air. The incorporators are Robie- 
Seidelinger, the inventor of a heavier-than-air 
machine, David Snellenburg, of Snellenburg & 
Co.'s Wilmington branch, Geo. W. Crowe and J. 
A. Montgomery. The capital stock is $100,000. 

Mr. Seidelinger's conception has some original 
features, and has attracted considerable attention. 
Its most radical departure from the construction 
of other flying machines now in use is the man- 
ner of support; practically everything is sus- 
pended by wires from a central Rollon mask, only 
what framework is absolutely necessary for rigid- 
ity is used, and the mask and wires support and 
hold the machine firm. Another new feature of the 
construction of this machine is the two movable 
horizontal planes, just behind the two stationary 
planes. These are shifted to various angles to 
the stationary planes when it is desired to raise 
or lower the machine's position in the air. The 
biplane is steered by means of a large vertically 
set rudder which, besides being capable of turn- 
ing from side to side like the rudder of a ship, 
may also be dipped to either side in order to re- 
gain lateral stability in an emergency. 

Dr. Hall, of Portland, Ore., has made final tests 
of the model of his aeroplane; he built it with 
the assistance of Dr. G. C. Whitaker and Z. A. 
Jarvis. This model is 10 ft. long and has 60 sq. 
ft. of canvas for a weight of 7 pounds. The sail- 
ing surface of the plane is made up of two sec- 
tions of shellacked muslin; each section is divided 
into three parts; the front section is movable. 
and is used, instead of a special guiding plane, to 
direct the flying machine up or down. Work will 
begin immediately on a full-sized craft to be about 
25 sq. ft. and have 600 sq. ft. of sailing surface; it 
will weigh about 200 pounds. 

P. W. Wilcox, of Columbia University, is quietly 
working on a biplane to be ready for trials on 
Hempstead Plains in April or May; it will be of 
the Farman type. Parts are now being made and 
tested for suitability. Variable pitch-propellers of 
various blade length will be tried. Mr. Wilcox is 
a strong believer in variable pitch, as he showed 
in the course of his talk before the Aeronautic So- 
ciety. Some of the ideas embodied In this ma- 
chine are of a most remarkable character and far 
above average conceptions. They were commu- 
nicated In private to Mr. Israel Ludlow, who 
thought very highly of them. 

An aviation department was introduced at the 
Automobile Show in Newark, N. J., which at- 
tracted considerable attention. Among the many 
aeronautical exhibitors were the firm of C. & A. 
Wlttemann, the celebrated glider builders; the 




AEROCVCLE OF A. 0. 



PAULSON^ OF NOKTllWOOD, N. 
CORNER 



PORTRAIT OF INVENTOR IN UPPER 



Requa-Gibso 
facturers. an 
an engine n 



. Co., the motor 

I a biplane owneu uv a 

mufactured by Mr. Bol, 



and propelle 
■d bv 



Mr. Fisher, of the Detroit-Cadillac Motor Car 
Co., presented a beautiful silver cup to the de- 
signers and makers of the model showing the best 
workmanship and the most practical ideas. The 
cup was won by Messrs. F. Carisi and M. Piceller, 
of New York. Mr. Fisher, who had charge of the 
aviation department, deserves great credit for the 
if the enterprise. 



Charles E. Bartley. of Chicago, 111., has t 
building a biplane for some time, and expect; 
complete it early in the summer. It follows 
general lines of successful biplanes, but has 
■ of novel and original features. 



the 



An 



vho 



Capt. John Berry, of St. Louis, Mo., proposes to 
negotiate the summit of Mt. McKinley in a bal- 
loon steered by a mechanism of his own design- 
ing, consisting of a 4-h.p. engine and four pro- 
pellers with a pull of 80 pounds each. 

Bob Scanlon, of St. Louis, Mo., will accompany 
Captain Berry on his trip; they expect to start 
some time in May. The mechanism differs from 
any that has been tried on dirigibles; it is de- 
signed to give the pilot control of a balloon of the 
ordinary spherical construction. On an upright 
shaft 12 ft. in height are set propeller blades and 
rudder blades controlled by levers. The power is 
transmitted from a motor at the base of the shaft, 
w^hich is to rest in the basket. This motor is set 
on a circular track, and by shifting its position a 
shifting of the blades is also brought about and 
consequently a change of direction. The rudder 
blades set below the propellers are intended to be 
used mostly for regulating the rise and fall of the 
balloon. The blades are of aluminum and are 8 
by 18 ins. in size. The weight of the entire mech- 
anism is 150 pounds. 

Captain Berry is satisfied that it will, m its 
present form, do the work it is intended to do, 
but he plans to substitute a lo-h.p. motor for the 
2-h.p. motor at present attached. The balloon 
he expects to use will be of 17.000 cubic feet ca- 
pacity. 

Mr. Heath, of Charlottesville. Va., is at work 
on an aeroplane for the L^niversity of Virginia 
Aero Club. As soon as Mr. Heath removes the 
aeroplane to his shed he will test it scrupulously 
for all imperfections, and expects to be ready to 
fly in a short time. 

y. A. Hacker, of Chicago, 111., has been very 
much interested in flying machines for a great 
many years : he is at present working on one 
which he hopes to have completed by June. 

The local hotel and business men of Atlantic 
City are quite anxious to have an aviation meet 
there in June. Efforts are being made to secui-e 
the services of several aviators of prominence. 
Geo. Harmon, of New York City, who originated 
the idea has received pledges for more than $50,000 
towards backing the scheme. 

Mr. E. Plew. of Chicago, III., is erecting a 
building at Twenty-seventh Street and Wabash 
Avenue, in which he will devote 1,200 sq. ft. of 
floor space to aeroplane building on its comple- 
tion. This space will be increased as the business 
grows. Chicago's first aeroplane factory is located 
at 240 Michigan Avenue. The machinery of an 
aeroplane is being constructed there and the bodv 
of the machine is at 2920 South Clark Street. It is 
a double monoplane designed and patented bv 
Montgomerv, the Los Angeles aviator. Mr. Plew 
owns the manufacturer's rights under the patent. 
Within a short time a company will be incorpor- 
ated to carry on the business. 



balloon ascensions during the past is A. F. Thurs- 
ton, of Meadville, Pa. ; 216 flights without an ac- 
cident is his record to date. His son, A. F. Thurs- 
ton, Jr., made 15 flights during 1909. 

Mr. A. A. Lyker, proprietor of the Empire Hotel 
of Gloversvllle, N. Y., is quite interested in flying, 
and begs to say that he is not only prepared to 
make aviators comfortable, but has ample room 
for housing their aerial conveyances. 

The Aero Club of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology has finished its first aeroplane glider, 
and is now designing a power machine from the 
best suggestions offered as the result of recent tx- 
periments. 

The membership includes students who have 
worked during the summer with the Wright army 
aeroplane at W'ashington, others who were con- 
nected with Dr. Bell's aeronautical experiments 
and some who have studied aviation abroad. In 
the spring the machine will be tried out to ascer- 
tain its flying qualities. With such good talent 
back of it its performance will no doubt be worth 
watching. 

The Editor of Aircraft is Indebted to Henry H. 
Cummings, of Boston, for the following contribu- 
tion to the folklore of human flight: 

" Doubtless most people have believed that 
Green was the first ' Darius ' who was interested 
in flying, but the enclosed copy of the seal of 
Darius I, King of Persia, B.C. 521, would indicate 
that the later Darius simply responded to * the 
call of the blood.' " 

Below is the seal in question: 




Impression of a Seal of Darius. 

The trilingual inscription reads "I am Dar 
great king." 



Recognition has been given biplanes and mono- 
planes in the freight schedules of transcontinental 
lines. The Railroads Western Classification Com- 
mittee placed the freight rate on flying machines 
at $6.00 per 100 pounds from points west of the 
Missouri to the Coast. 

Mr. S. S. Peirce. a well-known young motorist 
of Colorado Springs, is having an aeroplane built 
at Strange's garage. The machine is a monoplane 
with several features suggesting the Antoinette 
and Blerlot types of single-plane craft. 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



■' Anything- to forward aviation: it is the greatest 
sport in the world," that is the way enthusiastic 
Clifford B. Harmon expresses it; he has secured 
the use of soo acres near New Brunswick. N. T-, 
for use as flying grounds, and will erect a work- 
shop and aeroplane sheds. 

The Speedway Motor Co.. of Dayton. O.. is now 
completing its first plant for the construction of 
aeroplanes. The plant will have a capacity of 
four aeroplanes a week. Only Wright machines 
will be turned out. The company now has orders 
for 1/5 Wright machines. 

Aerial science has worked its way into the pub- 
He schools. A class in aeronautics has been es- 
tablished for some time in Public School 77. Alan- 
hattan: 3.000 boys all over the United States are 
studying the subject. 

Application was made some time ago for a 
charter for the Philadelphia Aeroplane Co., for 
the purpose of building, buying, selling, develop- 
ing and dealing in machines for navigatins: the 
air and their a^ccessories. The President of the 
company is Clarence P. Wynne; the Treasurer, 
Lawrence Maresch. Their first aeroplane is now 
being built, and C. M. Aldrich will drive it. The 
machine is a monoplane of entirelv new model 
designed by Lawrence J. Lesh. It is built for 
speed, and will carry but one man. 

Pittsfield. Mass.. is more or less of an aeronaut's 
heaven; its location, its distance from the sea and 
the lakes, its meteorological conditions, and last, 
but not least, its great facilities for providing sky- 
piiots with both quantity and quality in illuminat- 
ing gas, all contribute to this. Among the more 
enthusiastic of the Pittsfield sportsmen practicing 
ballooning is Dr. Sidney Stowell. who has many 
an air-journey to his credit. He expects to indulge 
e.xtensively in his favorite sport in the coming 
summer. 

Mr. H. C. Crafts is also an ardent enthusiast, 
and it is to him Pittsfield aeronauts are indebted 
for the remarkable facilities offered for filling the 
great gas bags. Fifty thousand dollars were spent 
on the equipment of this gas plant, which has a 
special receiver for balloons: the new tank can 
actually hold three-quarters of a million cubic feet 
of gas. and this gas is of the best lifting power 
foimd anywhere. 

Ballooning among the fair sex is also in honor 
in the heart of the Berkshires, and will no doubt 
receive a further boom this year. 

Dr. G. R. Bro^\Tifield, of Lincoln. Neb., claims 
to have invented a machine that will carrv six to 
eight passengers besides the operator, and with 
a balancing apparatus so effective that a weight 
of 200 or 300 pounds placed at the extremitv of one 
of the planes will not disturb the equilibrium. The 
body of the machine consists of two V-shaped 
planes: this, the inventor explains, will permit a 
greater speed and will place the balance of the 
aeroplane behind the machinery. The planes are 
40 ft. long and 6 to 7 ft. wide. Beneath them is 
a pair of wings S ft. in length and a propeller 6 
ft. in diameter. The steering apparatus is at the- 
front. The power is furnished by a 5-h.p. gasolene 
engine. 

Judge Charles O. Prowse. of Hopkinsville, Ky.. 
is building a monoplane which he expects to have 
finished soon. 



A. S. Outcalt, of Buck Creek, Wis., has invented 
a combination aircraft in which a gas-bag sup- 
ports the machine, and silk wings operated by an 
engine are the main propelling power. 

It is expected to bear its load easily from any 
spot or place wliere its powerful wings have room 
to operate, and because of the gas bag will of 
course rise vertically upward when starting. Out- 
calt says his machine is built for safety and not 
for speed. 

Chas. A. Chayne, of Harrisburg. Pa., twelve 
years of age, has completed a miniature model of 
a Wright aeroplane; it is an exact reproduction, 
and is four feet in length by three feet wide; it 
only lacks a motor. 

Mr. L. C. Ericka, of Springfield, Mass., has a 
biplane which has a triangular three-propeller 
gear; the single propeller is in front. The planes 
are 20 x 7 ft., very flat, and are fitted with rocking 
auxiliary planes for lateral control. These are 
actuated by the sidewise movement of the back 
of the operator's seat, following the swaying of 
his body. There is a double horizontal rudder in 
front and a vertical rudder in the rear in con- 
nection with a rigid tail-plane for longitudinal 
stability. The framework is made of bamboo and 
metal tubing. 

:\rr. J. V. Mueller, of Wichita. Kan., has in- 
vented a flving machine which he has picturesquelv 
christened'" Prairie Eagle.'' The wings of the 
Prairie Eagle are constructed of poplar, soft pine, 
Oregon spruce and bamboo, and are covered with 
silk on both sides. The dimensions of the ma- 
chine are 2y ft. across the wings bv 25 ft. fore 
and aft. The total area of the wings is 160 sq. 
ft. At the rear edge on the outer ends of the 
wings are attached two extension wings which can 
be used to brake, to steer or to balance. The 
control of the machine in both the vertical and 
horizontal planes is ensured by appropriate rud- 



\A'ilbnr Kimball has recently made several flights 
near Rahway. X. T.. on the aeroplane recently 
pui chased from Dr. Greene. 

W. Chas. Smith, of Elmira. X. Y.. is interested 
in a new tvpe of aeroplane. The machine com- 
prises a svstem of large T^lanes similar to those 
of the Wright and Curtiss machines, together 
with moving spheres, rudders and steering gear; 
the aeroplane is expected to carry more than one 
person, and \rill be propelled by a gasolene mo- 
te". .-\s soon as the weather permits the machine 
will be given a thorough test. 

At the .Xeronautic Show recently held in Boston, 
^l^^. Smith secured orders for two complete aero- 
planes and a number of engines, both of the 4 
and S-cylinder types. Over 100 inquiries have 
been received by him for engimes from all parts 
of the country and even from Mexico. 

Frederick Rugg. of Oakland. Cal.. has neariy 
completed an aeroplane that measures nearlv 32 
ft. in breadth bv 30 ft. in length. The two-bladed 
propeller has a pitch of S ft. Mr. Rugg will 
r-perate the machine. 

Aircraft has not had the opportunity to con- 
firm or deny before going to press the news from 
Dayton, to "the effect that the Wright brothers are 
to engage on an extensive exhibition tour this 



year. It is said Mr. Roy Knabenshue will have 
charge of the exhibitions. 

The names of those who are to pilot the bi- 
planes have not been communicated, unless it be 
the Wrights themselves. 

On March Sth Wilbur Wright was in Xewport, 
looking over sites for an aerodrome, where, in the 
coming summer he could initiate to the pleasures 
of flying the wealthy purchasers of his machines 
among the Cottage Colony. 

Just as Aircraft is going to press we learn 
Paulhan is about to make flights at Jamaica Park, 
Long Island. Watch for the ilay num.ber of 
AiRCR.\FT for a full description of the French- 
man's debut in the East. 

The Fran<;aise-Americaine Aeroplane Comr 
pagnie, of 1777 Broadway, New York, reports 
saies from the West, the Middle \\"est and the 
South. 

The Church Aeroplane Company, of Brookh-n, 
is preparing to move into larger quarters where, 
with materially increased factory equipment, it 
will be able to treble its present capacity. In 
addition to turning out an immense line of flying 
models, and working models built to scale, orders 
are now being received for full-size man-carrying 
machines ready for installation of motor, and Mr. 
Church promises that with these added facilities 
every order will be delivered in schedule time. 

The record which Mr. Church has made in this 
novel enterprise is not only highly creditable to 
himself and his energetic methods, but also gives 
at a glance some idea of the rapidity with which 
public interest in aeronautics is increasing. He 
started the business last fall on a modest work- 
ing capital, and has continuously since then been 
tendered more business than he could take care 
of. in spite of the fact that he has augmented 
his factory equipment as rapidly as possible. The 
company itself has grown with the business, and 
is now incorporated, with a capital of S600.000. 

Work will shortly be started on the Langley- 
Church machine, which is to be entered in the 
International Aviation Contests in Xovember, 
and also on a modified form of the Santos-Du- 
mont type. The latter is to be built under con- 
tract for Mr. Frederick Pearson, of Boston. 

It is learned that the Church Company is soon 
to place on the market a monoplane designed to 
carry one aviator and sufficient gasolene for a 
continuous voyage of 100 miles. The price of this 
machine will be in the neighborhood of ?4.ooo, 
and the company guarantees delivery in two 
months. 

A flying model of this machine has been tested 
under all sorts of conditions, and the manufac- 
turers claim that perfection in an automatic 
lateral stabilizing device has at last been attained. 
Details of construction have not yet been made 
public. 

The Church Companv's consulting aeronautical 
engineer is Mr. A. C. triaca, and under his direc- 
tion it is building a number of models and special 
devices for the International School of Aero- 
s at Garden City. 



According to Professor Kimball, of the Ogden 
Hotel, Council Bluffs, his city is to be one of the 
official aircraft stations on the trans-continental 
route to be established this year: the matter has 
so far progressed, he says, that the roof of the 
Ogden Hotel has been selected as the depot in 
that city. 



R.APID DEVELOPMENT OF AVIATION 

AS SHOWN BY STATISTICS 



ships, but I don't see many around." Xor did 
one see many automobiles around fifteen years 
ago. and now it keeps one busy to get out of their 
way. There is nothing more convincing in the 
way of argument than statistics: the only way in 
which figures can lie is when they are of doubtful 
or questionable 



Such is not the case for those here presented by 
Aircraft: these statistics are the first of the kind 
ever published in so comprehensive or accurate 
a manner: they were not compiled from other lists 
and tables published elsewhere^ but have been 
prepared with special care for this publication. 
and have been checked and confirmed from even- 
possible source. It will be noticed that some of 
the flights were timed to the fiftK of a second, 
whilst others, among the long ones, were timed 
merely with an approximation of s minute or so. 
but in every case the most reliable figures are 
given and any doubtful performance has been rig- 
idly excluded. 

Figiires are dry reading to the majoritj'. but 
their eloquence to those appreciative of their im- 
port is irresistible. 



The table? here submitted show better than any 
words could the startling progress being made in 
the art of flight at the present day. 

The first table shows the progression of the 
world's record for duration of flight. 

In 1S90. 1S91 and 1S97, Ader is said to have torn 
himself free from the earth for a few seconds in 
his steam-driven bat-shaped monoplanes, and in 
1S94, Maxim's giant machine apparently lifted it- 
self for some moments clear of the rails it was 



If they are not on the record-list it is because 
no time was taken of these earliest hops of arti- 
ficial birds and because there is no proof that they 
were under control at the time. We cannot share, 
however, the disbelief manifested by many, in 
these early results obtained by steam-driven ma- 
chines. The eWdence either direct or circumstan- 
tial is too clear, and. without wishing to detract 
from the merit of late experimenters. Aircraft 
takes the opportunity to offer this tribute to those 
great pioneers, Clement Ader and Sir Hiram S. 
Maxim. 

The other tables deal only \\'ith the progress of 
1909 over 190S. The second one juxtaposes the fif- 
teen longest flights made in either year; it also 



gives a list of ever?* other flight made in iqoQ ex- 
ceeding an hour in duration. Altogether fifty-six 
such flights were made in 1900. compared with 
eleven in 190S. and nt>ne previous to 190S. The 
third table shows the various countries in which 
the better known a\-iators have fiown prior to 
December 31st last, spreading the doctrine of 
man's emancipation from the shackles of gravity. 
Since January- ist many of these men have flown 
in other countries, and new men have acquired 
international reputations. The fourth table show-s 
the five men who had made flights exceeding ten 
minutes in duration in 190S, and the thirty-four 
who had flown for over half an hour at a stretch 
prior to 1910. 

Since January ist many names could be added 
to this list: Yan den Bom, Efimoff, Olieslaegers, 
Metrot. Chavez, Gaudart, preWously almost, or 
totallv, unkno^\•n as abators, have recently made 
flights of more than an hour. Glenn H. Curtiss 
also passed the hour mark at the recent meet at 
Los Angeles. 

Scores of men are fl>-ing daily in Europe, scores 
are preparing to fly here, and it does not require 
a particularly keen prophet to foresee that aero- 
planes will soon be " seen around " by those who 
so far are only acquainted \Wih them 1 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



73 



RAPID DEVELOPMENT OF AVIATION AS SHOWN BY STATISTICS 



I. Progression of World's Record for Duration of Flight of Heavier-than-Alr Machir 



December 
August 



*Officially timed. 



.W. Wright. Kitty Hawk, N. C. 

.0. Wright. 

.0. Wright. 

. W. or O. Wright, near Dayton, Ohio. 



.O. Wright. 

.W. W^ right, 

. O. "VVright. Fort Myer, Virgii 



• R. Sommer, M' 
.L. Paulhan, ne 
. H. Farma: 



rmelon, France. 

Rheims, France. 
near Rheims, France. 
Mourmelon, France. 



fOfficially timed up to hr. 3.04' 56" 2-5; flight ended in darkness. 



hr. 54' 53" 2-5 



09 45 3-5 



II. Increase in Length of Best Flights Made 
1908 

Fifteen Longest Flights. 

23" 1--S W. Wright December 31 

W.Wright " 18 

W.Wright " 30 

W. Wright September 2 1 

O. Wright " 12 

O. Wright " II 

W. Wright October i o 

W. Wright September 28 

52" O. Wright " 10 

26" 1-5 W. Wright October 6 

15" O. Wright September 9 

31" O. Wright ■■ 9 

37" 3-5 W. Wright October 3 

03" 1-5 O. Wright September 24 

32" H. Farman " 29 

1909 

Fifteen Longest Flights. 
53" 2-5 H. Farman November 3 



H. Paulhan August 

H. Rougier October 

L. Delagrange . . T. . December 

R. Sommer August 

H. Latham 

R. Sommer 

Ch. de Lambert ... 
Capt. von Engel- 

hardt, November 

R. Sommer August 

P. Tissandier 

O. Wright September : 

G One Hour 

H. Latham August ; 

H. Rougier September : 

O. Wright 

L. Paulhan August 

H. Farman October ; 

H. Farman 

J. de Lesseps December : 

R. Sommer July 

H. Farman " 

H. Latham September ■ 

O. Wright July : 

H. Farman October 



H. Latham December 

P. de Caters October 

H. Farman November 

H. Rougier October 

L. Bleriot 

O. Wright July 

H. Latham September : 

L. Paulhan August 

H. Latham ..,,... June 

L. Paulhan July 

von Engelhardt . . , October : 

R. Sommer August : 

L. BltSriot October 

R. Sommer July 

F. S. Cody September 

H. Farman October 

H. Latham September : 

O. Wright 

P. Tissandier May 

H. Latham August 

M. Singer December : 

Lieut. Humphreys . October : 

E. Chateau December 

L. Paulhan September 

R. Sommer August 

L. Paulhan October 

L. Paulhan 

J. Balsan December : 



III. Where the Various Aviators Have Flown 

W. W^right U.S.A. France Italy 

1903-04-05-08-09 1908-09 1909 

O. Wright U. S. A. Germany. 

1 90 ^-04-05-08-09 1 909 

Curtiss U. S. A. France Italy 

1908-09 1909 1909 

Delagrange France Italy Denmark Belgium Germany England 

1907-08-09 1908 1909 1909 1909 1909 

Bleriot France England Italy Germany Austria Hungary Roumania Turkey 

1907-08-09 1909 1909 1909 1909 1909 1909 1909 

H. Farman France Belgium U. S. A. Germany England 

1907-08-09 1908 1908 1909 1909 

P. de Caters Belgium Germany Russia Russian Poland Turkey Egypt 

1908-09 1909 1909 1909 1909 1909 

Legagneux France Austria Belgium Sweden Denmark Russia 

1908-09 1909 1909 1909 1909 1909 

Moore- Brabazon France England 

1908-09 1909 

Zipfel France Germany Portugal 

1908 1909 1909 

Ellehammer Denmark Germany 

1906-07-08-09 1908 

McCurdy U. S. A. Canada 

1908 1909 

F. J. Baldwin U. S. A. Canada 

190S 1909 



Paulhan 
Rougier . 
Leblanc . 
Molon. . . 
Latham . 
Sommer. 
Bregi. . . . 
Le Blon. 



, Belgium, Germany, England. 
Italy. Germany, England, Belgii 



Germany, England, Belgian 



Germany, 

England. 

Denmark, Sweden. 

Lefebvre Holland, France. 

Fernandez England, 

Willard U. S. A., Canada. 



Metrot Fr 

Gaudart 

Shreck 



, Algeria 
Russia 
Belgiu 
Englai 

Italy. 



Denmark. 



Germany. 

England. 

Prevoteau Denmark, Germany, England. 

Dufour France, Germany, Austria. 

Speckner " Switzerland. 



IV. Increase 
Aviators i 



th< 



j> Number of Competent 
Single Year of 1909 



who made flights exceeding ten minutes : 
; prior to January ist, 1909. 

W. Wright 2 hrs. 20' 23" i- 

O. Weight I hr. i4"2o" 

H. Farman 44*32" 

L. Delagrange 30*27" 

L. Bleriot 11' 

Those who made flights exceeding thirty minutes 
in duration prior to January 1st, 1910. 

H. Farman 4 hrs. 17' 53" 2-S 

L. Paulhan 2 " 49' 20" 

H. Rougier 2 " 41' 36" 

L. Delagrange 2 " 32' 

R. Sommer 2 " 27' is" 

W. Wright 2 " 2o'2i"i-5 (1908) 

H. Latham 2 " 17' 21" 2-5 



C. de Lambert 

von Engelhardt. . . 

P. Tissandier 

O. Wright 

J. de Lesseps 

P. de Caters 

L. Bleriot 

S. F. Cody 

Mortimer-Singer. .. 
Lieut, Humphreys. 

E. Chateau 

T- Balsan 

Lieut. Lahm 

M. Farman 

Hon. C. Rolls 

Hans Grade 

G. H. Curtiss 

Frey 

Lieut. Calderara. . . 
E. Bunau-Varilla .. 



H. Fournier 41' 

J. Gobron 36' 

E. Lefebvre 35' 

G. Legagneux 35' 

A. Leblanc 34' 

H. Bregi 33' 03" 4-5 

Le Blon 30' — " 4-5 

Others who in 1909 have made flights of over ten 
minutes in duration are: de Eaeder, Graham White, 
McCurdy, F. J. Baldwin. Willard, Hamilton. Santos- 
Dumont. Ruchonnet. Demanest, Metrot. Koechlin, 
Kinet, Shreck, Guvot, Cockburn, Moore-Brabazon, 
Zipfel, Gaudart, Osmont, Molon, Cagno, Payelli, 
Bibesco, Hanriot. Richet. the late Captain Ferber, 
Dufour, Sanchez Besa. Valleton, Pequet, etc., etc., 
etc. 

Women who flew in 1909: Mme. de Laroche. Mile. 
Dutrieu: others learning: Miles. Marvingt, Aboukaia. 
Misses Spencer- Kavanagh, D. Leavitt. 



74 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



A. HOLLAND FORBES 

YACHTSMAN AND AERONAUT 



^rt^HERE is not a more enthusiastic balloonist in the United 
^tS States, or perhaps in the entire world, than A. Holland 
^!^ Forbes, of New York, who, on account of his many trips 
^^^^ skyward, has been dubbed by newspaper and magazine 
writers the ''Cow-boy of the Air." 

Mr. Forbes has made numerous ascensions both in this country 
and Europe. On October 12, ipog, he won the Lahm Cup by 
covering a distance of 697.17 miles in nineteen hours, starting 
from St. Louis and fin- 
ishing twenty miles be- 
low Richmond, Vir- 
ginia. On this trip he 
used but twenty bags of 
sand, which made an 
average loss of one bag 
of sand to every thirty- 
five miles traveled, 
which is considered by 
balloonists generally to 
be a splendid record. 

In 1908, his balloon 
" Conqueror " was en- 
tered in the Interna- 
tional balloon race at 
Berlin, Germany, and at- 
tracted world-wide at- 
tention when it burst 
about 4,000 feet above 
the ground, causing Mr. 
Forbes and his aide, Mr. 
Augustus Post, to make 
their memorable fall 
without sustaining any 
injuries, notwithstand- 
ing that they crashed 
through the top of a 
house in the rapid de- 
scent. 

In the International 
Endurance race at In- 
dianapolis last June, Mr. 
Forbes, together with 
his aide, Mr. Clifford 
Harmon, succeeded in 
staying in the air for 
thirty-six hours with his 
balloon " New York," 

thereby winning the Endurance race. He was the donor of the 
Forbes Trophies of the Perpetual Challenge Cup for a point-to- 
point race. In his latest balloon " Viking," which he expects to 
launch in June, Mr. Forbes hopes to set a record for distance 
that will stand for years to come. 

]\Ir. A. Holland Forbes is one of the Governors of the Aero 
Club of America, and Vice-President of the Aero Corporation, 
Ltd., which is the business end of the Aero Club of America ; he is. 
a member of the New York Yacht Club and an expert sailor ; he 
is also interested in automobiles and owns many cars. He is the 
President of the publishing house of Forbes & Company, Ltd., 
New York, and a director of several large corporations. He 
resides in New York during the winter and at his beautiful 
country place, " Garden Court," Fairfield, Conn., in the summer. 
When asked recently what the balloon has done toward prog- 
ress, i\Ir. Forbes said that through the balloon and its develop- 
ment came the dirigible, and from the knowledge gained by 




experimenting with dirigibles and aeroplanes is resulting the 
concjuest of the air. Ballooning in the United States is in 
its infancy, saj'S Mr. Forbes, and as a sport it is unapproach- 
able, and it is only a question of time when all men and women, 
who can afford it, will take it up as a recreation. It is his 
opinion that there is nothing to equal ballooning as a general 
health restorer. Mr. Forbes says that the percentage of fatali- 
ties in ballooning during the past hundred years is far below 

the average loss of life 
sustained through any 
other means of travel- 
ing. Most of the fatali- 
ties that have taken 
place have been caused 
by men trying to pass 
over large bodies of 
water. 

According to JNIr. 
Forbes there are only 
two sports worthy of 
attention, yachting and 
ballooning. The fas- 
cination of ballooning, 
says he, is a hard thing 
to express to those who 
have never made an 
aerial trip. It takes hold 
of one from the very 
first ascension. The sun- 
rise, the lower clouds, 
the moonlight flickering 
through the clouds here 
and there, are inspira- 
tions in themselves. 
Twenty-four hours spent 
in a balloon, says i\Ir. 
Forbes, will do more to 
convince a man that there 
is a Supreme Being than 
all the preaching he may 
listen to during his 
whole life, since he 
comes into direct touch 
with Nature in all her 
splendor. The delights 
of this sport have never 
yet been adequately de- 
scribed and it is quite impossible to do so. 

Mr. Forbes emphasizes the fact that no one should take a 
drink of liquor of any kind, either before getting into a balloon 
previous to making a flight, or while he is in the air. He says 
his height record is 18,300 feet, and the only bad effects of the 
air he has ever taken any notice of have been while dropping 
from a high to a lower level, which would cause a snapping 
sound in his ears. He studies air-currents in a scientific way, 
and hopes, through the knowledge he has already attained in 
this work, to be able to win the world's balloon championship in 
the International race this year. 

This race takes place next October, probably from St. Louis, 
which will no doubt be chosen as it was in 1907. The winds are 
usually westerly at that time of the year, and should Mr. Forbes's 
big gas-bag be driven before a southwestern breeze, the chances of 
his landing near the mouth of the St. Lawrence and smashing the 
world's record of 1,193^ miles will be very strong indeed. 



H0LL.^ND FORBES 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



75 



THE WRIGHTS' CONTENTIONS GROUNDLESS 



By Louis Paulhan 




IT is naturally with a good deal 
of surprise and annoyance that I 
learned on setting foot on Amer- 
ican soil, that efiforts would be 
made hy the Wright Brothers to 
prevent me from flying on the 
ground tliat my machines were an 
infringement of theirs. 

I had removed the usual devices 
for warping the wings which 
form part of the Bleriot XI of 
the standard type before taking 
possession of my Bleriots at Pan 
last December. I have never 
flown in an aeroplane with warp- 
ing wings and prefer machines in which lateral control is other- 
wise secured. 
The Bleriots I have cannot, therefore, be in question at all. 
.\s to the Farmans. I cannot for the life of me see how they 
can be considered infringements of the Wright Brothers' patent 
of igo6. In the Wright aeroplane, when one side is warped down 
to reestablish equilibrium, the brake effect is so pronounced on 
that side that the rear rudder has to be used to prevent the ma- 
chine turning around the warped side. Why they should think 
aeroplanes using " ailerons " or flaps, such as mine, should do the 
same thing, I don't know. When I pull down an aileron to se- 
cure a lift on that side I obtain the lift and no retarding cifcct 
is produced to warrant my using my rear rudder. 

I never use this rudder for this purpose in straightaway flight, 
never having occasion to do so. 

One of my counsel holds that the reason this occasion never 
arises is that as the ailerons fly normally perfectly freely in the 
line of the wind, their lifting effect commences directly they are 
made to make any angle with it, and a very small angle is all that 
is needed to secure a lift ; in the small angles the lifting effect is 
immensel}' greater than the brake effect, the latter being wholly 
negligible in fact. 

If the ailerons were normally at an angle of several degrees 
and no lifting effect was available until they had been further 
lowered, the brake or retarding effect would be very noticeable 
indeed, for its proportion to the lifting power would be much 
greater and I might have to use my rudder just as the Wrights 
use theirs. 



This may well be the scientific explanation, but whatever it is, 
I do not use my rudder in conjunction with my ailerons to re- 
establish my equilibrium, when for any reason it is affected in 
straightaway flight. 

Neither is there necessity in the Farman for the simultaneous 
use of these controls in turning. 

I can make quite wide turns by lifting up one side through the 
use of the aileron, and once the turn is started, letting the aileron 
go, but I usually make turns through the use of the rear rudder 
alone, like a ship does, and it is only if I want to make a very 
sharp turn that I may make use of an aileron as well as the rud- 
der, the aileron being used to secure a greater tilt. 

What I do consider necessary, however, is to lower the for- 
ward horizontal rudder or stabilisator when about to make a turn. 
I invariably do this and make the turn as the biplane dips. 

That is one reason it is a good idea to fly high ; another is that 
the air-currents are much more steady than on the surface, as the 
natural or artificial asperities of the earth's surface cause the 
sudden and dangerous gusts and whirlpools in the air. 

I am glad that I am being given a further opportunity of show- 
ing America what can be done in the line of flying with high- 
class aeroplanes and aeronautic motors. 

The machine I have is built by Henry Farman, whose com- 
petency in aviation matters is certainly equal to that of any man 
living. If anything is disposed in a certain way on the ma- 
chine it is for some special purpose; the special disposition of the 
ailerons and their being allowed to fly behind like flags when not 
in use, is no exception to this rule. 

The motor is one of the famous Gnome revolving motors de- 
signed by the Brothers Seguin ; in the nine or ten months I have 
been flying I have never used any other on my biplanes. 

The impressions I have had of my American trip have naturally 
been affected by the efforts made to stop my flights, but I still 
hope that ere I return to France the removal of these restric- 
tions will have enabled me to leave with a pleasant impression of 
my journey across the Atlantic. 




CRITICISM OF THE COVRTS DECISION OF FEBRVARY 17th 
IN THE WRIGHT PAVLHAN SVIT 

By Israel Ludlow, One of Paulhan's Counsel 



A LIMITATION imposed by th 
I'.espass upon the space, whic 



of the 



desire not to 
it would be 
riticism of the opin- 
jld occupy, requires 
the mere enumeration ot some of the errors which 
will be relied upon on appeal rather than an ex- 
tended argument. In the points made, the 
Wright Company is hereafter referred to as the 
complainant and Louis Paulhan as the defendant. 
The Wright Brothers" patent of May 22, 1906, is 
referred to as the patent-in-suit. 
It was error of the Circuit Court to hold: 



trol." when no distinct claim is made to such 
invention in the patent-in-suit. 

IV. That the use of the old rear vertical rudder 
to counteract the revolution of the aeroplane about. 



aeroplane a vertical 
side control was in- 
previously described 



I. That to aggregate in 
rudder and mechanism fo 
yention, when both had be 
in many publications. 

II. That the patent-in-suit was not limited to 
the exact structure illustrated and described 
therein. 

III. That the complainants were entitled to the 
exclusive right to a " three-rudder system of con- 



its vertical axis, caused 
wing of tlie aeroplane, 
patentable structure. 


by the depressioi 
resulted in a r 


1 ol 


and 


V. That the head-resistance decreases 
locity of the wing in greater proportion 
increase in the angle of incidence tends 


the ve- 
than the 
to raise 


VI. That, unless the 
plane about its vertical 
use ot the rear vertical r 
of incidence will remain 
balance, but will rathei 
that it is, therefore, n 
should be put over towai 
counteracting the revolt 


revolution of the aero- 
axis be corrected by the 
udder, the increased angle 

ineffectual to restore the 
r further disturb it; and 
ecessarv that the rudder 
rd the opposite wing, thus 
ition. 


VJT. That it is the difference in the 


ang 


le oi 



ates against the si 

stores the equilibri 

of flight. 
VI] I. That the equilibrium of 
uld not be recovered by the us 



verti 



Lidde 



of the 



IX. That the invention of Ader, d'Esterno. Le 
Bris, and others, who warped the wings of their 

rudder, were too inadequate to constitute valid 
anticipation. 

X. That the complainants, if their invention is 
the separate action of the rear. vertical rudder and 
the warping surfaces, did not, for the purpose of 
deceiving the public, file a description, which 
was made to contain less than the whole truth, 
and that the patent is therefore invalid. 

Upon the strength of the case made by the de- 
fendant, of which only ten points are here enum- 
erated out of the sixty-one set forth in Assign- 
ment of Error, it is expected that a reversal on 
appeal of the judgment of the lower Court will 



obta 



76 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



THE INTERNAL WORK OF THE WIND 

By S. P. Langley 



Continued from the March Aircraft 
Experiments With the Use of Special Apparatus 

N the ordinary use of the anemometer (let us sup- 
pose it to be a Robinson's anemometer, for il- 
kistration), the registry is seldom taken as often 
as once a minute ; thus, in the ordinary practice 
of the United States Weather Bureau, the regis- 
tration is made at the completion of the passage 
of each mile of wind. If there be very rapid 
fluctuations of the wind, it is obviously desirable, 
in order to detect them, to observe the instru- 
ment at very brief intervals, e. g., at least every 
second, instead of every minute or every hour, and it is equally 
ob^'ious that in order to take up and indicate the changes which 





occur in these brief intervals, the instrument should have as 
little inertia as possible, its momentum tending to falsify the 
facts, by rendering the record more uniform than would other- 
wise be the case. 

In 1887 I made use of the only apparatus at command, an or- 
dinary small Robinson's anemometer, having cups 3 inches (7,5 
centimeters) in diameter, the centre of the cups being 654 inches 
(16^ centimeters) from the centre of rotation. This was placed 
at the top of a mast 53 feet (16.2 metres) in height, which was 
planted in the grounds of the Allegheny Observatory, on the 
flat summit of a hill which rises nearly 400 feet (122 metres) 
above the valley of the Ohio River. It was, accordingly, in a sit- 
uation exceptionally free from those irregularities of the wind 
which are introduced by the presence of trees and of houses, 
or of inequalities of surface. 

Every twenty-fifth revolution of the cups, was registered by 
closing an electric circuit, and the registry was made on the 
chronograph of the Observatory by a suitable electric connec- 
tion, and these chronograph sheets were measured, and the re- 
sults tabulated. A portion of the record obtained on July 16, 
18S7, is given on Plate I, the abscissje representing time, and 
the ordinates wind velocities. The observed points represent the 
wind's velocities as computed from the intervals between each 
successive electrical contact, as measured on the chronograph 
sheets, and for convenience in following the succession of ob- 
served points they are here joined by straight lines, though it 
is hardly necessary to remark that the change in velocity is in 
fact, though quite sharp, yet not in general discontinuous, and the 
straight lines here used for convenience do not imply that the 
rate of change of velocity is uniform. 



The wind velocities during this period of observation ranged 
from about 10 to 25 miles an hour, and the frequency of meas- 
urement was every 7 to 17 seconds. If, on the one hand, owing 
to the weight and inertia of the anemometer, this is far from 
doing justice to the actual irregularities of the wind; on the 
other, it equally shows that the wind was far from being a body 
of even approximate uniformity of motion, and that, even when 
considered in quite small sections, the motion was found to be 
irregular almost beyond conception — certainly beyond anticipa- 
tion; for this record is not selected to represent an extraordi- 
nary breeze, but the normal movement of an ordinary one. 

By an application of these facts, to be presented later, I then 
reached by these experiments the conclusion that it was theo- 
retically possible to cause a heavy body, wholly immersed in the 
wind, to be driven in the opposite direction, e. g., to move east 
while the wind was blowing west, without the use of any pov/er 
other than that which the wind itself furnished, and this even 
by the use of plane surfaces, and without taking the advantage of 
the more advantageous properties of curved ones. 

This power, I further already believed myself warranted by 
these experiments in saying, could be obtained by the movements 
of the air in the horizontal plane alone, even without the utiliza- 
tion of currents having an upward trend. But I was obliged 
to turn to other occupations, and did not resume these interest- 
ing observations until the 3'ear 1893. 

Although the anemometer used at Allegheny served to illus- 




t, 1893, at the Smithsonian I 
(paper cups) registeting evety revolution. 
Abscissa; = Time*. 
Ordinates = Wind velocities in miles per hour. 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



77 




12 ^ 



Wind velocities recorded February 4, 1S93. at the Smithsoniaa Institution with a light Robinson 
(paper cups) registering every revolution. 
AbscisKc = Time, 
Ordinatcs = Wind vclodties in miles per hour. 

trate the essential fact of the rapid and continuous fluctuations 
of even the ordinary and comparatively uniform wind, yet owing 
to the inertia of the arms and cups, which tended to equalize 
the rate (the moment of inertia was approximately 40,000 
gr. cm.'), and to the fact that the record was only made at every 
twenty-fifth revolution, the internal changes in the horizontal 
component of the wind's motion, thus representing its potential 
work, were not adequately recorded. 

In January, 1893, I resumed these observations at Washington 
with apparatus with which I sought to remedy these defects, 
using as a station the roof of the north tower of the Smitli- 
sonian Institution building, the top of the parapet being 142 feet 
(43-3 metres) above the ground, and the anemometers, which 
were located above the parapet, being 153 feet (46.7 metres) 
above the ground. I placed them in charge of Mr. George E. 
Curtis, with instructions to take observations under the condi- 
tions of light, moderate, and high winds. The apparatus used 
was, first, a Weather Bureau Robinson anemometer of standard 
size, with aluminum cups. Diameter to centre of cups, 34 centi- 
meters ; diameter of cups, 10.16 centimeters : weight of arms 
and cups, 241 grammes ; approximate of inertia, 40,710 gr. cm." 

A second instrument was a very light anemometer, having 
paper, cups of standard pattern and diameter, the weight of arms 
and cups being only 74 grammes, and its moment of inertia, 8,604 
gr. cm.' 

With this instrument, a number of observations were taken, 
when it was lost by being blown away in a gale. It was suc- 
ceeded in its use by one of my own construction, which was con- 
siderably lighter. This was also blown away. I afterward em- 



ployed one of the same size as the standard pattern, weighing 
48 grammes, having a moment of inertia of 11,940 gr. cm.", and 
finally I constructed one of one-half the diameter of the standard 
pattern, employing cones instead of hemispheres, weighing 5 
grammes, and having a moment of inertia of but 300 gr. cm.' 

In the especially light instruments, the electric record was 
made at every half-revolution, on an ordinary astronomical 
chronograph, placed upon the floor of the Tower, connected with 
the anemometers by an electric circuit. Observations were made 
on January 14, 1893, during a light wind having a velocity of 
from g to 17 miles an hour; on January 2Sth and 26th, during 
a moderate wind having a velocity of from 16 to 28 miles an 
liour; and February 4th and 7th, during a moderate and high 
wind ranging from 14 to 36 miles an hour. Portions of these 
observations are given on Plates II, III, and IV. A short por- 
tion of the record obtained with the standard Weather Bureau 
anemometer during a high northwest wind is given on Plate V. 

A prominent feature presented by these diagrams is that the 
higher the absolute velocity of the wind, the greater the relative 
fluctuations which occur in it. In a high wind the air moves in 
a tumultuous mass, the velocity being at one moment perhaps 40 
miles an hour, then diminishing to an almost instantaneous calm, 
and then resuming.* 

The fact that an absolute local calm can momentarily occur 
during the prevalence of a high wind, was vividly impressed 
upon me during the observations of February 4th, when chanc- 
ing to look up to the light anemometer, which was revolving 
so rapidly that the cups were not separately distinguishable, I 

*An example of a very rapid change may be seen on Plate IV., at 12.23 P.M. 




:brua/y 4, 1893, at the Smithsonian Institution with a light Robinson 
(paper cups) registering every revolution. 
Abscissa: = Time. 
Ordinatcs = Wind velocities in miles per hour. 



78 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



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saw them completely stop for an instant, and then resume their 
previous high speed of rotation, the whole within the fraction 
of a second. This confirmed the suspicion that the chronographic 
record, even of a specially light anemometer, but at most im- 
perfectly notes the sharpness of these internal changes. Since 
the measured interval between two electric contacts is the datum 
for computing the velocit}', an instantaneous stoppage, such as 
I accidentally saw, will appear on the record simply as a slow- 
ing of the wind, and such very significant facts as that just 
noted, will be necessarily slurred over, even by the most sensi- 
tive apparatus of this kind. 

However, the more frequent the contacts, the more nearly an 
exact record of the fluctuations may be measured, and I have, as 
I have stated, provided that they should be made at every half- 
revolution of the anemometer, that is, as a rule, several times a 
second.* 

I now invite the reader's attention to the actual records of 
rapid changes that take place in the wind's velocity, selecting as 
an illustration the first 5^ minutes of the diagram plotted on 
Plate III. 

The heavy line through points A, B, and C, represents the 
ordinary record of the wind's velocity as obtained from a stand- 
ard Weather Bureau anemometer during the observations re- 
cording the passage of two miles of wind. The velocity, which 
was, at the beginning of the interval considered, nearly 23 miles 
an hour, fell during" the course of the first mile to a little over 
20 miles an hour. This is the ordinarj' anemometric record of 
the wind at such elevations as this (47 metres) above the earth's 
surface, where it is free from the im.mediate vicinity of disturb- 
ing irregularities, and where it is popularly supposed to move 
with occasional variation in direction, as the weather-cock in- 
deed indicates, but with such nearly uniform movement that its 
rate of advance is, during any such brief time as two or three 
minutes, under ordinary circumstances, approximately uniform. 
This, then, may be called the " wind," that is, the conventional " 
" wind " of treatises upon aerodynamics, where its aspect as a 
practically continuous flow is alone considered. When, however, 
we turn to the record made with the specially light anemometer, 
at every second, of this same wind, we find an entirely dift'er- 
ent state of things. The wind starting with the velocity of 23 
miles an hour at 12 hours 10 minutes 18 seconds, rose within 
10 seconds to a velocity of 23 miles an hour, and within 10 sec- 
onds more fell to its initial speed. It then rose within 30 
seconds to a velocity of 36 miles an hour, and so on, with al- 
ternate risings and fallings, at one time actually stopping; and, 
as the reader maj' easily observe, passing" through 18 notable 
maxima and as many notable minima, the average interval from 
a maximum to a minimum being a little over 10 seconds, and the 
average change of velocity in this time being about 10 miles an 
hour. In the lower left-hand corner of Plate III is given a 
conventional representation of these fluctuations, in which this 
average period and amplitude is used as a type. The above are 
facts, the counterpart of which may be noted by anyone adopting 
the means the writer has employed. It is hardly necessary to 
observe, that almost innumerable minor maxima and minima 
presented themselves, which the drawing caimot depict. 

In order to insure clearness of perception, the reader will bear 
in mind that the diagram does not represent the velocities which 
obtained coincidentallv, along the length of two miles of wind 



the 



we may note the error of the common assumption that the or- 
nemometer, however heavy, will, if frictionless, correctly measure 
:ity of the wind, for the existence of " vis inertiae," it is now seen. 



is not indifferent, but plays a most ir 
fers such great and frequent changes a 
rate at which this inertia is overcome, 
a function of the density of the fluid, 
suppose, itself varies incessantly and 
probable that no form of barometer i 
change of this density, owing to thi 
sappose it to exceed certain limits, ai 
made with an anemometer of such i 



iportant part where the velocity suf- 
s we here see it does, and where the 
and this velocity changed, is plainly 
which density, we also see reason to 
with great rapidity. Though it is 
n use does justice to the degree of 
s rapidity, we cannot, nevertheless, 
d we may treat the present records, 
xceptional lightness, as being com- 



paratively unaffected by these changes in density, though they exist. 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



79 



represented, nor the changes m velocity experienced by a single 
moving particle during the given interval, but that it is a picture 
of the velocities which were in this wind at the successive in- 
stants of its passing the fixed anemometer, which velocities, in- 
deed, were probably nearly the same for a few seconds before and 
after registry, but which incessantly passed into, and were re- 
placed by others, in a continuous flow of change. But although 
the observations do not show the actual changes of velocity 
v/hich any given particle experiences in any assigned interval, 
these fluctuations cannot be materially difl'erent in character from 
those which are observed at a fixed point, and are shown in the 
diagram. It may perhaps still further aid us in fixing our ideas, 
to consider two material particles as starting at the same time 
o\-er this two-mile course : the one moving with the uniform 
velocity of 22.6 miles an hour (a feet per second), which is the 
average velocity of this wind as observed for the interval be- 
tween 12 hours 10 minutes iS seconds, and 12 hours 15 minutes 
45 seconds, on February 4th ; the other, during the same interval, 
having the continuously changing velocities actually indicated by 
the light anemometer as shown on Plate III. Their positions at 
any time may, if desired, be conveniently represented in a dia- 
gram, w-here the abscissa of any point represents the elapsed 
time in seconds, and the ordinates show the distance, in feet, 
of the material particle from the starting-point. The path of 
the first particle will thus be represented by a straight line, while 
the path of the second particle will be an irregularly curved line, 
at one time above, and at another time below, the mean straight 
line just described, but terminating in coincidence with it at 
the end of the interval. If, now, all the particles in two miles 
of wind were simultaneously accelerated and retarded in the 
same way as this second particle, that is, if the wind were an 
inelastic fluid, and moved like a solid cylinder, the velocities re- 
corded by the anemometer would be identical with those that 
obtained along the whole region specified. But the actual cir- 
jtcumstances must evidently be far different from this, since the 
'air is an elastic and nearly perfect fluid, subject to condensation 
and rarefaction. Hence the successive velocities of any given 
particle (which are in reality the resultant of incessant changes 
in all directions), must be conceived as evanescent, taking on 
something like the sequence recorded by these curves, a very brief 
time before this air reached the anemometer, and losing it as 
soon after. 

It has not been my purpose in this paper to enter upon any in- 
quiry as to the cause of this non-homogeneity of the wind. The 
irregularities of the surface topography (including buildings, and 
every other surface obstruction) are commonly adduced as a 
sufficient explanation of the chief irregularities of the surface 
wind ; yet I believe that, a considerable distance above the earth'? 
surface (c. g. one mile), the wind may not even be appro.xi- 
mately homogeneous, nor have an even flow ; for while, if we 
consider air as an absolutely ela.stic and frictionless fluid, any 
motion impressed upon it would be preserved forever, and the 
actual irregularities of the wind would be the results of changes 
made at any past time, however remote; so long as we admit 
that the wind, without being absolutely elastic and frictionless, 
is nearl}' so, it seems to me that we may consider that the in- 
cessant alterations, which it here appears make the " wind," are 
due to past impulses and changes which are preserved in it, and 
which die away with very considerable slowness. If this be the 
case, it is less difficult to see how even in the upper air, and at 
every altitude, we might expect to find local variations, or pulsa- 
tions, not unlike those which we certainly observe at minor alti- 
tudes above the ground.* 

• In this connection reference may be made to the notable investigations 
of Helmholtz, on Atmospheric Movements, SitzuTiysbericfUej Berlin, i883- 



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AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



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April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



8i 



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E. J. WILLIS CO. 

8 Park Place - - . New York City 



Above is a sample of the Aerial photographic 
work done by 

LEOPOLD LEWIS 

915 Eighth Avenue ----- Ne-w York 



A full line of Eastman 's Kodaks and supplies always on hand 
DEVELOPING AND PRINTING A SPECIALTY 



BAMBOO 

Specially selected for Aeroplanes 
=-^ ALL SIZES IN STOCK=: 

J. DELTOUR, Inc. 

49 Sixth Ave. - - - New^ York 

Telephone 556.S Spring 



AIRCRAFT April, igio 



AEROPLANES 



of unrivalled qualities in design and finished workmanship 

are built by the 

W. STARLING BURGESS CO. \E^ 



OF 



MARBLEHEAD, MASS. 

Licensees and Sole Manufacturers in the United States of 
the Herring-Burgess and Farman flying machines. 



This Company is also building Air Ships, Gliders and 
Flying Models of other types, and will be pleased to submit 
estimates of cost to those who wish to furnish their own de- 
signs. All machines will be tested and flown at the Company's 
Trial Grounds on Plum Island in Massachusetts Bay. 



I.H.MacALMAN 

Agent for W. Starling Burgess Co., Ltd. 

Showrooms, 96 Massachusetts Ave, 

BOSTON, MASS. 



April, igio 

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 

10 cents ai. line 

Seven Words to Line 
Nothing Less than 6 Lines Accepted 

CASH WITH ORDER 

10 per cent. Discount for Six Consecutive 
Insertions all credited sixth insertion 



CURTISS-TVPE AEROPLANE, full size, witli 
or without motor ; splendid workmanship. Ad- 
dress J. A., care Ajkckait. 

WANTED.— An up-to-date business managrer for 
aeroplane company. Cash bond required. Ap- 
ply B. F. M., care Aircraft. 

OR SALE.— One 40 h. p. Eight Cylinder Curtiss 

Aerial Engine in good running order. Price, 

$735.00. Address Box iSS, Monett. iMo. 

I HAVE designed a flying machine which combines 
an aeroplane and helicopter. This machine will 
rise straipfht up in the air without a running start ; 
the planes being turned edgewise offer little resist- 
ance in the air when raising and when the desired 
height is reached they are pitched forward, thus 
sustaining the weight of the machine. The pro- 
pellers are thus pitched forward and used exclu- 
sively for driving the machine ahead. From results 
obtained from several small models I think it will 
make a great success. I would like to communicate 
with a gentleman of money who would like 10 
finance the building of a large one. Address 
J. W. B., care of Aircraft, 37 E. jSth Street, New 
York. 

DISCOVERED something which has a greater 
lifting power than hydrogen, the lightest known 
element. Will divulge the long-looked-for knowl- 
edge to party with capital, interested in U. S. Pat- 
ent 939,651, which has directly opposed aeroplanes 
united together and having a body mounted for 
tilting movement between said planes, a propel- 
ler at the forward end of the body, adjustable for 
steering purpose, propellers arranged centrally with- 
in the planes for rendering momentum, means oper- 
ating the said propeller in unison ; a tail piece for 
steering if the motor gives out, means of forming a 
ball and socket connection between the tail piece and 
the rear end of the body. 

SAMUEL WADE APPLEGATE. 

"World Famed." South Bend. Ind, 



AIRCRAFT 

PATENTS 

FLY! THAT'S THE THING! 

BENNETT S. JONES 

PATENT ATTORNEY 
Victor Building:, Washington, D.C. 
Can secure you a Patent that will PROTECT 
your invention on a Hying; machine, for a 
moderate fee. Advice Free. 
Printed copies of Airship patents lOc. each 
WRITE TO-DAY! 



PATENTS 



Advice and Books free. 



Rales Reasonable. 
Best Services 



THAT PROTECT 
AND PAY 

Highest References 



WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent lawyer 

612 F St. N.W., WASHINGTON, D.C. 



^f ^ JVew York «^«,^ 

inn NEW FIRE-l^ROOF 

NAVARRE 

Seventh Ave. * S»tlx Street 

BUSINESS .>1EN. FAMlLrES. TOURISTS 

ilaximum of I^uxury at Minimum of Cost 





ACCESSIBLE — QUIET — ELEGANT 



New Dutch Grill Rooms. Larprest in the City 

Electric Cars pass Hotel to all Railroads 

EUROPEAN PLAN 

A Room with a Bath for a Dollar and a Half 

A Larger Room with a Bath for $2. 00 and $2. 50 

where two persons occupy one room 

$1.00 extra will be added to above prices. 

SEND FOR BOOKLET 

Edgar T. Smith Geo. L. Sanborn 



SOARING BLADES 

Made to Order, Jlttachahle 
to vour Aeroplane or Glider 

They increase the speed to nearly double the motor 
power, push machine if motor stops over 20 miles p. h., 
which permits ghding and prevents accidents. Any 
height can safely be attained. Blue prints for aeroplanes 
with full patent rights, maintaining automatic equilibrium, 
also furnished. For terms apply to 

R. DRESSLER 

CONEY ISLAND : : : NEW YORK 

AEROPLANES, GLIDERS, 
MODELS, PROPELLERS 

Designed and built, or made to your own design 

Gliders, Parts anci Aeronautic Supplies in Stock 

AERO MOTORS 

FRED SHNEIDER 1020 E. irsth St., New York 

New York Agent for ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY 



SAMUEL F. PERKINS 

SCIENTIFIC KITE FLYING 

Aerial Advertising 

By Aeroplane Kites and Balloons 

Special Attention is called to the Spectacular Night Ad- 
vertising in which enormous beams or brilliantly colored search- 
light rays (visible for five miles) are thrown upon "ads " suspended 
thousands of feet in the sky. 

110 Tremont Street, Boston, Massachusetts 



GREEN'S ENGINE 

BUILT FOR THE JOB 

EVERY part of the Green Aerial Engine is designed especially for the 
purpose it is intended to fulfil. It is not an automobile engine modified 
or made to do duty for aeroplane work 
with a special view to the peculiar 1 
lightness, efficiency, and consistent and continuous running under full load. 
Green's Aerial Carburetor embodies an entirely new principle called into 
existence by the requirements of aviation. It is one of many special parts 
which go to form the Green engine, and have made it so great 



> last it i 



ents of 



Full particiilnrs sent on npplicntion. 

The GREEN'S MOTOR PATENTS SYNDICATE, Ltd. 

55y, BERNERS STREET, LONDON, W. 

Makers for the Patentees: The Aster Engineering Co., Ltd. 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



AERONAUT LEO STEVENS 

Leading Balloon and Airship Constructor of the World 

REPRESENTING THE 

CONTINENTAL RUBBER CO. 

OF HANOVER, GERMANY 

MAKERS OF THE FINEST AND STRONGEST BALLOON AND 
AEROPLANE MATERIAL IN THE WORLD 




ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS 

MODELS DEVELOPED 

CONTRACTOR TO THE U. S. GOVERNMENT 

AND 

NINETY-FIVE PER CENT OF THE CLUBS IN THIS COUNTRY 

Also Representing the Santos Dumont Aeroplane 



The Wilcox Propeller 



AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE 

CARTON & LA CHAMBRE 

Balloon and Airship Builders 
OF PARIS, FRANCE 



ADDRESS 

Box 181, IVIadison Square 
New York 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



8S 



PROPELLERS 



"PERFECT SCREW 



LAMINATED WOOD 



IN STOCK FOR IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT 
6 Ft., $50 7 Ft., $60 

Weight b% lbs. Weight 9 lbs. 

ANY SIZE TO ORDER 



8 Ft, $70 
Weight 12 lbs. 



OUR 6 Ft. PROPELLER GIVES 200 Lbs. THRUST AT 1 200 R. P. M. 




./ 



%. a. im. iWotors Co. 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



March I, I9IO 



THE REQUA-GIBSON CO.. 

225 West 49th Street, 

Neiu York, N. Y. 

Dear Sirs:- 

The propellers your company are manufacturing ]mfill every c.aim you make, 
in fact, the 6 ft. dia. 4 ft. pitch propeller delivered to us did even better work than you 



We will need more very soon. 

Respectfully 

L. A. W. MOTORS CO., 

Per OLIVER LIGHT. 

P. S. The PULL we obtained was about 210 lbs. at 1.000 to 1,050 R. P. M. 

OLIVER LIGHT. 



REQUA GIBSON CO 

225 West 49th Street 
NEW YORK CITY 



PHONE 



7200 



COLUMBUS 



86 



AIRCRAFT 



April, igio 



INTERNATIONAL 

SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS 

FOUNDED 1908 

The First Private School Established In the World 
The Only Aero Institute in U. S. A, Directed by a Licensed Pilot 

FOUNDER-DIRECTOR 

ALBERT C. TRIACA 

Pilot Aero Clubs of America, France, Italy 
Ex-Technical Director Foreign Department New York School ot Automobile Engineers 




THE AERODROME OF THE I. S. A. 

With Aeroplane Sheds, Gas, Shops, Lecture and Model Hall, Ladies' and Juniors' Rooms. 

A private mile track for experiments is located at Garden City, L. I., adjacent to Hempstead Plains, where flights of lo miles 

in straight line can be made. (Take 34th Street Ferry or Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn, L. I. R.R.) 

On April 3rd, Mr. A. C. Triaca, assisted by a competent staff, will begin the first 8 weeks' practical 
course in aviation, limited to 10 students. 

Home Study Courses in Aerostats, Dirigibles and Aviation, prepared by Lieut.-Colonel G. Espitallier 
of the French Balloon Corps. 

Private lessons in all branches of Aeronautics for Ladies and Gentlemen. 

Juniors' Class with contests for Kites and Models. 

I. S. A. SUPPLY DEPARTMENT 

Sole Agents U. S. A. and Canada for the CHAUVIERE INTEQRALE PROPELLERS, holders of all the records 
for Dirigibles and Aeroplanes. HUE (Paris) Aeronautical Instruments. LEO STEVENS, Aeronaut, manufacturer COM- 
PLETE LINE of Imported and Domestic Aeroplanes, Balloons, Dirigibles, Motors, Fabrics and parts. 

Models and full size apparatus made. Estimates and consultations given. Illustrated lectures arranged. 
Subscriptions taken for Foreign Aero Magazines 

I. S. A. Aerodrome, Garden City, L. I. (near the Garage) 



1 



PARIS OFFICE : 52 Rue Scrvan, Paris 



April, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



Henry FARMAN Biplanes 



Are the best 
the safest, 
most reliable 
and easiest 
to drive 



A FEW RECENT RECORDS 

Grand Prix de Champagne (H. Farman). 

Passenger Prize (two passengers and aviator) (H. Farman). 

Grand Prize of Blackpool (H. Farman). 

Speed Prize (H. Farman). 

Distance and Speed Prize, Doncaster (Sommer). 

Height Record by Paulhan (300 yards). 

WORLD'S record distance (234 kms.) (H. Farman). 

WORLD'S record time (4 hrs. 18 mins.) (H. Farman). 

WORLD'S record for Height (4,165 feet) (Paulhan). 

Longest town to town record, Mourmelon Chalons and back (Paulhan). 

At the Los Angeles meet Paulhan won the First Prizes for Height, 

Endurance and Passenger-Carrying Contests with a Henry 

Farman Biplane. 

MICHELIN CUP (H. FARMAN) 



Works: Camp de Chalons, Marne. Offices: 22, Av. de la Grande Armee, Paris 



Contractors to the French War Office 



What Kind of a Motor Do You Want? 



Let us answer: 

1st, A reliable motor 
2nd, A powerful motor 
3rd, An enduring motor 

Curtiss Motors 

Have these Qualities 

The Kind You Do NOT Want: 

1st, A motor of "freak" construction 

2nd, A motor of extremely light construction 

3rd, A motor of unproven merit 

CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES 

Built in All Sizes. New Models of Highest Type and Greatest Efficiency 
Send for Catalogue 4 XX 

CURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD 

HERRING-CURTISS CO., Hammondsport, N. Y. 




AIRCRAFT 



April, igio _ 



PRESERVATIVE VARNISH 

For Balloons, Dirigibles, 
Aeroplanes and Tents 

An elastic, non-porous varnish for silk, linen, mus- 
lin or any other fabric used in the manufacture of 
air-craft. 

This varnish saves the big expense of Balloon 
Sheeting. 

Send for Free Sample to 

VICTOR BRUNZEL 

1383 Third Ave. : : New York 



J5he STENZY 



Latest and 
Most Reliable 



^ero iHotor 



Positively 
guaranteed to 



run at two thousand revolutions a minute at 50% 
less gasolene day in and day out. One pound 
weight per horse power. 50% cash with order. 
Motor guaranteed as the best. As represented or 
money returned. Delivery 60 days from date. 

Orders received, 1019 Binnej^ Street, Baltimore, 
Md. From 100 pounds up; from 100 h. p. up. 

A. F. P. STENZY 



THE HALL'S SAFE COMPANY 



p. O. BOX 846 

Principal Office and Factory 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 



Manufacturers of the HIGHEST 
grade of Screw Door and Square 
Door Bankers' Safes and Vaults 




Salesroom 

393 BROADWAY 

Between White and Walker Streets 

NEW YORK 



Makers of 

HALL PATENT (April 3, I906) 

FIRE PROOF SAFES 



H. C. Strahons hollow SPARS 




Used in all Modern Aeroplanes 

THE GREATEST STRENGTH FOR 
THE LIGHTEST POSSIBLE WEIGHT 

Write us for Prices and Samples 
Mail Orders Promptly Attended To 



741 BOYLSTON ST. 



BOSTON, MASS. 



New York Agent 

FREDERICK P. SHNEIDER 

1020 East 178th Street 




Rotary Motor 



GNOME 



The "Wizard of Aviation" 




USED BY 



PAULHAN, FARMAN 

And All Other Leading Foreign Aviators 



Holds World's Records 
DISTANCE — DURATION — HEIGHT — SPEED 



50 H. P. $2600 100 H. P. $4800 

Terms : One-third cash with order, balance on delivery 



SEGUIN & CO., General Agents 

1610 Wright Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Anticipating a big inquiry for our Motors after the Los Angeles Meet, we have made special arrangements with the factory 
and are holding a few^ of our Motors subject to immediate delivery 



\Y^ 



BOOKS 



We have compiled a list of the very best aeronautical books written in the English 

language and offer them for sale to our readers. Earnest students 

of Aerial Flight should read every book in this list. 



Make all Drafts, Express or Post Office Orders payable to 
THE LA'VWSON PUBLISHING CO., 3T-39 East 28th Street, New York, U. S. A. 



Artificial, and Natural Flight, by Sir 
Hiram S. Maxim. Being a description of 
liis own experimental work and the devel- 
opment of flying machines generally $1.75 

POCKETBOOK OF AERONAUTICS, by H. W. L. 

Moedebeck. Containing many features of 
aerial travel and a splendid text-book for 
the beginner or the aeronautical engineer. . 3.25 

Vehicles of the Air, by Victor Lougheed. 
One of the very latest aeronautical books, 
covering almost every detail of the science 
of Aviation 2.50 

Aerial Navigation, by A. F. Zahm. A book 
written by one of the world's great scien- 
tists who has made an extensive study of 
the aeronautical subject for the past 20 years 3.00 

Airships in Peace and War, by R. P. 
Hearne, with an introduction by Sir Hiram 
Maxim. A popular account of the progress 
made by the different countries of the 
world in Aircraft 3.50 

Aerial Navigation To-Day, by Chas. C. 
Turner. A finely illustrated work on the 
principles of Ballooning, Aviation, Aerial 
Law, Military Aeronautics, tK^aerial ocean 
and the industrial side of flight 1.50 

The Problem of Flight, by Herbert Chatley. 
A most instructive work written principally 
for aerial engineers 3.50 

The Force of the Wind, by Herbert Chatley. 
A scientific treatise, dealing with the subject 
of wind pressure in relation to engineering 1.25 

My Air Ships. By Santos-Dumont. The 
thrilling story of this intrepid Brazilian's 
wonderful success in aerial navigation, told 
in an entertaining way, free from techni- 
cality. With 55 full-page pictures from 
photographs. 12mo, 400 pages 1.50 



Handy Man's Workshop and Laboratory, 
by A. Russel Bond. A popular work on 
almost everything pertaining to the every- 
day life of the mechanic. 370 illustrations 
and two chapters relating to flying $2.00 

Conquest of the Air, by Alphonse Berget. 
A book covering the history, theory and 
practice of the science of aeronautics, with 
explanatory diagram and photographs. . . . 2.50 



The Conquest of the Air, by A. Lawrence 
Rotch. A subject treated by an accepted 
authority in a manner appreciated by a 
popular, as well as a scientific audience. . . 1.00 



Airships Past and Present, by A. Hilde- 
brandt. A general sketch of the past and 
present state of the art, together with its 
problems, presented in a way that can be 
understood by everybody 3.50 



Aerodynamics, by F. W. Lanchester. Con- 
stituting the first volume of a complete 
work on aerial flight, with appendices on 
the velocity and momentum of sound waves, 
on the theory of soaring, flight, etc 6.00 

Aerodonetics, by F. W. Lanchester. Con- 
stituting the second volume of a complete 
work on aerial flight, with appendices on 
the theory and application of the gyroscope, 
on the flight of projectiles, etc 6.00 

All the World's Airships, by By Fred T. 
Jane. Being the first annual issue, con- 
taining photographs of almost every flying 
machine built up to 1909 10.00 

"Born Again." A philosophic novel written 
by Alfred W. Lawson. Has nothing to do 
with the science of aerial flight. The ninth 
edition of cloth bound copies being ex- 
hausted, a few paper cover books being 
in stock can be had for fifty cents each ... .50 



OUADRI-eOLOR CO., NEW YORK 




1 T ■\.T_ O 



BALDWIN'S 

VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL 

WINS 



LAHM BALLOON CUP-697MUes. Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon " New York" 

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE 

35 Hrs., 12 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon " New York'' 

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD 

48 Hrs., 26 Mins. Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial 

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD 

24,200 Ft. Harmon and Post, Balloon " New York," St. Louis Centennial 

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 

30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 
GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES 

QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 
2nd— 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 

2nd— BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE— Glenn H. Curtiss 



BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL 

USED IN THE U. S. GOV. DIRIGIBLE AND SPHERICAL BALLOONS 

■"ILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the 
same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and 
ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of 
oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk dcutle- 
walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A 
man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to 
spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, 
width, or color. 'Will not crack. Waterproof No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming 
balloon material, and which, through its superior qualities and being an absolute gas holder, is 
bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon 
must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS. 



AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY 

Prices and Samples on application 

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN, Box 78, Madison Square, NEW YORK 



J/tjy, igio 



AIRCRAFT 




RUUGIKR AT MONTE CARLO. 

THE BIPLANE IS SEEN ABOUT TU LAND ON THE NARROW QUAY AT THE FOOT OF THE ROCK OF MONACO. THE PRINCES PALACE ABOVE. 



CONTENTS — MAY 


1910 






Cover Drawing . ...... 




G. A. Coffin 




Frontispiece — The Annual Banquet of the Aero Club of America 






90 


Summarv of Human Flight ...... 




. Mrs. J. Herbert Sinclair 


91 


.\ttacks on the Wright Brothers Whollv Unjustified 




H. A. Touhnin 


93 


The Wright Company is a ^lenace to the De\ 


elopraent of Aviation 




Israel Ludlow 


94 


Editorial .... 








96 


Uncle Sam Must Look Skyward 










George F. Campbell Wood 


97 


Balancing .... 










Edward H. Young 


99 


A Letter from Clement Ader 














100 


Law and the Air 












Denys P. Myers 


lOl 


Foreign News 












Albert C. Triaca 


10.! 


Big !Men of the Movement 














108 


New Fivers Described . 














110 


Records and Statistics 












George F". Campbell Wood 


no 


Flying >Iachine Models 












W. IT. Phipps 


III 


Club News 












. Ada Gibson 


III 


Recent Patented Inventions 












Gustave R. Thompson 


IT.l 


News in General 












Mrs. J. Flerbert Sinclair 


".? 



AIRCRAFT 



ALFRED W. LAWSON 
President aitd Treasitrcr 



Published Monthly by The Lawson Publishing Company 
37-39 EAST 28TH STREET. NEW YORK. U. S. A. 

Telephone. .5017 Mad 
TERMS TO SUBSCRIBERS 

Pliilippine Islands, Hawai 



ERNEST C. LANDGRAF 
Secretary 



1 Cents the Copy, of .Ml -N' 
Foreign Subscrii.tions. Two L 
In changing order give old a 



)ne Dollnr per year. 



V* De; 



nust be 
Only high-grade advertisi 



addn 



nd by the 1st of month previous to 
ents of thoroughly reliable firms are so 
iCofyright 



Square 

WHEN YOUR SUBSCRIPTION EXPIRES 

ne month before a subscription expires we enclose a renewal blank on which 

ould send your 

IS which are re- 

ved by us on or before the 15th of any month will bosin with the issi'e of that 



. _. order for thi 

r NOTIFIED that your .subscriptior 

E, in order not to miss a number. 

or before the 15th of any month 

ved after that date they will begin 

We cannot enter subscriptions to begin with back 
necessary before a change of address can be made. 



nber; 



One 



onth's 



nth's 



1910, by The Lawson Publishing To I 



go 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio ' 




^5=>|s I ill 1^ 

Ct££g*S«g£i*8-< 






S is 



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j<fapKiB»;w^fc;0, 






£5cO0fc<mStldo'^-^ 



Colgate Hoyt 
Rennold Wol 
Arthur T. At 
Wentworth C 
Thos. S. Bald 
Ira Barrows 
A. a. Batche 
T. Towar Bat 
Stanley Y. B 
E. P. Beckwl 
A. C. Beckett 
W. Evarts Be 
Samuel A. Be 


oy 

1 Benedict 

ibleday 

^. Rotch 

Leonard 
jd.U. S. A. 

F. Bishop 

oat 

, M. C. 

. James 
U. S. A. 
Curtlss 

Glldden 



gafi^gS:gH;|o|^S 



AIR.CR.AFT 



Vol. I. No. 3. 



NEW YORK, MAY, 1910. 



SUMMARY OF HUMAN FLIGHT 

By Mrs. J. Herbert Sinclair 

Conliinu'd from .-Ipril Airckaft. 




THE FIRST EALLOUN TO RETURN TO ITS 
STARTING POINT. " LA FRANCE " OVER 

PARIS, SEPTEMBER 22, 1885. 



It is perhaps a 
pity that Paul 
Haenlein's ideas 
o f thirty-seven 
years ago as to 
dirigible motor- 
power were not 
followed by ex- 
periments and re- 
searches along th6 
lines indicated by 
him. It was to 
be many years be- 
fore airships were 
to return to any kind of a gas engine for propulsion. 

In practically every respect, however, the Haenlein airship's 
nearest successors, the Tissandier brothers' dirigible of 1S83-84, 
and the Renard & Krebs dirigible of 1884-85, were its superiors. 
Francis Hopkinson, Blanchard, the Roberts, General Meus- 
nier, Leppig, Rufus Porter, the Earl of Lennox, Hugh Bell, and 
later Dupuy de Lome had conceived or built craft propelled by 
man-force. Giffard, recognizing the utter inadequacy of such 
a motor power, had used steam in his dirigibles — the first motor 
balloons ever built, Haenlein had tried the crude gas engine of 
Lenoir, and in every case the power had been entirely too low 
to achieve appreciable results. 

The period of 1873-1883 had been a decade filled with many 
remarkable discoveries in the realm of electricity and with many 
wonderful applications of the mysterious power. It was there- 
fore somewhat natural that the well-known aeronauts Albert 
and Gaston Tissandier, the latter a survivor of the famous 
Zenith height ascension catastrophe should have thought an elec- 
trically propelled elongated gas-bag might afTord the much 
sought key to the problem of the dirigibility of balloons. 

The brothers designed a comparatively small fusiform symmet- 
rical bag with pointed ends, of 92 feet in length (just four feet 
shorter than the present U. S. Army dirigible) and 30 feet in 
breadth, containing say 37,000 cubic feet of gas. 

The motor was a Siemens dynamo of 121 pounds in weight 
giving from one and a third to one and a half horse-power. 
Four pile batteries, weighing about 500 pounds, supplied the 
energy, each battery comprising six compartments, each of which 
formed a pile element. A system of pulleys enabled one to raise 
or lower the reservoirs at will, thus connecting or disconnecting 
the liquid exciter, an acid solution of bichromate of potash. 

The propeller of this dirigible weighed but fifteen pounds and 
was set 33 feet from the balloon. The actual speed obtained 
was seven to nine miles an hour; a preliminary trip was made 



in October. 1S83, and in September, 1884, a flight of two hours 
and a half was made from Grenelle, during which a wide semi- 
circle was described. It remained, however, for the second elec- 
trically propelled airship " La France," built by Captain Paul 
Renard, Captain Charles Renard and Captain Krebs of the mili- 
tary aeronautical establishment of Chalais Meudon, to be the first 
air-craft of any description, in the history of the world, to make 
a closed circuit, in other words to return to its starting point. 
This it accomplished on September 12, 1S84, and a year later 
repeated the feat on two consecutive davs : September 22 and 23, 
188s. 

This cigar-shaped balloon with its larger end in front was 
much larger than its immediate predecessor and of twice as 
elongated a shape : 167 feet in length, 27^ feet in ma.xi- 
mum breadth ; 65,000 cubic feet gas capacity. The motor 
developed nine horse-power for a weight of 212 pounds ; the 
propeller was 23 feet in diameter, of 28 feet pitch, weighed 88 
pounds and made fifty revolutions per minute. 

The electrical generator comprised a " chromium chloride " 
battery invented by Captain Renard and was of extreme lightness. 
Each element was formed of a glass tube in which was a very 
thin platinum-silver electrode, in the centre of which was a zinc 
rod. The total weight of this accumulator was about 580 pounds, 
which represented 97 pounds per horse-power. 

The speed of this airship of over a quarter a century ago was 
actually twelve to fifteen miles an hour. 

It was about this time that Gottlieb Daimler and some other 
pioneers were experimenting with the first gasoline explosion 
engines, the ancestors of the present automobile motors. 

The circular flight of " La France " over Paris was not two 
years old before Mr. Henry Deutsch (de la INIeurthe), whose 
biography figured in last month's Aircraft, conceived the idea 
of using the gasoline motor for aeronautical purposes. In 1889 
he had one of the first gasoline driven automobiles ever built 
and urged inventors to take up the study of the explosion motor 
as the solution of aerial navigation. 

It was not in France, however, that the first gasoline-driven 
dirigibles appeared. As a German had been the first to use 
a gas-engine of any description to propel an airship, so it was 
also a German who first used for the purpose the gasoline engine 
invented by his countryman Daimler. 

It was in June, 1897, that Dr. Wolfert and a companion, Herr 
Knabe, rose from the neighborhood of Berlin in a cigar-shaped 
balloon, ninety feet long, fitted with a Daimler motor and a two- 
bladed aluminum propeller. Four moderate trials were made, 
but on the last the gas became ignited from the gasoline of the 
engine, the balloon, of course, exploding instantly and Wolfert 
and Knabe being killed in the ensuing fall. 



92 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 



Although Wolfert was the first to use a gasoline engine it 
appears probable that David Schwartz, an Austrian engineer, had 
the idea before he did. 

Schwartz was a remarkable inventor, but, like many such, his 
life was a pitiful tragedy, one of the most pitiful in the history 
of aeronautics. 

The solution of the problem proposed by Schwartz was an 
aluminum balloon propelled by a motor. As far back as 1842, 
Marey-Monge, the Frenchman, had proposed the idea of using 
a metal gas-receptacle and fifty years later, when aluminum could 
be provided cheaply, the idea was revived by the Austrian en- 
gineer. 

In 1893 he undertook the construction of the first rigid balloon 
ever attempted, but it collapsed during inflation, and for the 




THE TISSANDIER AIRSHIP OF 
PROPELLED AlK-CRAFT. 



1883-S4. THE FIRST ELECTRICALLY 



three years which preceded his death he vainly strove to get 
funds to complete his work. 

His widow carried on his task, in Germany, and late in 1897 
the posthumous work was completed, and the metal balloon, 
driven by a twelve horse-power Daimler motor, rose into the air, 
at Berlin. 

The thin sheets of aluminum were, however, unable to with- 
stand the strain and it collapsed and fell, a mass of twisted metal, 
the occupant of the car having a miraculous escape. 

Notwithstanding the failure which attended these experiments, 
it is possible that the lighter-than-air craft of the future — and it 
now looks as if lighter-than-air craft was destined to survive the 
discovery of dynamic flight — will be built after Schwartz's ideas, 
Metals of greater tensile strength to the pound and larger bal- 
loons already render a metal airship a feasible construction. 

The next man to dare to attack the problem was one from 
this hemisphere. 

Alberto Santos-Dumont, a young and wealthy Brazilian, resid- 
ing in Paris, started the building of the first of his remarkable 
series of air-craft in 1898. This was a small cigar-shaped gas- 
bag, fitted with a gasoline motor; it was first experimented in 
1899 and was to be followed by a dozen new or modified dirigi- 
bles which were in turn to be followed by various aeroplanes a "cl 
composite machines embodying both types. 

About the same time as Santos-Dumont was preparing to taki 
up the problem, a famous German soldier and adjutant to tin 
King of Wurtemburg, General Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, 
undertook to put into concrete form the result of a life-time's 
study of the question of navigating the air. 

He did not receive encouragement from the military authori- 
ties and accordingly organized a company. The construction of 
the first Zeppelin dirigible was undertaken in 1898 in a floating 
shed off Manzell, on the Lake of Constance, but it was not until 
a few months before the close of the nineteenth century, — in 
July, 1900, — that the preliminary trials were made. 

As is well known the Zeppelins are huge rigid airships hav- 
ing an aluminvmi frame with sixteen sides, and containing six- 
teen or seventeen separate gas-bags. 



rudder 
ElevitinJ 




-(Left h^i) st«g„J 




Frojii " The CmtQnest of the Air," by Alpkonse Berget. 

DIAGRAMS SHOWING CONSTRUCTION AND DIMENSIONS OF A ZEPPELIN 
DIRIGIBLE. 



The annexed diagram shows clearly the principle of construe- ] 
tion and it is to Zeppelin's undying fame as a scientist that the 
present models differ but in detail from his original conception. 

A certain lack of stability was apparent in the earliest Zeppelin, 
but as early as October, 1900, a speed of from 16 to 19 miles an 




THE FIRST ZEPPELIN UNDER CllNSTKUCTlON IN ITS FLOATING SHED 
ON THE LAKE OF CONSTANCE (1899). ITS SIZE WILL BE BETTER AP- 
PRECIATED IF THAT OF THE WORKMEN BENEATH IT BE NOTED. 

hour was obtained, the greatest hitherto attained by any motor- 
balloon, and when it is remembered that this airship equaled in 
size many ocean steamships and exceeded most of them in speed, 
although possessing engines of only 32 horse-power, the result 
must appear extraordinary. 

To he continued in June Aircraft. 



]\[ay, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



93 



ATTACKS ON THE WRIGHT BROTHERS WHOLLY UNJUSTIFIED 



By their Counsel. H. A. Toulmin 




As counsel for the Wright 
brothers, I am glad of the op- 
portunity afforded by the col- 
umns of Aircraft to give a 
statement concerning the legal 
and equitable situation grow- 
ing out of the pending flying 
machine litigation and of the 
attitude of these inventors. I 
understand there is a division 
in sentiment concerning their 
attitude, and that those inter- 
ested in aeronautics have 
drifted into two camps — one 
anti-Wright and the other 
pro-Wright. 

I am surprised that there 
H. A. TOULMIN. could be any such division of 

sentiment among the country- 
men of the Wright brothers, or among those having a sincere 
interest in the progress of aviation. That a few who are in 
haste to commercialize aeronautics and to make money as show- 
men—as distinguished from giving scientific study and under- 
taking practical experiments to the advancement of the art- 
should clamor against the injunctions the United States courts 
have solemnly issued in favor of the Wrights, and against that 
class of aviators, is not surprising. But that there should be 
any genuine opposition to the attitude of the Wrights, or to the 
judgments of the counts, seems incredible. 

The patent which embodies the Wright flying machine was 
issued J\Iay 22, 1906. By statute Ic has seventeen years to run 
from that date: practically four years have already expired, and 
but thirteen years of exclusive use of this machine now remain. 
Who can say, with justice or honesty of purpose, that the Wright 
■brothers or their assignees should not have the exclusive use 
and control of this marvelous invention for this brief period, after 
which it passes to the public by operation of law? 

As a reward for their years of labor and toil, for their ex- 
penditures in money gathered from savings (expenditures made 
almost to the exhaustion of their resources), and for the risks 
they repeatedly took with their lives and for their patient en- 
deavors, the Constitution of the United States and the statutes 
enacted in conformity therewith promise and grant to them the 
exclusive right to make, use and sell this invention for the brief 
period of the patent. As stated, but thirteen years remain— a 
period approximating the time they occupied in achieving their 
discovery: will any just man say that they are not entitled to en- 
joy what the Constitution and the statutes so provide, namely, the 
exclusive right for the limited period? 

Again, when men who are now opposed to the decisions of 
the courts in maintaining this right of property to these in- 
ventors, and who are criticising the attitude of the Wrights in 
seeking the aid of the courts, were expending no money, were 
giving no time and, indeed, no thought to the production and 
development of a flying machine, these inventors were sacrificing 
everything to that end ; when these would-be critics were pursu- 
ing other occupations and profiting, presumably, thereby, the 
Wrights were working with loss, in obscurity, and without moral 
or financial aid or encouragement. 

Now that these inventors have succeeded, why should those 
who have contributed nothing to the great end now accom- 
plished, criticise the attitude of the Wrights in endeavoring to 
maintain through the courts the exclusive use of their invention 
for the brief period allowed? Do these opponents, be they few or 
many, realize that, when all is said and done, the real essence 



of their attack is not against the Wrights merely, that it is an 
attack on property and is opposition to the statutes and to the 
provisions of the Constitution? 

Indeed, such an attitude of opposition is, in its final analysis, 
opposition to the judgments that have been pronounced by the 
courts in support of the ownership of the Wrights in this patent. 
When the. Wright brothers were carrying, in silence and patience, 
the burdens of criticism, — if not ridicule and laughter, — for pur- 
suing the phantom of human flight, these present critics were 
critics then; they have not changed their occupation; they are 
like the tories in the Colonial days who were bent upon tearmg 
down and destroying every advancement made for freedom. 

Throughout all ages, prior to the opening of the era of human 
flight by the Wright brothers in a man-carrying and man-con- 
trolled, heavier-than-air flying machine, the world was without 
such a machine. Throughout that vast period mankind sought 
and longed for such a machine. Now that it has been brought 
into birth, is it not just that those who delivered it to the world 
should have it and control it for the brief period of seventeen 
years, of which but thirteen remain? 

And this is all that the Wright brothers are asking. 
If other men can devise a different principle of human flight 
it is open to them to do so. If any one can bring forth a differ- 
ent machine, different in principle and in fact, and not a colorable 
variation, or merely the Wright machine decorated with the out- 
ward appearance or clothes, as it were, supplied by a copyist, he 
is at liberty to do so, and his achievement will be welcomed by 
all just men, including, absolutely including Wilbur and Orville 
Wright. 

Indeed, these gentlemen have, to my knowledge, extended a 
helping hand again and again to other experimenters: they have 
supplied others with valuable data, discovered and worked out 
by themselves, that others might produce other and different ma- 
chines if they could. This very fact is alluded to in the learned 
opinion of Judge Hazel, in the suit by the Wright Company 
against the Herring-Curtiss Company and Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss. 
The Wrights have gone so far as to publicly announce, and the 
press has published the fact, that even though an experimenter 
were using the Wright machine or an infringing machine, he 
would not be molested, so long as he confined his work to ex- 
perimentation and did not seek to get money returns, as by public 
flights. And it is the indisputable fact that no suit by the 
Wright brothers, and speaking as their counsel I know, has been 
brought against any one engaged in pursuits to promote the art, 
but solely against domestic and foreign persons engaged either 
in personally operating what the courts have since held to be 
infringing machines, in public exhibition flights, for gate money 
and other emoluments, or in conducting such enterprises as 
managers. 

Is there a man of spirit and sound sense who, having produced 
a great invention and having procured a patent covering it, would 
not sue another who entered upon such a course as that just in- 
dicated? Not one of the now so-called critics woifld have done 
otherwise. It must be remembered that the Wrights are taking 
nothing from others while maintaining their rights, and nothing 
from the public, because neither such others nor the public had 
machines which could fly prior to their production by the Wrights. 
They are not seeking to take from others what others had be- 
fore, but merely to retain that which they, themselves, were first 
to produce. The reverse, however, on the part of these critics 
and their allies, is now apparent, according to the solemn judg- 
ments of two United States Circuit Courts: others are seeking 
to take from the Wrights that which is theirs, rather than are 
the Wrights seeking to arrest the progress of the Art. If the 
parties who have been sued had given their time to the develop- 



94 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 



ment of another type of flying machine, instead of giving exhibi- 
tion flights, there would have been no litigation. 

Nor is this all. The Wright brothers have repeatedly an- 
nounced their willingness to license not only individuals who wish 
to fly with the Wright type of machine, but also to license ex- 
hibition-managers, committees promoting exhibition meets and, in 
fact, anyone who wishes to use for any purpose a Wright ma- 
chine or an infringing machine. But no, these parties and their 
allies, while declining to properly pay the Wrights some share 
of these very handsome proceeds thus obtained, have started 
this senseless cry of monopolization of the air by the Wrights. 
Perhaps the old saying that " Stop thief ! " is often cried out to 
divert attention from one's self, has some application here. 

But while a few adversely interested persons are thus clamoring 
against the Wrights and against their patent and against the judg- 
ments of the courts in upholding the latter and the charge of in- 
fringement, the great body of American citizens and of the aero- 
nautical world, here and abroad, recognize these inventors as the 
first to open the era of human flight in heavier-than-air ma- 
chines, and believe, out of pure justice, that the Wright brothers 
should be allowed to control their invention and to profit there- 
from during the brief period the patent has to run. 

The American people, through their Congress assembled, sent 
this greeting to the Wrights : 

" For their success in navigating the air." 
The French Academy of Sports made this recognition : 

" To the Conquerors of the Air, Messrs. Wilbur and Or- 
ville Wright, the first to fly with a heavier-than-air machine 
driven by a motor." 

The Smithsonian Institution sent this message : 

" For their successful demonstrations of the practicability 
of mechanical flight by man." 

Within the last few weeks this latter institution publicly 
awarded them in Washington, a suitable medal conforming to 
the spirit of this resolution, and during the pendency of these 
suits the French Academy of Sciences has awarded gold medals 
to the Wright brothers for their achievements. Congress and 
the State of Ohio have also awarded gold medals to them ; so has 
the City of Dayton. 

The Legion of Honor of the French Republic has likewise hon- 
ored them. 



So too aeronautical societies in America, Great Britain and 
France have made similar awards of medals : numerous societies 
have accorded them honorary membership and institutions of 
learning, both in America and Europe, have conferred upon 
them honorary degrees. 

Judge Hazel, in his able opinion in the Curtiss case, made this 
finding : 

" It appears that machines embodying the invention in 
suit have made notably successful fli.ghts in France, Ger- 
many and the United States. 

" The first aerial flight to which the attention of the 
public was attracted was made at Kitty Hawk, North Caro- 
lina, in December, 1903, when the Wright machine, using 
a twelve horse-power motor weighing two hundred pounds, 
demonstrated its abilitjr to maintain its balance, readily 
turn to the right or left and ascend or descend. The 
newspapers of the country heralded as marvelous the suc- 
cess of the patentees, and published far and wide that 
human flight had been made possible and that the patentees 
were the first in the annals of the world to achieve suc- 
cess with a heavier-than-air flying machine. Public reco.e- 
nition of their success was subsequently made by scientific 
institutions and academies of high repute in this country 
and abroad. Medals were presented to the inventors by 
Congress, by the Republic of France and by various aero- 
nautical societies of Europe and America." 

Judge Hand, through his thorough and analytical deliverance 
in the Paulhan case, said : 

" I cannot find that anyone prior to their patent has 
flown with the patented system, and that the changes from 
the specifications which the defendant has made are no 
more than equivalents, which do not relieve him from in- 
fringement." 

In view of the literal truth, as briefly exposed above, I leave it 
to the calm judgment of just men (not to aeronautical acrobats 
who have been flying for money, and in no way sacrificing time 
and means for the development of the art), whether Wilbur and 
Orville Wright are doing more than common justice to them- 
selves in calling upon the courts to maintain their patent invio- 
late for the brief period yet remaining, within which they are to 
reap that reward which the Constitution of the United States 
wisely ordains and the statutes are intended to carry into eff'ect.. 



THE WRIGHT COMPANY IS A MENACE TO THE DEVELOPMENT 

OF AVIATION 

By Israel Ludlo\v, one of the Counsel for Louis Paulhan 



)HAT is the Wright patent? It is a legal instru- 
ment, a power of injunction, a possible monopoly, 
which, owned by a covetous and rich corporation, 
might threaten the very life of aviation, stifle 
development in this country and bar out the 
fruits of foreign progress. 

Is not the attitude of the Wright Company, 
which has bought the Wright brothers' patents, 
that : " there is not enough profit in aerial navi- 
gation for all, but just enough for the Wright 
Company "? 

It cannot be said that the Wright brothers are the sole in- 
ventors of the aeroplane, and that but for them the device would 
have been unknown. The aeroplane was the result of the in- 
ventive genius of the present mechanical age. The true measure 
of the reward to which the Wrights are entitled is therefore the 
value to the public of the temporary precedence of the first flights. 




keeping in mind, however, the fact that they made every effort 
to keep the construction of their aeroplane a secret. 

The great expenditures of money (easily approximating seven 
hundred thousand dollars) which resulted in the development of 
the Curtiss, Farman and Bleriot aeroplanes, are prima facie 
proof that these aeroplanes are not slavish copies, but are the 
result of independent development. 

They were brought out before the Wrights lifted the veil of 
secrecy they had thrown about the construction of their own aero- 
plane. The time was ripe, the attention of the world was at- 
tracted, the gasoline motor was created, and almost simulta- 
neously the correct conception of the aeroplane had been born 
in the minds of many men in many countries : it is idle to assume 
that if the Wrights had not flown we would not have had me- 
chanical flight within the last decade. 

Notwithstanding the protestations of the officers of the Wright 
Company that they are willing to license users of all aeroplanes. 



May, iQio 



AIRCRAFT 



95 



absolutely no statement can be obtained from them as to their 
terms for any hcense for individual owners. Unsuccessful efforts 
in this direction have been made by Mr. Clifford B. Harmon 
and others, who have purchased Farman and Bleriot aeroplanes. 
I challenge the Wright Company to make public their terms 
to individual owners, for I doubt if anyone can get from them 
a permission to use an aeroplane on any terms whatever. 

It is possible that the preparation for the coming show and 
fair season, for which an ambitious program has been planned 
by the Wright Exhibition Company, (a subsidiary corporation 
to the Wright Company), accounts for this lack of interest in 
possible royalties on individual aeroplanes. However, there is 
one gratification about the matter, and that is ; that we will get 
a little rest from their diffident superiority; the Wrights here- 
after can no longer call with good grace, in newspaper inter- 
views, their opponents : " acrobatic showmen," for they are now 
instructing in Alabama, — near Montgomery. — many understudies 
in the art of flying, and will, it is understood, personally take 
charge of many of the exhibitions this summer. 

In December, 1903, the Wright brothers made their first flight 
in a motor-driven aeroplane. Since that time they have not 
changed their machine, except to disconnect the tiller-rope and 
the warping rope, and to give the aviator a seat, where he origi- 
nally lay face downward in a horizontal position. 

Seven years is a long period in aeroplane history. The work 
of others forced the Wrights to come out into the open, and the 
well-wishers of the development of aerial navigation feel afraid, 
if the Wright Company succeed by legal methods in stopping all 
others from flying, that the step of progress will mark time to 
the tune which the Wright Company plays. 

There is also considerable distrust of this new Wright Com- 
pany, capitalized at one million dollars. The present stock- 
holders of the company, it will be noted, are almost without ex- 
ception the men who have held control of the street railways 
of New York City ; to those who have known by personal ex- 
perience the results of the local transit monopoly, enough has 
been said ; but to others it should be stated, that by issue and 
re-issue of stocks and bonds, by the forming of holding and 
subsidiary corporations, the insiders grew rich, and the public 
suffered accordingly, with a final wind-up in a receivership and 
foreclosure sale. 

The Wright brothers are quoted in a newspaper interview 
as saying that they will not bring suit against those who experi- 
ment ; this statement is interesting, but of no particular value so 
long as they sue those who build or purchase an aeroplane for 
their own pleasure, or sue those who seek to make a profit by 
exhibiting. 

The Wright Company's modest demand in the Curtiss and 
Paulhan suits was that their opponents' machines be delivered 
over to them that they might destroy them and that all profits 
and three-fold damages in addition be paid to it. 

The Wright Company should not be heard complaining of 
others who are building aeroplanes, as the Wrights gave the 
French War Department an option on their aeroplane, and 
agreed to keep their invention a secret. This option ran for 
six months, and though the French never exercised their right 
of purchase, this act of the Wrights should be an estoppel of a 
right to appeal to the laws of this country against inventors 
who may make their aeroplanes public property. The Federal 
Courts are courts of equity and one of the cardinal principles of 
a court of equity is, " that he who comes into Court, must come 
with clean hands." 

The United States give a right of property to an inventor in 
his invention on the ground that the inventor after seventeen 
years will make his invention the property of all for the public 
benefit, and Equity demands that if an inventor is willing to sell 
the invention to a foreign War Department, he forfeit the pro- 
tection of the Patent laws of this country. 

The taunt made in Court by their counsel that the Wrights 
have no objection to other inventors producing another type 



of aeroplane, may produce an unexpected result, for when the 
exact limitations of the Wright patent become known, undoubt- 
edly American ingenuity will find a different method of control, 
which result will of course affect the value of the Wright 
patent, probably rendering it worthless, for at the present all 
records for speed, distance, height, duration and passenger carry- 
ing are held by aeroplanes other than the Wright model. 

Three such devices have already been tested, and seemingly 
give very satisfactory results. 

The Wright patent fundamentally is a combination claim be- 
tween the rear vertical rudder and the side control, by which the 
rear vertical rudder is always turned to the side of the aeroplane 
having the least angle of incidence and offering the least resist- 
ance to the atmosphere. If one element of the combination is 
missing there can be no infringement under the present interpreta- 
tion of the Courts as to the scope of the Wright patent. If there- 
fore there is no side control, or no rear vertical rudder, or if the 
resistfcce is equal on either side of the aeroplane, so that no 
corrective action of the rear vertical rudder is necessary, either 
theoretically or practically, there can be no claim of infringement. 

The legal aspects of the case have been purposely avoided in 
this article ; but the evils and abuses of the Wright Company's 
attempt to place a prohibitive embargo upon the flying of others 
except under the Wright's tutelage and in a Wright machine are 
dwelt upon. The moral and equitable aspect of the Wright 
Company's efforts to take from the public that which now be- 
longs to it, through the labor, experiments and expenditures of 
Clement Ader, Louis Bleriot, Henry Farman, Robert Esnault- 
Pelterie, Santos-Dumont, Octave Chanute, Samuel Pierpont 
Langley, Alexander Graham Bell, Glenn H. Curtiss, and others, 
is set forth and attention is called to the point that the Wright 
brothers apparently never intended to make public their patent 
if they could sell the secret of their invention to a foreign War 
Department. 

The Wright Company is attempting to impose an exorbitant 
tax upon the community for the use of aeroplanes, and is claim- 
ing a monopoly for selling, making, working, using or exhibiting 
aeroplanes, under the pretense that such monopoly is the reward 
due the Wright brothers for making public, through their patent 
specifications a practical aeroplane, when in truth their patent 
specifications contain nothing which would enable a skilled me- 
chanic to construct a practical aeroplane. In those specifications 
the tiller rope and the warping rope are rigidly connected, the 
aviator is supposed to lay face downward in a cradle which he 
moves from side to side, the supporting surfaces are flat except 
when curved under air pressure, and the whole specifications 
were for a glider with no motive power shown. If the aero- 
plane were fitted with a motor and propeller and an attempt were 
made to operate the glider described in the Wright Patent speci- 
fications, the result would be one which was characterized by 
Louis Paulhan and other experts as suicidal. If the decisions of 
the Courts sustain the Wright Company in its claims, it will se- 
riously abridge the rights of others, and will give the Wright 
Company power far beyond that which justice and public inter- 
est demand. The Wright Company is not fairly entitled to what 
they claim, for the Wright patent specifications did not give to 
the public knowledge of the discovery which they had made. 
Others, by vast expenditures of money, labor and time, reached 
the result they were striving for, while the Wrights kept their 
true invention a secret, and now, when these others have made 
public a practical aeroplane, the new million-dollar Wright Com- 
pany seeks to take away from them the reward of their efforts. 
It is not an excuse that the Wrights could not disclose their in- 
vention, because an option was held by the French Government. 

A patent is a bargain with the public, and is to be construed 
on the same principles of good faith by which all other contracts 
are controlled, and where there is double-dealing, secrecy, and 
intention to deceive by not making a fair disclosure of the in- 
vention, the patent must be construed as other bargains, and by 
it the patentee must stand or fall. 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 





AERIAL CHAUFFEURS 

)ERCHED upon the seat of a horse-drawn 
vehicle, there is yet to be seen occasion- 
ally in some of the rural districts, the an- 
tiquated equestrian driver moping along 
the public highways behind his nag, like 
a pair of thoughtless donkeys, neither the 
driver nor the horse having sufficient intelligence to 
realize how far behind the procession of progress 
they have actually fallen. 

The wide-awake chauffeur has now become the 
prince of the roadway and, with the aid of the mod- 
ern automobile, he moves along from place to place 
with speed and precision and a look of magnificent 
contempt for the superannuated horseman. 

The chauffeur at present is contented with his lot, 
and, like the horseman of old, feels that his position 
is secure from any further mechanical advance. 

If you told him that the automobile is merely a step 
in the progress of transportation, and that it would 
eventually be superseded by the frying machine, he 
would laugh at you just as the horse used to laugh 
at the automobile. 

The ordinary mortal can always see things that are 
directly in front of his nose, and to-day he is just able 
to see the automobile. 

The extraordinary mortal, however, is looking into 
the future, and we find here and there men who are 
taking up the study of air-craft very seriously. 

Over in France, where the people are a few years 
ahead of the rest of the world in almost every line of 
progress, the leading chauffeurs are beginning to learn 
that their positions are not so secure after all. 

It is an actual fact that owing to the remarkable ad- 
vance made in flying lately an automobile race can- 
not be held in France with any chance of success, as 
the people there do not care to see races of land ve- 
hicles when they can see races of air-craft. 

For this reason most of the great automobile race 
drivers abroad are being driven from the road to the 
air, and their names may be seen as contestants in all 
the European aviation meets. 

It will come to that in America soon, and in not 
many years from now the far-seeing and more intel- 



ligent of professional drivers of motorcars will have 
taken to the air as naturally as the hansom-cab driver 
took to the taxicab, while the dull-minded Boeotian 
who looks backwards for his inspirations will be left 
in the rear with the other debris of drifting humanity, 
and will join there the coachman and the mule-driver, 
through laboring until it is too late, under the blind- 
ing hallucination that the flying machine can never re- 
place the earth-ridden hierarchy of crawling land- 
vehicles : our automobiles and horse-drawn convey- 
ances, the donkey-carts of Sicily, the ox-wagons of 
India, or the goat teams which can still be seen in 
Sardinia in the year of our Lord, igio. 

o o o 

The demand for skillful aviators has already be- 
come enormous throughout the civilized world, in 
fact, there are one hundred times more machines and 
aviators wanted than can be supplied. 

Chauffeurs should make the best drivers of air-craft, 
and we advise the brainy ones to get into the business 
at once and avoid the great rush into the new field 
of human industry, that is bound to follow in the near 
future. 

Begin by thoroughly studying the subject from its 
various standpoints and above all get information 
from a reliable source. 

o o o 

AIRCRAFT intends to cover, from time to time, 
every conceivable phase of the aeronautical move- 
ment, so that by making a collection of the different 
issues, our readers will possess a complete encyclo- 
pedia on the subject. 

One cannot afford to miss any number any more 
than one can do without a select chapter of an im- 
portant book. 

To be on the safe side, we advise every one of our 
readers to subscribe to us directly for AIRCRAFT, 
and not take the chances of always being able to get 
it from the news dealers. 

o o o 

A. B. Lambert, Carl Fisher, Dick Ferris, George B. 
Harrison and Clifford B. Harmon are a few names of 
men beginning to loom up big upon the aeronautical 
horizon lately. 



May, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



97 



UNCLE SAM MUST LOOK SKYWARD 

By George F. Campbell Wood 




N most political issues, the merits of either side 
are siilficiently open to debate to necessitate from 
their upholders a most painstaking" selection and 
careful arraignment of arguments — both forceful 
and subtle — before any hope of carrying convic- 
tion can be entertained, by orator or writer. 

Such can hardly be said to be the case when 
it comes to discussing the advisability of en- 
couraging military aeronautics in this country ; 
and, notwithstanding the recent failure of Con- 
gress to appropriate funds for the purpose, this statement fears 
no contradiction from anyone with genuine foresight or even 
with a suspicion of what is being done in other countries. 

However obvious it may be to those who have made any study 
of the question, it is nevertheless well to state the fact simply 
and emphatically, that in the development of aeronautics as a 
military asset and more particularly in the formation of an aerial 
fleet, the United States are letting themselves be distanced by 
every power worth considering from a martial standpoint, to say 
nothing of other nations which see in an air-fleet the possibility 
of overcoming their weakness and inferiority on land or sea. 

It is small wonder, under the circumstances, that, if one ex- 
cepts the Club's recent victories in the realm of Aerial Sport, 
little was touched on in the post-prandial orations for which 
the Aero Club of America's annual banquet was made the occa- 
sion, outside of this question of Military Aeronautics. 

It is likely, it is even probable, that the knowledge entertained 
by a large majority of the general public on the adaptation of 
aerial navigation to purposes of war in foreign countries, is lim- 
ited to an occasional newspaper-despatch relating the aerial raid 
of some continental dirigible, and laying especial stress upon the 
mishap which may have terminated or interrupted it. 

If a broken propeller brings to an end a six hundred mile jour- 
ney of one of Zeppelins colossal air-cruisers, is it the stupendous 
triumph of mind over matter represented by such a feat which is 
considered, or is it the stupid and benign mechanical accident 
which ended it? Nine times out of ten it will be the latter, al- 
though from the standpoint of the actual results obtained, of the 
vindication of a principle, of the proof of a theory, it is absolutely 
negligible. It must be obvious that, as a result of the mishap 
the next propeller used will be one capable of withstanding the 
strain— it is but the merest detail in the great conception— but 
it is not obvious, until so proven, that a contrivance built by man, 
embodying thirteen tons of marvellous mechanism can be so 
"wondrously wrought" as to propel itself with safety through 
the clouds for hour after hour at a speed of fifty feet a second, 
and under absolute control of the human mites carried along 
with it.* 

If this is fully grasped and appreciated a very significant fact 
becomes apparent — that it is not necessary to peer dimly into 
the future and prophesy and forecast, to have a workable war- 
ship of the air before one's eyes, for such craft exist at this very 
hour, and any one who considers such aerial clippers as the pres- 
ent Parseval IV or Zeppelin III as harmless in war is making 
a mistake of no mean proportions.. 

True, compared to the air-cruisers of the future they are as 
the Clermont is to the Mauretania or the Titanic, and as the 
three-deckers of Trafalgar are to the super-Dreadnoughts now 
on the stocks, but had the Clermont and her contemporary pio- 
neers not existed, the Mauretania and her sister-leviathans would 
still be a dream of the future, and are not the men-of-war of 
the past connected with those of to-day by a long line of an- 
cestry, a lineage in the upbuilding of which hundreds of millions 
in money were expended? 

* Illustrations showing construction and dimensions of a Zeppelin occur on 
pages 92 and 106. 



Progress can only be achieved, perfection can only be ap- 
proached, by evolutionary construction and the deep and full 
experience of years of trials and also years of what in the future 
may appear, by comparison, as failure. 

To imagine that the Germans believe, — and the Germans are 
here referred to because in this line of air-craft they, without the 
slightest question, lead the world, — to imagine that they believe 
their dirigibles to be without flaw or possibility of improvement 
is to entertain a misapprehension of even greater magnitude than 
to consider these dirigibles, such as they are, devoid of any prac- 
tical value. 

Last Autumn four large military dirigibles were engaged in 
war-manceuvres in the valley of the Rhine, and put through 
evolutions in all weathers and at all hours of the day or night, 
which simply paralyzed with amazement those who witnessed 
them. 

Details were carefully awaited setting forth the exact results 
obtained, and calling for the international praise which is ever 
showered on startling performances in any novel and untrodden 
field of endeavor. 

The " details " never made their appearance and any enquiry 
concerning them was met with bland smiles and evasive replies 
of great politeness and little information. 

In thus making the results of these manoeuvres a military 
secret, Germany may be said to have definitely established the 
dirigible as a weapon of war. That these results were encour- 
aging, to say the least, inay be gathered from the feverish activity 
now reigning in the aerial dock-yards of the Fatherland : in 
six or eight months the Teutonic air-fleet will comprise nearly a 
score of the most powerful units yet devised. All these are not 
warships but they are all at the disposal of the Imperial Gov- 
ernment in case of emergency. The Zeppelin IV which is at 
present being built for the passenger trade, and is to be the 
greatest air-craft the world has yet seen, will be upheld in its 
element by more than half a million cubic feet of hydrogen gas. 
She will carry fifty passengers at about forty miles an hour, and 
will be capable of staying three days in the air without land- 
ing. The Parseval IV which is the largest of non-rigid dirigi- 
bles, has a gas capacity exceeding two hundred thousand cubic 
feet; in some respects the Parsevals are the most successful 
units in the fleet. 

The semi-rigid type as represented by the " Gross " balloons 
has also shown to advantage above German soil. 

There are besides these, several other airships of various makes 
being built in Germany; in the construction of the skeletons of 
the rigid ones, steel, wood and aluminum are being used indis- 
criminately. 

General Allen, when speaking at the Aero Club banquet, made 
the startling announcement that there was soon to be built 
in Germany a rigid dirigible three hundred metres in length, 
to be propelled by eight motors, of which four were to be gener- 
ally used and four to be used in emergencies. 

On January 19th a Berlin despatch to this eflfect was brought 
to the attention of the very-much-amazed writer, but two days 
later the news was denied as a " canard." 

Such a ship, if constructed, would be the most monumental 
construction for transportation ever attempted by man, and if 
successful would make the absolute Conquest of the Air an ac- 
complished fact, capable as it would be of carrying from three to 
four hundred passengers at fifty miles an hour. It is earnestly 
to be hoped for the sake of the world at large that General Allen's 
statement will be shortly confirmed by the news that such a craft 
is actually being built. 

But it is not only in Germany that military aeronautics are re- 
ceiving the attention and support of the Government; Austria, 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 



Russia, Italy, Belgium, and even Spain, have each one or more 
dirigibles, while France and England are at last making a 
deliberate effort to overcome Germany's lead. 

Nor is this activity confined to European nations, and those 
for whom the Yellow Peril is more than a mere expression may 
find food for reflection in the news from Japan and China, pub- 
lished elsewhere in this magazine. 

France has but two government dirigibles at present, but be- 
fore the close of the year she will have greatly strengthened 
her position, thanks to the public subscription of " Le Temps" 
which followed the disaster to the " Republique." 

The new French airships are to have their gas-bags divided 
into separate compartments, to avoid a repetition of the catas- 
trophe of last September, and are to carry two motors each, an- 
other safeguard which might have been copied from Zeppelin's 
first dirigible of 1900. 

The re-constructed " Colonel Renard " has already made sev- 
eral trial trips, and the " Liberte " will soon be ready to take 
the air again. 

The large " Clement-Bayard " airship destined for England 
is ready to start for Farnborough, and the news of this first 
Channel crossing by a manned dirigible will no doubt create quite 
a stir when it arrives. 

Another English air-craft of which much may be expected is 
the huge rigid naval dirigible being constructed at Barrow ; it 
is after the Zeppelin type and will carry six-cjdinder Wolse- 
ley-Siddeley engines, developing several hundred horse-power. 
England also has two other small dirigibles for scouting pur- 
poses. 

If reference is only made in the foregoing to lighter-than-air 
craft, it is because a deficiency in military aeroplanes can be 
remedied with comparative rapidity, especially in a country which 
produces such machines as Wright and Curtiss biplanes. 

The point which it is necessary to make clear is that the coun- 
try which establishes a lead in military dirigibles, will have a very 
real advantage over others, and one which it will take consider- 
able time to overcome. Why it is that this is not generally 
recognized in Washington and that the usefulness of the dirigi- 
ble of the latest type as an engine of war, is either not known or 
appreciated, is not obvious, but it is probably because all dirigi- 
bles are judged by those seen in this country. 

If this is so, it is a very natural thing that Congress should 
not wish to spend money in acquiring any. 

It cannot be asserted too vehemently that to compare the 
little one-man or two-man " dirigibles," as the lemon-shaped 
gas-bags seen here at fairs and festivals are called, to such ships 
of the air as those designed by Count von Zeppelin or Major von 
Parseval, is like comparing a little harbor-tug to an ocean liner; 
— one cannot expect the former to be of any military use, any 
more than one can expect the tug to cross the Atlantic. 

For a dirigible to be of any utility it has got to be large, and 
the reason for this cannot be set forth more clearly than it was 
recently by Mr. Carl Dienstbach, whose competency in the matter, 
it is presumed, no one will dem^. He said recently in an article 
which should have received considerably more notice than it did : 
"Airships are subject to a natural law that exacts gi- 
gantic sizes in return for the advantages which make them 
factors in fighting. The law is fundamental and asserts 
that the surface of a body grows as the square of its 
linear dimensions — length by width — and the space it oc- 
cupies as their cube — length by width by depth. As the 
weight of an airship is represented by surface, while its 
lifting power depends on its cubic dimensions, the latter's 
preponderance over the weight grows constantly with any 
increase in size. 

" In consequence, there has been a steady growth of 
dimensions in the construction of airships. The same fact 
is even more significantly emphasized by the most modern 
ships on the water, the law holding good in that element 
exactly as it does in the air." 



That the lone American Army dirigible, — which is about thirty 
times smaller than the Zeppelin now building and thirty times 
less powerful than the English naval dirigible in course of con- 
struction, — attained a speed of close on twenty miles an hour and 
made a good flight of two hours in duration, in its trials, shows 
clearly what might be expected of the collaboration of such men 
as Captain Thomas A. Baldwin and Glenn H. Curtiss should they 
be given the chance to build a warship of the air worthy of flying 
the Stars and Stripes. 

The two hour flight of the Signal Corps Dirigible No. i is 
probably just as meritorious a performance as the Zeppelin II's 
continuous air-trip of thirty-eight hours. 

The talent is not lacking — but the wherewithal to devote it 
to good purpose, is most conspicuous by its absence. 

The whole question being one of cost it is of interest to note 
what a comparatively trivial amount it would be necessary to 
appropriate to give the United States the position it should hold 
in military aeronautics. 

Should one submarine more or less be asked for of Congress 
in the naval estimates, it would pass practically unnoticed by the 
majority, and it seems only sensible that it should, for after all 
the cost of a submarine does not represent the seventieth part 
of that of a modern battleship, and is a small item in the budget 
of such a power as the United States. Yet for the single price 
of one of these little craft, which by the way are almost, if not 
quite as much in the experimental stage as the best dirigibles, 
fii'o magnificent "Parsevals " could be built, ships capable of sail- 
ing a mile high, at well over thirty miles an hour, and of carry- 
ing up a crew of a dozen or more experts. The comparison with 
a submarine is the one which immediately suggests itself be- 
cause, being both immersed in the fluid they travel in, the dirigi- 
ble and the submarine present great analogies of principle and are 
in fact, the exact counterpart of each other in relation to air and 
water. 

A Zeppelin (the most expensive of all air-craft) could be built 
for the price of a torpedo-boat-destroyer — a single unit of the 
mosquito fleet — and for that of an ordinary cruiser a whole fleet 
of ships could be put into the air, ships the utility of which as 
scouts has already been proven, and the power of which as agents 
of destruction is full of the most pregnant possibilities. 

An air-fleet at this time seems more appropriated to land war- 
fare and there seems no immediate likelihood of its being ca- 
pable of destroying a naval one, but should such a capability de- 
velop in the future, it is interesting to note the difference in the 
initial cost between the destroyed and the destroyer as judged 
by the cost of construction prevailing to-day. 

For the price of a single battleship of the " fourteen inch gun " 
super-Dreadnought class now proposed, and taking the gener- 
ally quoted figure of sixteen million dollars, it would be possible 
to purchase either sixty Zeppelins, one hundred and ninety-five 
Parsevals, two hundred and sixty " Libertes " and, if aeroplanes 
are considered, considerably over two thousand Wright biplanes, 
or ten thousand Santos-Dumont " Dragon-flies " ! 

Of course, hangars or sheds for dirigibles are extremely ex- 
pensive constructions, but they are permanent acquisitions in the 
same way as naval dry-docks are ; and it is not proven that it will 
be always considered necessary to " house " the big gas-bags any 
more than it is to put ships under cover. 

There is just one more point which way be worth touching on. 

Both regret and indignation have often been expressed that 
whenever a new triumph of science has opened up to man virgin 
fields of action or endeavor, its first application to human uses 
has invariably been a test as to its efficiency to help, facilitate 
and further the butchering of man by man : It would be very 
specious to argue along this line as regards aeronautics, and 
it is only too obvious that the deadlier its uses in war were 
proved to be, the quicker it would be availed of, but the 
opportunity may well be chosen to point out that it is as weapons 
become more deadly that war becomes less possible, and a sug- 
gestion that its absolute impossibility may be brought about 



May. igio 



AIRCRAFT 



99 



witli comparative rapidity through the frightful potency and de- 
struction of aerial warfare, is not so far-fetched and Utopian as 
it would appear to those who have not given thought to the 
matter. 

That man will only stop " playing at soldiers " when it has be- 
come too dangerous for him, is perhaps not the way one would 



like to think of the final adoption of peace by him, but the child- 
ishly illogical game of war which humanity is indulging in in 
its youth will, without doubt, receive an earlier termination 
through the stern veto of appalling destruction than through the 
"grown up" logic of disarmament. 
In the meanwhile, " si vis pacem, para bcllum." 



BALANCING 




By Edward 

SALANCING is the art of keeping an aeroplane 
linrizontal as to its axis and in the direction it is 
ired to take. This involves the consideration 
cif two equilibriums — the fore-and-aft and the side- 
tii-side balances. Let us go back to nature for 
:i base and take as our example the pigeon, 
.'stretch its wings out straight from side to side 
,1^ though the bird were in flight, and then draw 
.[U imaginary line through the wings from tip-to- 
tip. This shows the side-to-side balancing axis 
of the pigeon while in flight. If a gust of wind should hit one 
wing, it throws the front edge of that wing downward and the 
front edge of the opposite wing upward, thus preserving the side- 
to-side balance. These wings also act in the same capacity as 
do the front rudders on the Wright Brothers' aeroplane, that is, 
as elevating rudders. When the bird wishes to rise into the 
air, it throws its wing-tips a little to the forward of its true 
axis of side-to-side equilibrium. This has the effect of making 
the head portion of the pigeon's body lighter than the tail portion, 
causing the axis of the body of the bird to slope slightly into 
the wind and thus allowing the bird to rise into the air. The 
reverse of this takes place when the pigeon desires to diminish its 
altitude, that is, to come down. If a pigeon on the point of 
landmg be carefully observed, it will be seen that, as it nears 
the ground, it takes a glide, rapid at first, then slower, as the 
ground is reached, until just before the stop is made, it beats 
its wings rapidly two or three times (with the wing-tips a little 
in front of the side axis), so that it stops short, with its body 
at an angle of about forty-five degrees to the ground before 
finally landing. 

If a careful observation be made, it will be seen that the 
pigeon's wings are absolutely horizontal to the body, when the 
landing glide is commenced, that is, while the pigeon is still in 
swift motion. As the speed is lessened, the wings are thrown 
back, forming more and more a dihedral angle, the bird thereby 
obtaining an automatic equilibrium device (for it is well-known 
that dihedral angles at slow speeds tend to give automatic equi- 
librium). 

Again it might be noticed, if watched carefully, that the 
pigeon's tail acts in a double capacity : as a rudder or as an as- 
sistant to the body and wings in compressing the \'olume of air 
underneath. Contrary to general opinion the tail is more often 
tised to help compress the air than it is used as a rudder. That 
is, if the pigeon desires to rise, the tail is thrown underneath, 
so as to act as a counter-check to too great a forward rise of the 
body of the bird. If the bird desires to diminish its altitude, 
the tail is thrown above the line of the body. There is one ex- 
ception to this rule, and that is when the bird desires to alight, 
as aforementioned. The wings by their shape and their ability 
to flap, play a two-fold part in the flight of the pigeon. By their 
curved shape they are enabled to compress the air under them 
and thus sustain the pigeon, while making gliding flights, and 
by their ability to flap they are enabled to compress the air under 
them to give the pigeon an upward momentum. Then, before 
the momentum is lost, the wings recover, obtain a new grip on 
fresh air, and the operation is repeated. 

Summing up, we find that the wings of the pigeon play a three- 
fold part as carriers, as rudders, and as balancers, while the tail 
plays a two-fold part, as air-compressor and as rudder. These 
two appendages must, therefore, act in an inter-relational part. 



H. Young 

When the wings are acting as carriers, that is, compressing the 
air under them, the tail is acting as a rudder ; when the tail is 
acting as a compresser, the wings are acting as balancers ; the 
tail may also be said to act as a balancer, when the wings are 
acting as rudders. 

Thus we see that two things (tail and wings) acting in con- 
cert, give a four-fold result — carriers, compressers, rudders, and 
balancers. In an aeroplane the best that man has been able to 
devise is to get these four results by means of four parts, front 
rudders, rear rudders, carrying surfaces, and warping wing- 
tips, all made independently and only acting in concert by the 
operation of the aviator. When man can come abreast of nature 
in the make-up of his aeroplane parts, then will the present- 
day aeroplane be only a matter of history. 

In the best made-up aeroplanes of to-day the following opera- 
tions are necessary to go through with to keep a proper balance. 
The curving of the carrying surfaces so as to lift, the raising 
or lowering of the horizontal rudders so as to go to a higher or 
lower level, the turning of the vertical rudders to the right or left 
so that a turn can be made in flight, and the warping of the 
carrying surfaces at their ends or lowering of supplementary 
wing-tips, if these are used, so as to maintain the side-to-side 
balance of the machine, while in flight. 

These four operations have to be brought about by the aviator, 
each by independent means ; so far only one inter-relational act 
has been achieved and this is the warping of the ends of the 
carrying surfaces or turning of the wing-tips to the proper 
angle, in conjunction with the turning of the rear rudders. This 
is for the purpose of " banking " the machine, when a turn is 
desired from the line of flight, thus keeping the machine to the 
proper angle of balance. 

Expressed in concrete form, the prospective aeroplane inven- 
tor has three balances to watch out for and provide for by 
three operations, the fore-and-aft balance of the entire machine; 
the side-to-side balance of the entire machine ; and the centrifugal 
balance (or the angle balance), which the aeroplane must of 
necessity assume when making a curve, or when a sudden gust 
of wind hits one side of the machine. 

The object of the aeroplane of the future will be to obtain all 
of these results and yet to cut out some of the rudders or levers. 
This will probably be done by some invention whereby the car- 
rying surfaces can be flexed the same as are the wings of a bird. 
When this is done the front horizontal rudder can be placed in 
the rear to act in the same capacity as a bird's tail and the rear 
vertical rudder and wing-tipping devices can be done away with. 

All of the axes of the balances must cross at some point. At 
this point must be placed the engine and operator, the weights 
of which must be balanced against each other as to the true 
centre of the aeroplane while in flight. This has the effect of 
keeping the dead weight of the aeroplane always as a true base 
from which to gauge the working of the machine by its balances. 

If the machine which you are building has no provision for 
taking care of these three lines or axes of balance, you can rest 
assured that your machine will never make a successful flight 
until this vital defect is corrected. Then you will have a prac- 
tical machine, and when you invent a device or devices, which 
control these balances by a smaller number of levers or parts 
than heretofore used, you will then have made a decided im- 
provement and have benefited both yourself and the art in a 
very substantial degree. 



m 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 



A LETTER FROM CLEMENT ADER 




E were, on April the second, placed in possession 
of the following correspondence by Mr. Israel 
Ludlow, Associate Counsel for Louis Paulhan in 
the Wright-Paulhan lawsuit. 

We need hardly dwell on the superlative in- 
terest which a communication from that almost 
mythical figure, Clement Ader, presents at this 
time. 

When future historians write of the first timid 
successes of man in the Art of Mechanical Flight, 
two men will stand out above their fellows as giant forerunners 
on the path of Progress : their names are Wilbur Wright, the 
first man to fly (if by fly is meant to pilot and control a heavier- 
than-air craft in the atmosphere) and Clement Ader, the man 
who, thirteen years before and many years before the perfection 
of the gasoline engine, tore himself free from the ground for 
a few brief moments, in a steam-driven, bat-shaped machine of 
his own design. These two men who will later be put side by 
side on the pedestals of Fame are at present in conflict over the 
degree of priority which should be attributed to each. 

For some years past, Ader has been urged to let the world 
know what he thought of the " coming true " of his dream of 
many years before — a dream of his so often derided. But until 
this time he has kept" silent, and it is the simple statement of an 
actual fact that this is the first communication from Clement 
Ader to appear in print since dynamic flight has been proved to 
be possible ; this applies to publications in Ader's own country 
or in an}' other country as well as in this one. 

Aircraft is glad to offer to its readers this first communica- 
tion from the pen of the great Frenchman whose dignified and 
somewhat pathetic figure has so far loomed dimly mysterious to 
students of aeronautics, but who now comes forward with some 
of his old fire to reveal to the world that the name of Ader does 
not represent a myth or a legend, but a vital individuality. 

2688 Broadway, 
New York, February 21, ipro. 
Clement Ader, Esq., 

Aero Club of France, 
Paris, France. 
Dear Sir : 

Mr. Wilbur Wright makes the following statements in his 
affidavit, introduced in the suit of the Wright Company vs. Louis 
Paulhan, now on trial in the United States Courts for infringe- 
ment of patents : 

L " Mr. Ader, after expending about $100,000, which was 
advanced by the French Government, discontinued experi- 
menting in 1897 because the French Government, after a 
practical trial of the machine, pronounced its equilibrium 
hopeless, and refused further to advance funds. It has 
been claimed by the defense that this machine made short 
flights but one of the officers, who was present in his offi- 
cial capacity at the trial of this machine, stated to me that 
at the instant it tried to leave the ground, it rolled over 
and was broken without any appreciable flight." 

Referring to the French Illustrated Quarterly Publication : 
"Revue de 1' Aeronautique theorique et appliquee" of October, 
2893, Mr. Wright stated: 

II. " The description is not complete and only a trifling 
examination of the description is needed to show that 
while scores of different parts are to be moved, no means 
is described by which an operator could obtain so many 
independent movements. The description does not furnish 
sufficient data for the construction and operation of the 
machine and, as already stated, all attempts to operate it 



resulted in utter failure, although the French Government 
spent about $100,000 in such attempts. Most thorough, 
practical demonstrations carried on at enormous expense 
demonstrated the inoperability of the machine." 

III. " The translation of the Ader article offered by the 
defense does not seem to me to convey a correct idea in 
some respects and particularly in describing the bending 
upward and downward of the fore-arms, the translation 
is very much at fault. The French word ' gauchir ' is 
translated on page 10 line 5 by the expression ' to warp,' 
and again on page II line 7 it is translated 'warping,' al- 
though so far as the construction of the machine is ap- 
parent, the word ' bend ' or ' bending ' would seem to better 
express the idea in the detailed drawing representing the 
mechanism for producing this result. The forearms seem 
to be joined to the arm by gimbel joints so as to bend for- 
ward and backward or up and down. The tendons T and 
auxiliary muscle m prevent the arms from bending upward 
under the sudden strain, while the tendon e which is 
above the elbow keeps them from bending down. As the 
forearms, right and left, are interconnected, when one goes 
up the other goes down but this does not give them dif- 
ferent angles of incidence." 

IV. " It is further noted that on page 6 paragraph 4, a 
tail is not included among the features which are asserted 
to be essential, and in the third line of the last paragraph 
of page 7, it is said : ' When the aeroplane has a vertical 
rudder, it is fixed,' etc., therefore I conclude that the author 
did not consider a vertical tail an essential part of the ap- 
paratus. It is nowhere disclosed that lateral equilibrium 
could be controlled by setting the right wing tip at a dif- 
ferent angle from the left and correcting differences in 
horizontal resistance between them when so adjusted by 
turning to the wind that side of a vertical tail which is 
toward the wing having the smaller angle of incidence. 
It has been asserted in some of the aflSdavits that this ap- 
paratus is said to have made short flights at a subsequent 
period, but I state that in 1906, an officer officially repre- 
senting the French Government, in a negotiation with my 
brother and myself, personally told us that he had been 
present in his official capacity at the later trial of the ap- 
paratus, and that at the instant it attempted to leave the 
ground it lost its equilibrium and was broken without hav- 
ing attained any appreciable flight." 

" In conclusion I state that the illustrations and descrip- 
tions are too incomplete to enable anyone to construct such 
a machine, and no explanations of the purposes and plans 
of operation of various parts are set forth in such a form 
as to enable any man to understand how to control equilib- 
rium with the device described." 

I would be pleased to have a statement from you on the sub- 
ject. I cannot believe that Mr. Wright has correctly stated the 
situation. Your statement would be very valuable to a clear 
understanding of the situation, and might be of considerable aid 
to Mr. Paulhan. Very respectfully yours, 

Israel Ludlow. 



Chateau of Ribonnet, 
Beaumont on Leze (Haute Garonne). 
April 2, 1910. 
Mr. Israel Ludlow, Attorney, 

2688 Broadway, New York, U. S. A. 
Dear Sir : 

Here is my reply, paragraph by paragraph, on the subject con- 
cerning which you wrote me in your letter of February 21, 1910. 



May. igio 



AIRCRAFT 



I. The testimony of ]Mr. Wilbur Wright concerning the 
attitude of our government towards my military aviation 
trials in 1S97, is of the most fanciful kind ; what is certain, 
is that he knows nothing about it. The Minister of War 
did not at am' time condemn my work ; on the contrary 
he constantly recognized its full value. It is apparent from 
our correspondence that it is to the deep unrest in France 
at that time, that the responsibility of this abandonment 
must be attributed. I consider that the erroneous asser- 
tion of your adversarj' is a very discourteous one for our 
government. It is absolutely false that the French officer 
to whom Mr. Wright refers, officially witnessed the trials 
of 1897, and therefore that he could have given him an 
account of them. I cannot possibly admit that a French 
officer can have unduly invested himself with a mission 
with which his superiors had never entrusted him. I pre- 
fer to believe that Mr. Wright made a mistake, or that he 
imagined the argument for the purposes of his case. 

II. I in no way collaborated to the Rcviczii to which you 
draw my attention ; its Editor drew from my patents all 
the notes he published, and although they are not com- 
plete, the descriptive article, such as it is, appears to me 
to be entirely sufficient for the defense of your client. 
The depreciation which your adversary makes of it is not 
sincere ; it is onh' there to serve his interests. The persist- 
ence of Mr. Wright, in constantly bringing in our govern- 
ment, in a lawsuit which in no way concerns it, is a lack 
of tact. 



III. In the third paragraph, as well as in the beginning 
of the fourth, I only find dissertations of no importance, 
based on some subtilities of translation and badly inter- 
preted descriptions, touching in no waj' on the question of 
the principle of flight. Your adversary afifects to ignore 
the value of my work; there are two things, however, pat- 
ented twenty years ago which belong to me and which he 
understands to perfection : they are the warping, which he 
has used for some years, and the curve of sustentation 
which he has recently adopted; for jNIr. Wright came to 
France with flat surfaces, flying badly ; and went back with 
curved surfaces, flying better. 

IV. It is in a state of indignation that I complete the 
perusal of the fourth paragraph. For the second time your 
adversary maintains that he has received confidences from 
a French officer having officially witnessed my trials. This 
declaration is evidently repeated, with malicious intent, and 
the more odious as it is of no utility to his case. I repeat 
anew : it is false. You can declare before the Court of the 
United States that in the body of French officers, none 
could have so forgotten himself as to outrage truth. 

After having carefully examined the declarations and testimony 
made by Mr. Wright in the suit he is waging against Paulhan, 
in the part which concerns me, m\' conclusion is that they are 
stained with falsity and, consequently, should remain void. 

Signed at Ribonnet, C. L. Ader. 

INIarch 21, 1910. 



THE LAW OF THE AIR. 

By Denys P. Myers 

Continued from .-If'ril Aircr.\ft. 

THE AIR. AND THE EARTH 




TATE jurisdiction over aerial craft has been de- 
fined as valid so far up as force may be exerted, 
\\ I and a distinction has been drawn between the 

tv )) Ji \<-hicle when owned by an individual and when 

'k\oted to the public service. These questions 
have been viewed from the standpoint of the avia- 
tor or aeronaut ; but what of the man beneath ? 
Owners of property in their individual capacity, 
corporate municipalities and federal states, as 
opposed to legally sovereign states or nations, 
will have many interests in flying men. In short, what changes 
will the Conquest of the Air effect on municipal, as compared with 
international law? 

Here there is practically no question of an isolated zone, for 
the necessity of preventing espionage does not exist. Aviators 
and aeronauts traveling over their own federal states or their 
'Own national territory will wish to go high or low, as fancy 
demands. Aviators, particularly, will probably select a level just 
high enough to avoid conflicting eddies from chimneys, trees and 
such things. They would then be easily within the power of a 
property owner's gun. Has the latter any excuse for practising 
the pure cussedness of his temperament upon the flier? It seems 
both safe and proper to answer : No. 

To my mind, there is no doubt but that the dicturr, that " the 
air is free " will prevail. Scientifically, the dictum means noth- 
ing more than an attitude for approaching the subject. That is, 
the law will contemplate aerial matters from the point of view 
of setting up only the restrictions necessary to preserve rights 
and to meet the ends of justice, as well as placing states in the 
way of adequately protecting themselves. 

From this basis of theory, then, look at the individual's rights 
in the air and the landsman's rights as against the aeronaut. 
It is evident that flying man has no absolute right to pass over the 



property of another, any more than he has to hold a weight above 
the head of another. A potential element of trespass and injury 
exists in either case. At any time, the aeronaut may have to 
discharge ballast, fly low or even land. The noise of his engine 
may disturb the inhabitants beneath. Other inconveniences are 
conceivable. Therefore, it seems necessary that aeronauts and 
aviators shall operate only under license or franchise, emanating 
from the federal state or national government, or both. 

Such a document, by reason of the terms under which it is 
issued, will clear up many ticklish questions. It can define the 
rights of the aerial traveler, thus protecting him from adverse 
claims of private rights ; and it can formulate the extent of the 
landowner's interest, thus indicating to how great an extent the 
public authority expropriates his tangent atmosphere for the 
benefit of the public. The question of license or franchise to 
aviators and aeronauts should be the first piece of legislation on 
aerial matters considered, and the law should be very carefully 
framed. 

Some progress has already been made in projecting aerial 
transportation companies, and a German firm intends to give a 
regular service out of Munich this summer. Regular trips, for 
instance, are planned to Oberammergau. Presumably a route 
through the air-space quite as definite as the lanes of ocean com- 
merce will be followed. A number of landholders will in this 
case witness the snatching away from them of the use of a por- 
tion of their freehold for which they have themselves no use, but 
the periodical tenanting of which by an airship would probably 
affect their peace and place their property in potential jeopardy. 

The periodicity of such air travel injects another element into 
the problem. It is certainly reasonable to conclude that the land- 
owner should have some say as to the terms under which his 
air-space is regularly employed for traffic of a commercial nature. 
If, however, the dirigible maintains a height sufficient to avoid 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 



becoming a nuisance and works no actual damage, its passage 
will be protected by Art. 905 of the Imperial Code of 1900, spec- 
ially intended to affect aeronautics, which says : 

" The right of the owner of a piece of land extends to the 
space above the surface and to the substance of the earth 
beneath the surface. The owner may not, however, forbid 
interference which takes place at such a height or depth 
that he has no interest in its prevention." 

The new Swiss Code, section 667, repeats this same provision, 
and France is, I understand, intending to exact the same prin- 
ciple. Other states will doubtless follow suit. 

This is only half of the question, however, for a corporation 
periodically breaking the close of a freehold even so tenuously 
as by traversing the air-space above it, thereby sets up a pre- 
scriptive right to the use of the atmosphere. Municipal law must 
therefore tackle this problem, and fix the relations that will main- 
tain between property owner and aeronaut or aviator. The sub- 
ject is one for statutory regulation, and as the passage of a rail- 
road through an estate is the nearest analogy, the question will 
doubtless be settled along the lines followed for that form of 
transportation. 

Landing involves other difficulties. In 1904 a balloon named 
" La Touriste " descended in a little street near the Bastille, in 
Paris, and an explosion ensued, killing one man and injuring 
several others. The courts held the pilot responsible. In Bel- 
gium during 1909 an aeronaut saw that his balloon was becoming 
deflated; he alighted in the street of a little town just where a 
citizen was striking a match to light a cigarette at the moment. 
Other citizens, thinking to be serviceable, caught the drag-ropes 
and hauled the balloon down; the lighted match and the escap- 
ing gas produced an explosion which killed several. " The aero- 
naut was held responsible," says Paul Matter in La Revue Bleue, 
"on the ground that he had created a danger, but the question 
was very delicate, for others had meddled with him." 

The case of Wing vs. London General Omnibus Co. (Law 
Journal, Vol. XLIV, 460) is a straw which shows the probable 
trend of Anglo-American decisions when machines are forced to 
land in unexpected places. The owner of a taxicab was using 
it with all due skill on a slippery road when it skidded and col- 
lided with a person on the sidewalk. This person brought suit. 
The jury found that a motor vehicle is liable on such a road to 
become uncontrollable, and did in fact become so, and that the 
owner was negligent in sending it out for use there under such 
circumstances. Judgment was accordingly entered for the de- 
fendant, and a reversal was itself reversed and the original judg- 
ment supported by the court of appeal. 

Gravity's insistent force puts the air into about the same cate- 
gory as a slippery road so far as uncertainty of keeping to the 
track is concerned. So long as the air-craft remains in the at- 
mosphere, the common law remedy against its invasion is by 
a form of suit known as a trespass on the case which can be 
brought wherever the defendant can be served with process. 
Thus is the way made easy for Justice Morris Kammelhor of 
Cedar Grove, N. J., to prosecute those who contemn his trespass 
notice. 

The remedy at law when the air-craft descends to earth is 
different and based on the common law principle quare clausum 
f regit (because he broke the close). An aviator who lit upon a 
farm in Massachusetts could be sued under this principle only in 
that state, whether the proceeding were in the state or Federal 
courts. His vehicle could not be seized on in rem process issu- 
ing from either court, under existing law. However, a statute 
enacted by the state authorizing such a suit to recover damages 



by seizure of the machine would justify the proceeding, so long 
as Congress had not acted on the matter. A federal statute 
would, of course, affect voyages only from one state into another, 
and could grant a remedy by attachment. In the absence of such 
legislation, the redress of the landowner would often prove illu- 
sory, especially in the case where the machine descends, comes 
into sudden contact with earth or buildings and then as quickly 
rises. 

Such an incident and cognate occurrences might produce diffi- 
culties more complicated than heretofore encountered. As men- 
tioned before, all flight is in defiance of gravity and therefore 
temporary mishaps are bound to be more frequent than in the 
case of the automobilist. This is reason enough for establishing 
a series of flags and means of identification, but it also seems 
likely that the circumstance will bring up discussion as to 
whether there shall not be attached to the aeronaut's license a 
form of indemnatory bond, against which minor claims, especi- 
ally those not warranting a full-fledged suit, may be filed. A 
blanket policy of accident insurance covering all injuries occa- 
sioned by the use of air-craft and payable to the injured upon ju- 
dicial determination of a claim would accomplish the same result. 

The other side of these questions also compels attention. 
Necessarily the majority of the considerations center around the 
air-craft pilot and consist of defining his duties, rights and privi- 
leges ; but some changes will be brought about on the earth by 
reason of the navigation of the air. A few of these are hinted 
at in a proposal made by the Aero Club of France, doubtless 
working on the suggestion of a national association of such emi- 
nent lawyers as MM. Rambaud, Malepeyre, Louis Renault, Dela- 
yen, d'Hooghe and Talamon for the purpose of establishing an 
aerial legal code. By this proposal the French Minister of Pub- 
lic Works is asked to recommend legislation as follows : 

" Owners of high buildings must illuminate every 150 
feet of their structures. Electric wires and cables more 
than go feet above the ground must be provided with small 
white pennons at intervals of 360 feet by day and white 
lights at night." 

The same proposal asks that no aeroplane or dirigible shall 
circulate above enclosed property at less than 1,500 feet nor re- 
main stationary at less than that height; they shall not fly over 
towns except with the special permission of the authorities. 
The cities and the state itself will also have additional duties to 
perform. 

Due to the absence of solar radiation and of the numerous 
air-currents daily life sets up, the pilot of an air-craft finds travel- 
ing at night safer and easier than in the daytime. Reasonable 
safety in flight consequently will bring forth many arguments 
as to why towns, cities and states will have to provide systems 
of lights for the benefit of the users of the air. The counterpart 
of marine lighthouses will be needed, distinguishable landing 
stages will be demanded and proper indication of dangerous 
vicinities — such as those wherein are situated numerous factories 
or where the district itself makes possible landing hazardous — 
will be asked. 

In fact, the problems that arise are only bounded by the limits 
of civilized relations. In time, practically every case that has 
come to bar as regards land or marine transportation will be 
considered as of the air. But most of these will be easily solved 
on the foundations at present existing; while the above considera- 
tions, in some measure, involve new features peculiar to aerial 
traffic. 

To be continued in June Aircraft. 



Owing to the receipt of matter of more immediate interest, the continuation of " The Internal Work of the Wind," by S. P. Langley. 

has been postponed until next month's issue 



LooKyor the June AI'RC'RAFT. It tefilt be cftiite beyond comparison 
tetith any pre-Viotis aeronautic literature 



A 



May, 1910 



AIRCRAFT 



103 



FOILEIGN NEWS 

By Albert C. Triaca 



Algeria 

A great reception was tendered Metrot on his 
return to Algiers from Egypt, where he shared 
the honors and prizes of the HeliopoHs meet with 
Roiigier. 

Except for a day or so of practice in France 
^[etrot has never flown above any soil but that of 
Africa. 

Argentine Republic 

It is expected that during the coming Expo- 
sition at Buenos-Ayres, a dirigible of the rigid 
type of 4,500 cubic metres will be seen cruising 
above the city; the builder is Mr. Sanchez, who 
has been making extensive purchases for the pur- 
pose in Paris. The motor will be a Panhard. 



London voyage of the great dirigible, after being 
put off until after the elections, has been further 
delayed by the damages wrought in the recent 
French floods. It now appears, however, to be 
imminent. 

Fi 



p fliph 


fs 


have rece 


ntly been m 


de by 


Man- 


Egert 


Dn, 


Ogilvie 


Rolls, Ra 


^linson 


and 


e-Brab 




n. The 


competition 


to represent 


nited 


Ki 


ngdom in 


the Gordon-Bennetl 


Cup 


ses to 


be 


very keen this year. 







aviator, recently sustained 
Buenos-Ayres, but escaped 



Panzelli. the Itali; 
a fall when flying ne 
injury. 

Bregi and Stoeckel have been continuing their 
demonstrations and have made several long flights 
on their Voisins. 

Aubrun, on his Bleriot, fiew recently ten miles 
out into the country carrying his rifle; he then 
landed, shot several hares and returned to the 
nulating Lath- 



promi 

The second British Aero Show closed at Olym- 
pia, Saturday, March 19. Merely to glance 
through the list of exhibitors is to feel a deep 
sense of the enormous possibilities that lie ahead 
along the path of flight. To find in the list of 
aeroplanes alone over a score of different names 
is to realize— perhaps for the first time on the 
part of those who have been inclined to look 
upon the whole subject of aviation as being alto- 
gether "in the air"— that the manufacture of fly- 
ing machines is already an established business in 
Br'tain. 

Firms like Short Bros., Handley Page and 
Howard Wright, who exhibited flying machines 
at the first Aero Show, are now surroimded by 
quite a crowd of new-comers, among whom are 
some well-known firms from the automobile indus- 
try like the Humber and Star Companies. 



Inseparably a part of the aeroplane industry is 
he rnanufacture of suitable engines, and whether 
his is or is not ultimately carried on by the 
iame firms that build the remainder of the flying 
nachine is of relatively little significance com- 
'ith the importance ofthe fact that it must 
any circum- 



section of the work 



:ently given by 
at the Crafton 
luspices of the 



A lecture on aviation wa: 
Lieutenant-Colonel G. Espitf 
Galleries, London, under t 
Alliance Franco-Britannique. 



A huge new spherical balloon of a capacity of 
163,866 cubic ft. (68 ft. diameter) has recently 
been built by the Daily Graphic with the object 
of again assailing the long-distance record. 

Mr. S. F. Cody is now at work on a new 
biplane, on the lines of his first, but 4 ft. less in 
the spread of each wing. This will be fitted with 
a twelve-cylinder loo-h. p. rotary Phoenix engine, 
and it is designed to fly at a speed of over 
60 miles per hour. He hopes to give a series of 
exhibition flights in England during the year, and 
has had some very tempting offers to induce him 
to go and fly at various of the important Conti- 
nental meetings. 



At Rosario, Valleton has be 



flying 



cided 1 
biplani 

The 
ators : 
cedes 
many 



have recently been treated 
of Europe's flyers. 



authorities have decided to ac- 
:roplanes. They have already de- 
r several of these shall be Farman 



latest recruit to the ranks of Austrian av 
is Hyeronimus, the famous driver of Me 
racing cars. He has already flown in Ge 
on his Bleriot, and is about to fly in h 
ountry. 



"Major" Taylor, the 
man, familiar to frequ 
dromes, is having a 
Liege, where he has ri 
being built entirely ace 



Belgiun\ 

colored American wlieel- 
mters of European velo- 
lonoplane constructed at 
cently been living. It is 
irding to his own ideas. 

The following are also to fly shortly at Liege: 
Lanser, de Lamine, Allard, Baar, Frasenster, 
Kinet, de Petrowski. 

Probably the most important dirigible contests 
ever held in the world will take place at Brussels, 
during the Exposition. The huge gas-bags will 
be divided in two classes. Among the larger are 
entered the "Belgique," of 4,000 cubic metres; tlie 
"Ville de Eruxelles," 6,500 c. m., and a Parseval 
of 5,000 c. m.; among the smaller ones, a Zodiac 
of 1,400 c. m. ; an Astra of 1,500 c. m., and the 
new little Parseval V of 1,200 c. m. 



CdLfYacda^ 



McCurdy*s latest 
flight of half an hou: 



xploit at Baddeck was 
on his speedy biplane. 



China 

Whereas the Aryan civilization all over the 
world is, after thirteen decades of familiarity with 
the balloon, turning its attention to heavier-than- 
air machines, the Chinese who, many centuries 
ago, invented the first of all air-craft, the kite, 
are now turning their attention to the lighter- 
than-air school in aeronautics. 

Twenty years ago the experiments made with 
captive balloons by the French engineers Yon 
and Godard filled the Celestials with terror, ten 
years ago they realized the usefulness of military 
aerostats when they observed their role in the 
Boxer campaign, and now they are investigating 
the various systems of European Army dirigibles 
and, according to the Yuang Tong Pao, are about 
to invest in several for their army. 



Denmark 



Ou 



attention is drawn bv 
the fact that the first aviation 
was not that of Los Angeles, fo 
of igio an aerial tournament c 
took place in Copenhagen. The 
were Christiansen and Svendsi 
planes and Thory on a Bleriot 

England 



lish friends to 
et of the year 
I the first days 
.0 small merit 
npetitors 



nopla 



Voi; 



ilngland is once more looking forward to 
ning of the Bayard-Clement II. The Paris- 









An 


altfsis 0/ Aeroplanes 


at 


Olympia 
















Spread 


"tlepth 
















Pro 




Pro- 




Name. 


Type. 


ol 


of 


Eudder. 


Elevator. 


Tall, 


Length. 


Rur- 


Weight 


H.P. 


pelle 


r 


peUer 


R.P.M. 






Win'!. 


Wing. 










faoe. 






Diameter 


Pitch. 




















sq. ft. 


Ibe. 












AviB 


Mono 


28' 


6' 4- 


14sq. ft. and 22 sq.ft. 

(OBoiform and of 

inegulai shape) 

2' 9'x 2' 6'| 2' 9V 2' 9* 


None 


27' 


160 


430 


36 


(T)6' 


0' 


2' 3' 


1,200 


Bl riot 


Mono 


25- 


6' 7- 


12' O'x 2' 9' 


26' 


ise 


486 


36 


(T)6' 


s- 


3' C 


1,200 


Type XI. 








(on© each 
1 end of taU) 
9 sq. ft. and 19 sq. ft. 
(Cnlciform and of 




















Demoiselle 


Mono 


21' 


6' 6" 


None 


23' 


136 


326 


36 


(T)6' 


6' 


3- 6' 


1,200 


(Dutbeil 


























Chalmers) 








irregular shape) 




















Demoiselle 


Mono 


IS' 


.6' 10" 


13sq. ft. and 18 sq. ft. 


None 


20' 


108 


230 


30 


(T)6' 


6' 


2- 3' 


1,200 


{Clement) 








(Ouoiform'andof 

irregular shape) 

lOJsq. ft. and 16 sq. ft. 




















Demoiselle 


Mono 


20' 


«' 6' 


None 


20' 


133 


340 


30 


(T)6' 


6' 


2' 6' 


1.400 


(Mann & 
OvertoD) 








((Cruciform and of 


























irreguhi 


shape) 


, 


















Farman . . . 


Bi(6) 


33' 


6'. 6' 


4' 0'x4'3- 


9'0->,2'a' 

(front) 
7' O'x 2' 6' 

(baok) 


6' 6'x 6' 0" 
(biplane) 


39' 


476 


1050 


40 


(P)6' 


T 




1,000 


G. and J. .. 


BiW 


30- 


6' (1' 


5' 0'X4'6- 


12' O'x 3' .0* 


10' O'x 6' C 

monoplane) 
76 sq. ft. as 


81' 


426 


660 


60 


(P)9' 


0' 


10' 0' 


600 


Gr^goirc- 


Mono 


34' 


V. •4- 


»4i sq.ft. 


10 sq. ft. 


34; 


877 


600 


30-40 


(T)7' 


0' 


. 


1.600 


Gyp 










(triangular) 


empennage 
9' fi' long 


















Humber 


Mono 


29' 


6' r 


3' o-xro* 


'2' rx 2' 0" 


6' O'x 2' 9' 


2«' 


192 


490 


30 


(T)6' 


6" 


3' 6» 


1,200 


(Le Blon) 










(one each 
end of tail) 




















Humber 


Bi 


41' (i- 


6' 0" 


12 sq.ft. 


321 sq. ft. 


8'x2'3'a8 


36' 


482 


not 


60 


(T)9' 


6" 


not 


l,S0O 


Biplane 








(of irregular shape) 


empennage 






given 








given 




Humber 


Mono 


31' 3" 


6' 9" 


lOJ sq. ft. 


32J sq. ft. 


8' O'x 2' 3" 


26' 8' 


210 


not 


60 


(T)7' 


0" 




1,200 


(Lovelace) 








(irregular 
shape) 


(irregular 
shape) 


each side as 
empennn^e 






given 












Handley 


Mono 


30' 


6' O' 


n sq. ft. 


6 sq. ft. 


8 sq. ft. 


21' 


160 


260 


20-25 


(T)6' 


6' 


not 


1,800 


Page 






(taperinp 
to point 
8~6- 


[triangular) 


(triangular) 


(triangular) 














fixed 




HowarcJ- 


Mono 


27' 


3' cxj'e- 


3' O'x 3- 0- 


6' O'x 3"' 0- 


29- 


190 


480 


40-50 


(T)6' 


3' 


2' 3' 


1,500 


Wright 










(ateaeb 
end of tail) 
3' O'x 4' 0" 




















Lane 


Mono 


30- 


6' 3- 


2' '3'x2'8' 


8' 8'x 3' 0' 


24' 


201 


460 


30 


(T)6' 


10' 


2- 10' 


1,380 


(I seat) 










(2 above tail 




















Lane 


Mono 


36'!)' 


8' 0' 


2' 6'x3'3' 


8'e-x3'0' 


10' O'x 3' 0'' 


24' 


320 


675 


60 


(T)8' 


6' 


4' 8- 


860 


(2 seate) 






























MuUmor ... 


Mono 


33' 


6' a' 


2' 0'x2'0' 

(approi.) 
)' 2'x 2' 0" 


16 sq. ft. 
(triangular) 


14 sq. ft. as 
empennage 


27' ■ 


220 


380 


35-45 


(T)6' 


3' 


4- 6' 


1.200 


Omis 


Mono 


30' 


6' 6- 


2' O'x 3' 0' 


6'0-x3'0' 


?8' 


J70 


SOO 


36 


(T)8- 


0' 


3- 0' 


1,200 












(one each 






























end of tail) 




















Roe 


Tn 


20' 
28' 


3' 6" 


2' 4-x3'(r 


AU planes 

act as 
elevators 


8' 4"x 3' 0* 
(triplane) 


23' 


320 

380 


400 


36 


(T)8' 


0' 


3' 0- 


1,200 


Sliort. • 


Bi{rf) 


40' 


6' 8- 


5' 4'xl'7" 


15' O'x 3' 0' 


None 


27' 9* 


690 


886 


30 


(2P) 8' 


6' 


11' 9- 


376 


Wright 








(twin) 


(biplane) 




















Shorl 


BUe) 


46' 


6' 7" 


5' O-x l- 6- 


16' O'x 2- 9' 


■4' O'x 7' 9" 


29' 6' 


680 


1200 


60 


(2P)9- 


0' 


12' 0' 


410 


(Moore. 








(forward) 


. (biplane) 


(vertical) ^ 


















Brabazon; 












4- 6'x T 9' 
(horizontal) 


















.Short 


Bi (/)■ 


32' 


6' 9- 


5' 8'xl'6- 


10' O'x 2' Q- 


8' O'x 3' C 


SC 


400 


650 


30 


(P)7' 


6' 


7' 6' 


1,200 


(new type! 








(forwaid) 


(biplane) 


(horizontal) 
2' O'x 6' 0' 
(vertical) 

10' O'x 0' 9' 


















Sommer . . . 


Bi{ff) 


34' 


6' 0" 


2' 3'x2'0' 


13' O'x 3' 3' 


39' 9* 


626 


700 


60 


lP)«' 


4. 


not 


900- 










(twin) 




(monoplane 














known 




^pencer- 


Mono 


34' 


6' 0* 


2' VO'x 2' 0" 


3' 6'x 2' 9' 


7' O'x 2' 0" 


27' 


210 


660 


70 


12T)6' 


0' 


10' 0* 


600 


Stiilin^; - 










(one each 
end of tail) 




















-tac ...... 


Mono 


42' 


8' taper 


lOsq. ft. a 


nd 10 sq. ft. 


30 sq. ft. as 


32' 


290 


760 


40 


(T)6' 


6' 


3' «■ 


1,400 








Ing to6 


(of irregular shape) 


empennage 


















TwininK ... 


Bi(M 


28' 


4' 6- 


2' 2-x r 4 


10' O'x 2' 6" 


14' 10' 


277 


440 


20 


(PIC- 


;r 


4- r 


1,000 










(twin 


(monoplane 




























forward) 






















Zodiac . . - 


Hi (a) 


33' 3" 


6' 6' 


i O'x 3' 3' 


13' O'x 2' a- 


r 6'x 6- 0' 


39' 9" 


626 


1100 


60-60 


(P)8' 


0- 




1,200 




1 








(biplane) 




















From the London 'M<? 



104 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 



On March 24 Rolls 
of twenty-eight miles 
a height of 1,000 feet, both 
records for English aviators. 



a cross-countrv flight 
Wright and reached 



France 



The 



g of the estuary of the Seine — from 
Havre to Trouville— is about to be undertaken 
by the well-known Havre aviator, Molon. The 
distance is about seven and a half miles and 
Molon expects to cross in twelve minutes on his 
Bleriot. He has already made flights exceeding 
an hour in duration. 

Paul Tissandier is now trying out at Pau a new 
Wright biplane, which can "lift" 300 lbs 
himself — say fuel and lubricant for an eh 
flight. 

On March 12, Roger Sommer made 
with a passenger of sixty-eight minutes on his 
new type of biplane. 

The Comte de Lambert took M. Trouillot, the 
Minister of the Colonies, for a fine flight on 
March 16. 



i-hour 



flight 








!■■' , i '.: uj 1 HE NICE MEET. 

A BLERIOT SOARING ABOVE THE RIVIERA — LE 
PAYS DES ROSES. A GENUINE BIRD's EYE VIEW ! 

The : 
aeropla. 
boat bu 

The f 
flight of forty 



nonoplane turned out by hii 

:s only five davs af 
jy the well-kn 



rts 



ed fr, 



nposed of 
m the Ae 



sportsman 

f Public Works, has 
erial navigation. This 
state officials and ex- 
ro Club. Their busi- 
Aiich will govern all 



establisl 
aviation throughout 

On the other hand, M. Pichon, Minister of For- 
eign Affairs, has issued a call for an international 
conference in regard to the matter. The vastness 
of the heavens makes legislation difficult. What 
rules should regulate airships at the start? How 
should they be made to land? plow are tariff 
questions to be settled? These and other such 
subjects will be discussed and. let us hope, set- 
tled by the international congress. 

As i'rance took the lead in automobiling from an 
industrial viewpoint, so she has been first in aerial 
navigation. It is therefore highly important 
that the first international congress should be held 
in Paris. M. Pichon foresees many difficulties 
with the English representatives. For, according 
to the law of England, the owner of land owns 
everything from the center of the earth right up 
to the heavens. This is the English landowner's 
heritage from feudalism. Hence, no matter how 
high the Wrights, Bleriot or Paulhan may hap- 
pen to fly, they will always be trespassers, when 
over English territory. 

Professor Marchis began at the end of Febru- 
ulty 



ary his 



The 



'ill 



of the 



seven following lessons: Balloon Sta 


ics; Resist- 


ance of the Air— Aeroplanes; Balloor 


Dynamics 


(Vertical and Horizontal Motions); 


Dirigibles; 


Stability and Direction of Aeroplane 


s; Motors; 


Propellers. 






A MODERN AVIARY'. 
A GLIIMPSE OF THE AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA, LONDON. 



An 



the 
deal of 



viatK 



itin 



;?reat deal of interest at present are those of 
Cesar, at Issy-les-Moulineaux. 

One reason for this is that Cesar is a one- 
legged man. The spectacle of a man seeking 
to overcome a deficiency in limbs by the ac- 
quirement of wings is novel enough to 'attract at- 
tention of itself, but Cesar's machine is itself 
of unusual design, being of the combination type 
(half balloon and half aeroplane). 

No good has so far come of experiments along 
this line, but Cesar has high hopes of succeeding 
where others failed. His machine has many 
novel features. 

''A runaway aeroplane" is the way a recent 
mishap at Issy is described by our continental 
contemporaries. 

f Franchant, a beginner, got he- 
ld his control, passed out of the grounds and 
ded in a bastion of the nearby fortifications, 
e machine was smashed, the aviator unhurt. 



Th 



Henry Farman has certainly been having mar- 
vellous success at Mourmelon. His latest pupils, 
Efimoff, Van den Born, Chavez, Cammermann, 
Frey, Crochon, flew after a few lessons as if 
to the manner born. 

^'an den Born, the old Belgian professional 
bicycle sprinter, has in particular done wonder- 
fully well. He has been himself a teacher for 
some weeks now and recently taught four pupils 
in a single week— a world's record in the develop- 
ment of human birds! 

With the coming of spring, aviation meets are 
being organized all over the country. 

Biarritz has secured Duray, Chavez, Bailly, Mig- 
not and Leblanc. 

Niort will see de Lesseps, Busson, Campel, Dos- 
tel,_ Nyeman and Noel. 

Nice is to witness an imposing array of 
famous flying men: Latham, Rougier, Grade, 
de Riemsdyk, Sand, M. Singer, Van den Born, 
Metrot, Duray, Efimoff, Chavez, Olieslaegers, 




THE NEW HENRY FARMAN BIPLANE DURING ITS RECENT FLIGHT OF ONE HOUR AND TWO 
MINUTES WITH FARMAN AND TWO PASSENGERS ABOARD (wORLd's RECORD). 

FARMAN IN FRONT^ MR. HEWARTSON BEHIND HIM, MADAME FRANK NEAR THE ENGINE, 
WITH HER BACK TO HEWARTSON. 



May, 1910 



AIRCRAFT 



105 







Pros Tie J 



JseO'XnCi 



THE WANDERINGS OF A HUMAN BIRD. VAN 
DEN BORN FLEW OVER TO REIMS TO LUNCH 
WITH SOME FRIENDS ON MARCH .2ND. ON 
HIS RETURN HE GOT LOST IN THE FOG. 

CHAVEZ FLEW OUT TO LOOK FOR HIM AND 
THE TWO BIPLANES RETURNED TOGETHER. 

VAN DEN BORN :MUST HAVE COVERED FULLY 
SIXTY MILES IN FLIGHT. 



The first day of the Cannes meet saw Weis- 
sembach, the Austrian, and Rigal, the ex-motor 
racing crack, come to grief. Others competing 
there are Bablot, Edmond and Molon, who are 
also old motor racers; Gaubert, Baratoux, Frey, 
de Virel. Braun, Sands, Crochon, Christiaens, 
Jullerot, Prince Popofif and Hesne. 

At Marseilles, Rougier, Metrot, Van den Born, 
M. Singer, Bablot, Serailler, Blanc, Callas, Gabil- 
lan, Nogiies, Dufonr, Astruc and Hauvette- 
Michelin are showing their skill. 

The skies of Europe this summer will certainly 
."ith the big birds. 



2,tfU.t/^l»cy 






Germany 

AfltM- establishing a lead in the building of 
ll^liiti -ihan-air cra£t, Germany is now taking up 
tl\ mil: in earnest. Since his return from ?Teli- 
MiM,iis, (Irade has been making some fine flights 
nt liork. Hintner is also at Berk, while Keidel, 
Uorner, and Thelan have been flying at Johan- 
nisthnl, and Lange has been trying out a military 
aeroplane near Dresden. 

Among the machines now quartered at Johannis- 
thal are the cx-champion bicycle rider Robl's 
Morbost-Kiel aeroplane. Lieutenant Huth's An- 
toinette, which wae recently driven by Erunhu- 
ber; Xecker and Eyring's Wright biplanes, Cas- 
.sivL-r's Farman, Aller's Deutschland-Schoeneberg 
nuichinc. and the personal conceptions of Trotka 
and Leutner. Sagerl, Schuler, Poulain, Telchow, 
Neumann, Sohn, Hanuschke, Timm, Harlon, Her- 
forth. 

All these expect to take part in the great na- 
tional and international contests to be held at 
Johannisthal in May. 

The efforts of German inventors are being ap- 
plied towards meeting the very stringent demands 
of the military authorities, who want a flying 
machine which can soar for a considerable time 
if the motor breaks down, and which can raise 
itself vertically from the ground. 

A Hamburg designer claims to have a stabilisat- 
ing surface which will answer the first purpose, 
while trials are at present being conducted with 
gyroplanes, and an aeroplane is to be built 
with two motors, one for the propeller and the 
other to run a gyroplane. 



Office has opened two inter- 
petitions, one for aeroplane 
for dirigible propellers. 



With the return of fine weather the already 
numerous aviation schools of France have re- 
sumed their courses of instruction. Aviation 
promises to grow more and more in favor as a 
fashionable pastim.e. 

All constructors of flying machines are over- 
whelmed with orders, and Henry Farman, Louis 
Bleriot, and other crack aviators have been 
obliged to appoint special men at high salaries to 
help them to teach the art of flying. Good air 
pilots quickly find employment, after graduating 
at the schools, in organizing and directing local 
aviation meetings and exhibitions. Every town in 
Europe of any importance is eager to have one 
of these in the course of the year. 

The greatest number of aviators are being 
trained at the Chalons camp, the military drill 
ground at Issy-les-Moulineaux having proved 
rather too restricted in area. Several of Bleriot's 
s, however, with limited means, continue 
it. 

The immense camp at Chalons is probably the 
largest and finest training ground for aviators in 
Europe, and it is only three hours by rail, omni- 
bus, or autocar from Paris. Henry Farman has 
a huge aeroplane factorv at the Chalons camp 



to 



with a score of garage sheds. Other constructors 
are fast developing large establishments in the 
vicinity. 

Trouble has arisen between some of the aviators 
who are using the Chalons camp as a practice 
ground and the military authorities in charge of 
it. The aviators, it is said, have hampered the 
soldiery in their drilling and the General com- 
manding has lately decreed some very strict regu- 
lations regarding flying machines, among other 
things forbidding excursions from the aerodrome 
over the adjoining country. 

One of the immediate consequences of this dif- 
ficulty is that Henry Farman is about to move his 
extensive aeroplane works and garage sheds to 
the historic plains in the middle of the old Beauce 
country south of Paris, and due west of Fontaine- 
bleau. The plains are about eighty miles in 
width and are perfectly suited to aviation trials. 

The village of -Mourmelon-Ie-Grand in the Cha- 
lons plains is reaping a harvest from the aviation 
furor, as most of the novices are lodged and fed 
there. It is rare to find at the crowded table 
of any one of the small hotels in the village 
three persons of the same nationality. 

Not even excepting the French, few novices 
own the aeroplanes with which they practice, but 
they are the jockeys of small groups of sporting 
speculators who furnish the money that is neces- 
sary to launch them on their career. They are ex- 
pected, in return, to win many rich prizes for the 
men who finance them. 

The Committee for a memorial to Captain Fer- 
ber has decided to erect a monument on the spot 
near Boulogne-sur-Mer, where Ferber sustained 
his fatal accident, and a statue in the town itself 
of Boulogne. 




The German Wa 
esting national co 
propellers and anothi 

At a meeting of the Zeppelin Arctic Expedition 
Committee presided over by H. R. H. Prince 
Henry of Prussia on the 5th inst., it was resolved 
to make a request to the German Government for 
the services of the Imperial exploration steamer 
"Poseidon" for ten or eleven weeks. The mem- 
bers of the expedition intend to start for Spitz- 
bergen on July i and will then, by the aid of the 
"Poseidon," study the conditions for airship 
landing. 

Two German engineers, Herr Bracklesburg and 
Flerr Seigneux, have invented a new type of air- 
ship combining the lighter-than-air and heavier- 
than-air systems. The new vessel somewhat re- 
sembles a balloon of the Parseval type, but the 
cage, or hull, is detachable, and is, in itself, a 
complete flying machine. 

The balloon portion of the vessel is two hun- 
dred feet long, with a diameter of thirty-five feet, 
divided into eight air-tight cells, while the "car" 

The Zeppelin now building— the Zeppelin V— 
will be made of aluminum once more, as the new 
metal which was to replace aluminum, and of 
which so much was hoped, has not come up to 
expectations after a series of most minute and 
expensive tests. 



German East Africa 

intends presenting a mili- 
colony ; the type decided 
yet been revealed. 



Holland 

A Nimegue inventor has built an aerocycle in 
which he has succeeded in lifting himself clear 
of the ground on several occasions. lie claims 
one man-power is sufficient to fly if properly 
applied, but does not state how long he was 
capable of exerting sufficient strength to keep 
himself aloft. 

Hungary 

The latest Hungarian of note to take up avia- 
tion is M. Adorjan, the well-known motorist. 
His machine is a monoplane of his own con- 
struction. 

India 

to the Calcutta newspaper "English- 



man " 


flight 


s h,n 


VP 


been ma 


with a 


bipla 


ne G 


t s 


omewhat 




d dea 


1 


m 


vsterv su 




and 


Hehr 


ite 


mformati 


with i 


nteresi 








That 


the n 


ach 


ne 


really exis 


parent 


from 


the 


photograph \ 



'ill be awaited 



ONE OF THE LATEST M.^CHINE.S AT MOURMELON. 



ts tropical-looking shed or hangar. 



Italy 

Nazarro— perhaps the greatest automobile race 
river ever known— is to become an aviator; he 
1 to use a Voisin. 

Lieutenants Calderara and Savoia have been 
making flights over the Centocelle plain, near 
Rome, on the Wright military aeroplane. 



io6 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 




^^^ii^^jt^.m^*"^*"*^' 



THE SKELETON OF THE ZEPPELIN V. THE 
BLACK SPECKS BENEATH IT ARE THE HUN- 
DRED MEN WHO WERE CARRYING IT. 



It is said that D'Annunzio, the poet and 
author, is about to take up flying. He is hesi- 
tating between a Voisin and a Bieriot. D'Annun- 
zio has recently written a book on the conquest of 
the air and has been lecturing on the new art. 



M. de Stephanis, the president of the com- 
mittee of the aerial meet of Verona, is authority 
for the statement that at the coming meet at 
Verona the following aviators will appear : Lath- 
am, Farman. Rougier, de Lambert, Bieriot. 
Balsan, Metrot. Van den Born, Chavez, de Les- 
seps, Tissandier, Leblanc, Kuhler, Molon, Mme. 
de Laroche, Duray! 

Truly a galaxy of stars to make Halley's 
comet pale in the limpid skies of Italy. 

Among those taking part in the aviation meet 
at Florence (March 28— April 7) are Rougier, 
Guyot, Faccioli, de Zara, Cagno, Cobianchi, 
Grasso, Van den Born. 

A new military dirigible of 4,600 cubic metres 
is being built in Rome; others of 8,000 and 12,000 
c. m. are to be built for naval use. 




AVIATION IN INDIA^ A UNIQUE HANGAR. 



Chevalier Vincenzo Florio has secured an aero- 
plane to compete in the Palermo aviation meet 
in May. 

Cagno recently made a half hour flight on his 
A. V. I. S. biplane at Novara. This machine is a 
Voisin, built in Italy by the Ateliers Voisin 
I tali e Septentrionale, the initials of which are 
utilized as the designation of the machine. 

Japan 

It is rumored that the Japanese military com- 
mission now in Europe is about to purchase 
several Wright biplanes mounted on wheels. 
These were experimented before them at Johan- 
nisthal, Germany. 

It is hinted, however, that the commission, 
while affecting to pay all its attention to aero- 
planes, is really interested in the great German 
dirigibles. 

Luxemburg 

An aviation meet is being plrnned to take pi 
at Mondorf-les-Bains; the date, May 15 to 23; 
the amount in prizes, $8,000. 

Mexico 

It is proposed to organize at Mexico an avia- 
tion meet at the time of the celebrations of the 
centenary of Mexico's independence. 

M. de Landa y Escadon, Governor of the Dis- 
trict, and M. Maurice Raoul-Duval, the well- 
known sportsman and business man, have been 
discussing the question. 

One hundred thousand dollars would, it is said, 
be given in prizes. 

The meet would be given in November, firstly, 
because of the climatic conditions, and secondly, 
because the main contests in France. England 
and other European countries will by then be 
over and a great number of famous professionals 
free to make the trip. 



Coming directly after the big races in the 
United States, the field should be most repre- 
sentative. 

\b is well known, M. Raoul-Duval recently im- 
1 oried a "Channel Crossing" Bieriot, and not- 
withstanding the great altitude of the capital and 
sded in flying in the rarefied 



The Mexican Government has given Seiior 
Frederico Cervantes, lieutenant of engineers, the 
mi^bion of going to France to study the latest 



Monaco 

ROUGIER'S GREAT FLIGHTS. 

Probably no more interesting flights from a 
practical standpoint have as yet been made any- 
where than those executed by Rougier on his 
Voisin biplane during his recent stay in the 
principality. 

To those who know the " lay of the land " at 
Monte Carlo and Monaco, and the gusty land- 
winds which are rarely absent from the neighbor- 
hood, and which sweep down through the defiles 
and ravines in the mountainous region to the 
immediate north, it seems little short of mar- 
vellous that, at the present time, an aviator could 
accomplish day after day successful flights there, 
and only shows that the state of the art is 
rather underestimated than not by the average 
observer interested in it. 

Every feature of these flights was fraught with 
apparent peril and suggestive of disaster; the 
getting under way in the narrow city street of 
La Condamine, the run on the encumbered 
quay, with the great Rock of Monaco rising on 
one side and a harbor full of shipping on the 
other, and especially the thirty-foot wall or break- 
water running along the further end of the quay, 
against which the machine would crush itself 
into kindling wood were it not high enough up to 
clear it, rendered the start a perilous one indeed— 
especially if the wind blew to the aviator's back. 

Once the wall was cleared, Rougier found him- 
self fifty or more feet above the rocky shore, and 
an instant later soaring over the Mediterranean. 

Several flights were made for many miles over 
the sea, some as far as Cap Martin and Men- 
tone. On his return Rougier would turn towards 
the land and, rising to a great height, go rushing 
far above the great crowds cheering him from 
every point of vantage in Monte Carlo. 

It is little wonder that the gaming tables were 
deserted at such a time and that the feverish 
habitues of roulette and trente et quarante rushed 
out upon the already crowded terraces to see 
Kougier soaring over the famous Temple of 
Chance — on wings somewhat more reliable than 
those of the fickle Goddess of Fortune wor- 
shipped within. 

Those who saw these flights will not readily 
forget them; with the lapis lazuli and sapphire 
of sky and sea mingling far to the south, the 
frowning cliffs of the Mont Agel and the Tete 
<Iu Chien towering in the background, the white 
buildings, tropical gardens, fountains and monu- 
ments of the far-famed resort nestling at their 
foot, with the no less famous " Terrasses " a 
seething riot of color and animation, and above all 
— far above all — to the ceaseless clatter of its tire- 
less engine and the whirring of its propeller, the 
great white bird cleaving the invisible atmos- 
phere, with the small black figure representing 
its brain, crouching between its wings and ack- 
nowledging by gesture the noisy greeting and 
tribute faintly heard from below, the picture was 
a complete whole which no later impressions 
could ever entirely obliterate from the minds of 
onlookers. 

A year ago large prizes had been offered for a 
race against time from Monaco to Cap Martin 
and back, over the bay. The conditions were 
easier than for Rougier's flights, as sn incHned 




GLIDING IN AUSTRALIA. FLORENCE M. TAY- 
LOR PILOTING A MOTORLESS BIPLANE AT NAR- 
RABEENj NEAR SYDNEY. 

On one occasion the Voisin was made to climb 
to the level of the Mont Agel— over 3,000 feet— 
and steered through the lofty defile of La Tur- 
bie. It was only several minutes after it had 
disappeared over the village of that name that it 
once more came into view, to the unmitigated 
relief of the watching thousands below, who, no 
longer hearing the motor, feared it might have 
stopped running and caused a landing in the 
rocky and precipitous wilderness beyond La 
Turbie. 

When he was once more over Monte Carlo, 
Rougier turned his elevator down at a sharp 
angle and literally let himself drop for half a 
mile, with his motor and the force of gravity 
cooperating to drive him downward at terrific 
speed. 

Three minutes later he alighted from his ma- 
chine at the entrance of his shed. 

In the uncontrollable enthusiasm which ensued 
both he and his machine narrowly escaped harm. 

Rougier s last flight was no le-.b awe mspirmg. 





ANOTHER SUCCESSFUL FRENCH FLYER: THE 
BREGUET BIPLANE IN FULL FLIGHT. 



plane had been built from far back on the quay 
to the summit of the sea-wall. 

Over twenty entries were received, but not one 
ever attempted the feat, or even came to Monaco 
for the purpose. 

In the future it will seem almost unbelievable 
that a single year could have made such a dif- 
ference in the development of the art. 

Rougier gave altogether seven of these startling 
exhibitions. All of them were marked by aston- 
ishing control and skill and no less astonishing 
daring, but one or two stand out among the 
seven for their peculiarly sensational character. 



OLIESLAEGERb THE DURING BELGIAN AND A 
GLIMPSE OF THE FRANCO-MOORISH ALGERIAN 
TOWN OF ORAN^ OVER WHICH HE RECENTLY 
STEERED HIS ELERIOT. 

Notwithstanding the stiff western breeze blowing, 
he had started out with the intention of flying 
to Nice— ten miles to the west, along the Riviera. 

After turning the point of Monaco, the Voisin 
met the full force of the thirty-mile wind and 
made but slow headway. It had' got within four 
miles of Nice, however, and was opposite the 
naval harbor of Villefranche, when the wind 
developed into a regular gale, blowing for sev- 
eral minutes at a velocity conservatively esti- 
mated at forty miles an hour. {Several aeroplane 
sheds were blown down at this precise time a 
few miles from there.) 

Rougier was high enough up and far enough 
from land to escape the worst inequalities of the 
wind, which of course constitute the only dan- 
ger to equilibrium, but the speed of the Voisin 
being forty miles an hour, the wind exactly 
counterbalanced it and he was unable to make 
any headway, the astonishing spectacle being wit- 
nessed by those on the convoying torpedo-boats, 
of the aeroplane tossing and rocking in the 
breeze, but remaining absolutely stationary in 
relation to the coast. 

As far as we know this is the first time an aero- 
plane has flown in a wind of velocity equal to its 

Seeing the futility of persisting, Rougier turned 
around and was instantly carried off like a greaty 
box kite of which the string has snapped, t^^jj 
ing before the gale at eighty miles an hour am 
in a few seconds leaving the torpedo-boats ^ 



He was, however, 
being to the east 
Monaco. 



leaving the torpedo-boats " 
able to land safely, his shed 



ide of the Rock. 



Morocco 



The special envoy of Morocco, Ben Asus, while 
)n a recent trip to Europe made an ascension in 
balloon "Hildebrandt." This first 



May, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



107 



instance of official interest being shown by Mo- 
rocco in aeronautics is no doubt attributable to 
the line work of the European military balloons 
at Casabianca. 

New South Wales 

Australia has long been interested in aviation 
(one of her sons, Lawrence Hargrave, being one 
of the world's greatest pioneers), so it is with no 
surprise that news is received of her activity in 
the new field. 

'rhe Sydney magazine "Motor" has started an 
aviation section under the control of Geo. A. 
Taylor, whose practical work in Australian aero- 
nautics and enthusiasm in that sphere resulted 
in the formation of the Aerial League of Aus- 
tralia, as well as in winning the interest of the 
Commonwealth Government in officially recogniz- 
ing the vital importance of aerial defense by ofYer- 
ing the $^5,000 prize referred to in a previous issue 
of Aircraft. 

The first flight ever made in Australia is to the 
credit of Mr. Colin Defries, driving a Wright 
biplane. 

We believe this is the first flight made south 
of the Equator, for it antedates by some days 
those made recently in South America. 

Persia 

One of the most enthusiastic spectators of 
Efimoff's recent flights at Odessa was the ex-shah 
of Persia; he imported the first automobile to be 
seen in Teheran and is apparently keeping just 
as much up with the times as heretofore. 

Peru 

Great interest is being shown at Lima in the 
latest exploits of Georges Chavez, now piloting 
a Henry Farman biplane in France. Chavez, 
although he has lived in Paris many years, is 
a Peruvian. He seems destined to be a great 
aviator, and although only a novice already ranks 
fourth in the High Flyers of the world, only 
Pajlhan, Latham and Rougier ranking above him 
in this respect. Chavez is an old football player 
of the Racing Club de p-rance. 



Portugal 

After his Spanish campaign, Edmond Poillot, 
the journalist-aviator, is to fly at Lisbon. 

No aviator has visited Portugal since Zipfel s 
visit last vear, when he made the first flights ever 
seen there. 

Ro\in\aLniaL 

Even since Bleriot flew at Bucharest last Octo- 
ber, Roumanian sportsmen have been wishing to 
see more of the French men-birds; Deletang is 
the latest aviator to sign a contract to fly at 
Bucharest. 

Russia 

Latham is to fly at Petersburg, Warsaw and 
Moscow in May, and Efimoflf, one of Henry 
Farman's most successful pupils, is making flights 
at Odessa, his native city. 

Guyot is also to return to Russia; his flights 
last year met with great success. 

A sum of $480,000 is to be immediately spent 
on building an aerial fleet, and more will be 
asked of the Government. 

The latest addition to Russia's aerial navy is 
two Zodiac dirigibles. There is much rejoicmg 
in France at this order, as it was feared that 
these small airships would be ordered in Ger- 
many. 

Spain 

The deplorable accident which resulted in the 
death of Henri Le Blon during the aerial tour- 
nament at San Sebastian (where, for some ob- 
scure reason, the Bleriot was dashed to the 
rocky coast below, as it was circling the historic 
palace of Miramar, on April 2) brings to mind 
in very vivid fashion a public correspondence car- 
ried on by Le Blon and by Bleriot. through the 
sporting papers of Paris early last January. 

Bleriot disclaimed all responsibility in the 
fatal accident which had just occurred to 
Leon Delagrange. asserting that the unfortunate 
aviator had risked his life and lost it through 
changing the original 25-h. p. Anzani motor for 
a 50-h. p. Gnome motor, to make the machine 
more speedy. 

Le Blon, who was associated with Delagrange, 
replied that the latter had committed no impru- 
dence, and implied that Bleriot was agreeable to 
the change made by Delagrange. 

In "L'.-Xuto" of January 9 appeared Bleriot's 
answer to Le Blon"'s letter. It read as follows 
and its significance seems terribly apparent now: 

Paris. January 8, 1910. 
The Editor of L'Auto. 

Dear Sir: I read in your estimable paper of 
this date a letter from Mr. Le Blon. the asso- 
ciate of Mr. Delagrange, which would tend to 
attribute a share of the responsibility of Mr. 
Delagrange's accident on my machine. 

In consequence, and as I have already had the 
honor to assert, I declare in the most emphatic 



manner that it is entirely outside of my advice 
or consent that Mr. Delagrange placed on his 
machine a 50-h. p. motor which he bought directly 
from the makers and to the mounting of which 
he attended himself. 

It is an everyday occurrence for me to deliver 
to inventors machines of the Channel Crossing 
type, without their motor. 

These people think they will improve the ma- 
chine by changing its motor plant. You will 
understand, and Mr. Delagrange was in this 
class, that under these conditions my responsi- 
bility cannot be at stake in any way, as it is 
wholly obvious that a machine built to receive a 
motor of a certain power cannot support another 
of double the power. 

I regret that on this point many aviators see fit to 
changing, themselves (on the plea of improving 
them), the machines that we deliver to them, and 
this thing is deeply to be regretted. 

I avail myself of this letter to warn Mr. Le 
Blon against his machine, which is exactly simi- 
lar to that of Mr. Delagrange. This machine, 
which Mr. Le Blon is to use at the Heliopolis 
meet, and which was delivered to him by the 
Gnome Society the very day of the death of 
Mr. Delagrange, is exactly "in the same boat" 
as that of Mr. Delagrange, that is to say that the 
motor was bought and mounted on one of our 
frames outside of my intervention. This frame- 
work is a construction intended to receive a 



pupils; he then flew in Belgium and later at Don- 
caster, where he shared the honors with his team- 
mate, Delagrange, and made the longest flight 
of the meet. 

Recently at the Heliopolis meet he did some very 
fine work, finishing' first in the Speed Prize, 
ond in the single lap prize, third in the longest 
consecutive flight prize and second in the total 
ized distance prize (see last month's Air- 
craft). He was entered for several of the com 
ing meets, notably those at Cannes and at Lyons, 
but, like Delagrange. was not destined to reap 
the fruits of bis cleverness and of his dai ' 
His name is now to be added to the 

LIST OF TI-IE MARTYRS OF AVIATION. 
Selfridge, 1908, Wright biplane, passenger. 
Lefebvre, 1909, Wright biplane, pilot. 
Ferber, 1909, Voisin biplane, pilot. 
Fernandez, 1909, Fernandez biplane, pilot. 
Delagrange, 19 10, Bleriot monoplane, pilot. 
Le Blon, 1910, Bleriot monoplane, pilot. 

Switzerland 

Captain Engelhard continued his flights at San 
Moritz last month, and on one occasion flew 
thirty-two minutes around the lake. Notwith- 
standing the altitude, the German Wright had 
little difficulty in rising from the ice. 

The interest of the habitues of San Moritz, 
already whetted by Mr. AulT'm Ordt's abortive 




ROUGIER AT MONTE CARLO. 
A VIVIDLY COLORED BACKGROUND OF SCENIC BEAUTY FOR A MASTERLY AERONAUTICAL 
PROWESS. THE CASINO ON THE LEFT WITH THE FAMOUS TERRACES PACKED WITH WON- 
DERING TERRESTEIANS. 

motor of 25-h. p. It is true that it can resist a 
greater strain, as Mr. Delagrange proved him- 
self, by beating with this machine, at Juvisv, 
all records tor monoplanes, with a flight of more 
than two hours and a half, but it is certain that 
under these conditions it is working with a rela- 
tively smaller guarantee of safety. 

I ask nothing better than to assume the re- 
sponsibility of my machines, when the clients 
use them as I deliver them to them, but the 
slightest modification can cause the most serious 
accidents, and especially a change like the replac- 
ing of a 25-h. p. motor by one of double the 
pcTO'er, like Messrs. Delagrange and Le Blon saw 
fit to do, and this, however excellent may be the 
motor, as is the case of the "Gnome," which has 
certainly proved its worth. 

Believe me, dear sir. 

Yours very sincerely. / 

LOUIS BLERIOT. 

Henri Le Blon. before taking up flying, was 
an automobile race driver of international repu- 
tation. He has driven Panhard-Levassor cars in 
most of the big European races, and. with his 
beard flying in the wind, was a familiar figure on 
these occasions, driving with great dexterity and 
using rare judgment on the curves. Pie finished 
third in the Ardennes Circuit of 1905 (a race won 
by de Caters, who was also to take up aviation). 
He was sixth in the Targa Flono, the big Sicilian 
race, in 1906. He was also well-known on this 
side of the Atlantic and drove a Thomas car in 
the \'anderbilt Cup race of 1906. He took up avi- 
ati'on last September, being among Bleriot's first 



attempts at flight over the lake last 
raised to fever point by Engelhard's great flights. 
It is interesting to note that Captain Engelhard 
has affixed a small box-kite tail to his machine. 
It is placed high up on the machine, just to the 
inside of the rear vertical rudder. 

The Geneva aviators, Speckner. Carfagni, Nigg, 
and Dufau.x-, have established their headquarters 
just across the French frontier, at Viry. 

Tonquin 

French Indo-China is determined not to fall be- 
hind the parent country in the development of 
aviation. Both Haiphong and Hanoi already have 
several adherents to the French National Aerial 
League. Several machines are being built, one of 
which is about to be experimented with. 

An aviation club has also been formed, and 
there is talk of an aviation meet! 

Tunis 

Aviation is interesting the authorities, and it 
has already been decided to hold an important 
meet in conjunction with the International Ex- 
position to be held here next year. 

Venezuela 

The Minister of Public Wor 
acquiring aeroplanes for the V( 



nd h, 
vestigate th 



ditions of purch; 



lesirous of 
in Govern- 
a representative to 
ch types and ascer- 



loS 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 




BIG MEN OF THE MOVEMENT 



A. B. LAMBERT 

AB. LAMBERT, to whom his native city of 
• St. Louis owes much of its prestige and 
popularity as an aeronautic center, is now thirty- 
five years of age. He graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Virginia in 1896. 

It was during the three years spent in France 
that he became interested in ballooning. Joining 
the Aero Club of France, he made numerous as- 
censions around Paris, easily fulfilling the con- 
ditions required to obtain the license of pilot. 

Mr. Lambert is also Pilot of the Aero Club of 
America. He was for two years the President 
of the Automobile Club of St. Louis, which was, 
in fact, organized bv him. 

He is now the President of the Aero Club of St. 
Louis, which gained international fame for its 
management of the Gordon Bennett Cup Race of 
1907. 

This year the race has once more been allotted 
to St. Louis, in which case a perfect organization 
of the big event may again be counted on. 

Mr. Lambert considers the balloon grounds of 
the Aero Club of St. Louis the best in the 
world, the gas plant is such that 440,000 cubic feet 
of gas can be furnished per hour. 

Under the presidency and leadership of Mr. 
Lambert the Club is rapidily increasing its mem- 
bership, which at present numbers six hundred. 

The Aero Club of St. Louis owns three balloons 
for the use of its members, of which five are 
licensed balloon pilots. 

Mr. Lambert is a thorough all-round sportsman 
and won the Missouri State Golf Championship 



He also occupies a high position in the business 
world of St. Louis, serving one year as President 
of the St. Louis Paint, Oil and Drug Club, and 
being at present President of the Lambert Phar- 
macal Company, which has offices or agencies in 
the principal countries of the world. 

In 1903 Mr. Lambert was a Vice-President on 
the International Jury of the St. Louis World's 
Fair. 

He was elected to the City Council of St. 
Louis in 190S, and is a Director of the Mechanics' 
American Bank. 

Of all men in the near and far West interested 
in the development of aeronautics — and they num- 
ber many thousands — probably none is more de- 
serving of figuring among the ''Big Men of the 
Movement" than Mr. Albert Bond Lambert, of 
St. Louis. 

Prominence and wealth have not always at 
their disposal, to further an idea, such valuable 
assets as the enthusiasm of youth and a remark- 
able natural executive and organizing ability, fos- 
tered by early experience in positions of trust and 
responsibility. 

Mr. Lambert's latest big idea is to unite the 
Western aero clubs into a federation. Such a con- 
ception is not one to enter into lightly and with- 
out weighty consideration; but the -onnection of 
the Aero Club of St. Louis's president with the 
idea shows that, if decided upon, it will be well 
carried out and will accrue to the benefit of all 
concerned. 



ISRAE:L LUDLOW 

ISRAEL LUDLOW, a prominent attorney of 
1 New York, is one of the charter members of 
the Aero Club of America. 

He early took an active interest in aeronautical 
experimental work, and during the year 1905 con- 
structed a number of full-sized aeroplanes in order 
to study the equilibrium and lifting power of 
supporting surfaces in full-sized machines. These 
aeroplanes he had towed as a kite by an auto- 
mobile or a fast motor boat. Charles K. Hamil- 
ton, the well-known aviator, was in the aeroplane 
in most of these flights, some of which reached a 
height of six to seven hundred feet. 

In the spring of igo6 Mr. Ludlow went to 
Florida to make some experiments there, Mr. 
Hamilton going also to fly in the aeroplane, in 
connection with the automobile races on the 
Florida beach, on the Atlantic Coast. During 
one of these experiments of towed flight Mr. 
Ludlow was in the aeroplane, which was of an 
exceptionally large size, when a heavy gust of 
wind coming from the ocean caused it to collapse 
and its supporting surfaces to turn vertically up- 
ward. A fall of about one hundred feet resulted, 
and in the wreck Mr. Ludlow sustained an 
injury to the lower part of his spine, affecting 
the nerves of the legs. 

After a serious and protracted illness, steady 
improvement has taken place in his health and 
strength. 

Mr. Ludlow still continues his legal work and 
interest in aeronautics. He is one of the attor- 
neys for the defendant in the suit of the Wright 
Brothers against Louis Paulhan, the European 
aviator, and represents the legal interests of other 
well-known aviators. 

In 1907 he was at the head of the Department 
of Aeronautics of the Jamestown Exposition. 

There are few men as well known in aeronautic 
circles in and out of New York as Israel Ludlow. 
Notw.thstanding the very seriovis nature of his 
protracted infirmity, his genial, cheerful disposi- 
tion ever prevails, and in the very large number 
of people he knows, he has no acquaintances — 
only friends. 

Very popular at the Aero Club of America, he 
has been a member of the House Committee of 
■ the Club, and is at present on the Library Com- 
mittee, with his friends, Mr. Campbell Wood and 
Professor Rotch, 

Mr. Ludlow was Chairman of the Publication 
Committee which issued the Aero Club book, 
"Navigating the Air." He has contributed many 
articles to newspapers and periodicals, setting 
forth both the technical and popular sides of 



CHARLES JEROME EDWARDS 

/^HARLES JEROME EDWARDS' interest in 
^aeronautics dates from a casual meeting in Egypt 
some years ago with Patrick Y. Alexander, the 
father of aeronautics in Great Britain, and a man. 
who has probably done as much, by his devotion. 
of both time and money, to the science and sport 
as any other man now living. When the Aero 
Club of America was organized in 1905, Mr. Ed- 
wards was one of the charter members, joining- 
with Captain Hedge, Cortland Field Bishop and 
others in the organization and extension of work.. 

When Count De La Vaulx came to America in 
the spring of 1906, to arrange for several bal- 
loon flights, and added his experience and pres- 
tige to the general interest, Mr. Edwards was- 
one of the first to make an ascension with him 
in the famous "Centaur." Plis interest in aero- 
nautical subjects has never flagged since then. 

In 1906 he was selected a director and treas- 
urer of the Aero Club of America, and has con- 
tinued to hold those positions ever since. 

In business relations Mr. Edwards is identified 
with many commercial and civic bodies, being 
manager of the Equitable Life Assurance Society, 
and a director in various financial and insurance 
companies. He was for a ntimber of years actively 
identified with automobiling as a sport, having 
been Director, Treasurer and President of the 
Long Island Automobile Club, and also an officer 
of the New York State Automobile Association. 

He is a believer in the purely sporting interests 
of both automobiling and aeronautics as distinct 
from the commercial and exhibition features 
thereof, and has stoutly held that the two should 
be separate and distinct, and that aviation and 
other aeronautic sports should not in any way 
be made supplemental to or dependent upon any 
question of exploiting a commercial prodiict or of 
gate money receipts. 

Mr. Edwards is thus just the type of man 
needed in this country to develop aeronautics 
along the proper lines, and retain dignity to the 
sport and science of aerial navigation. With some 
others, he is devoting both time and money tO' 
this end; he makes no restrictions as to the par- 
ticular branch of the art to be encouraged: he 
holds that the spherical, the dirigible and the fly- 
ing machine have all their part in the Conquest 
of the Air. and there is no balloon or aviation 
meeting too distant for Charles Jerome Edwards 
to visit for the purpose of lending his assistanc 



nakh 



to the kindred 
dyr 



the affaii 



of 



edit 



ostatics 



■igatii 



Ludlow has been attorney of record in a 
number of noted cases where large public inter- 
ests have been involved. He represented the 
Horseman's Association in the preparation of the 
"Rules of the Road" Ordinances in the City of 
New York, the colored people in Race Riot cases 
of 1905, an association of property owners in 
testing certain municipal street railway franchises 
in the Borough of the Bronx, and has appeared as 
counsel in other equally well-known legal actions. 



it hand man to Cortland Field Bishop, 
Mr. Edwards has also done sterling work in the 
Aero Club of America; he has worked hard and 
conscientiously in the club's interests and in the- 
coming task of organizing the big Gordon Ben- 
nett Cup meets this Fall, it is a foregone con- 
clusion that no one will do more towards making 
them the signal successes they deserve to be 
than he. If they are not the greatest 
tical contests the world has ever seen, it is 
to say that the fault will not be at the do 
Mr. C. J. Edwards. 



May, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



109 




BIG MEN OF THE MOVEMENT 



by hi: 



NADAR 

FELIX TOURNACHOX. better kr 
nom de plume, Nadar, was born i 
April 5, 1820; he died on ^Xarch 21 last, ninety 
years of age all but two weeks. 

The name of Nadar docs not suggest as much 
to the present generation as it did to the last. 
Nadar was, in fact, in his country, one of the 
celebrities of the Second Empire. 

He was engaged in photography when that sci- 
ence was in its infancy, he was an aeronaut at a 
time when it was practised by but a few daring 
men, and lastly he was a champion of the 
*'heavier-than-air" principle when the problem ap- 
peared to present about the same chances of suc- 
cess which that of reaching the moon or that 
of sending parcels by wireless do to-day. 

A man of great imagination and a talented 
writer, Nadar entered the higher class of journal- 
ism and wrote for many of the best newspapers 
of France. Later he achieved celebrity as a 
caricaturist. 

In the revolution of '4? Nadar was on the 
Bonapartist side: he went to Prussia, was made 
a prisoner of state there and linally returned to 
Paris and took up the new science of photography. 

He conceived many improvements in this line, 
and his name is known the world over to pho- 
tographers as one of the men who did most to 
make the science what it is to-day, just as an- 
other famous French protagonist of heavier-than- 
air craft — Clement Ader, is known to those con- 
nected with the telephone for his inventions in 
this line. 

Henson and Stringfellow in England were ex- 
perimenting at this time with flying machines, but 
it was only in 1S60 that Nadar's attention was first 
drawn to aviation. He then made the acquaint- 
ance of the theorist de la Landelle and soon 
became an ardent supporter of the principle of 



WILLIAM RANDOLPH HEARST 

WILLIAM RANDOLPH HEARST was born 
in San Francisco on April 29, 1S63. His 
father was United States Senator George Hearst. 

He was educated in the San Francisco public 
schools and at Harvard University. At twenty- 
three he began his newspaper career as the editor 
and proprietor of the San Francisco Examiner. 
It was only nine years later that Mr. Hearst 
bought the New York Journal. He subsequently 
bought the Advertiser to secure a news franchise, 
and then founded the New York American. 

His newspaper activities have by no means 
been confined to San Francisco and New York, 
however, for the following representative publi- 
cations owe their existence to him: the Chicago 
American, founded in 1900; the Chicago Jlorning 
Examiner, in 1902; the Boston American, in 1904; 
the Los Angeles Examiner, in 1904. 

Mr. Hearst began his political career in 1901 ^s 
a Democratic candidate for Congress from the 
Eleventh District of New York; he was elected 
to this— the Fifty-eighth— Congress and also to 
the Fifty-ninth. He later was elected President 
of the National League of Democratic Clubs, and 
in 1905 was candidate for mayor of New York 
on the municipal ownership ticket. The following 
vear found him candidate for Governor of New 
York on the Independence ticket, and last year 
layor of New York on the Civic 



Alii; 



:icke 



the he 



--tha 



lid that one of the things which con- 
tributed most to deciding him in this line was 
the sight of a man increasing the weight of a 
sponge by wetting it. so that he could throw 
it up to a workman who had dropped it from 
a scaffolding. 

Nadar issued a manifesto at about this time 
in which he explained that the conquest of the 
air could never be made by lighter-than-air craft. 
"To fight the air, it is necessary to be specifically 
heavier than air" was what he was ever wont to 
repeat. "It is the propeller which is going to 
enable man to fly." 

Although he was an aged man before the first 
flying machine left the ground, it would seem as 
if he refused to leave this life before seeing his 
dream fully realized. 

When Farman won the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize 
two years ago, and when Bleriot crossed the 
Channel last year, they hastened to telegraph the 
news to Nadar. as if thev feared it might come 
too late. It is said that" the venerable old man 
wept on learning of these striking vindications of 
the theories he had tenaciously clung to for fifty 
unsuccessful years. 



Mr. Hearst is a member of many clubs; among 
them the Manhattan, L'nion, New Y'ork Y'acht, 
Columbia Yacht, Brooklyn Yacht, New York 
Press, of New York, and the Pacific Union, of 
San Francisco. He resides at 137 Riverside 
Drive, New York. 

On April 2%, 1902, he married Miss Millicent 
Willson, daughter of George A. Willson. Their 
three children are boys. 

Mr. Hearst, who is ever ready to encourage 
every line of human progress, and who is in par- 
ticular an enthusiast of the newer forms of loco- 
motion, has a well deserved place among Air- 
craft's "Big :Men of the Movement.^' A new 
recruit among those interested in aviation, he is 
one of the few big public men who have as 
yet soared in a flying machine. Mr. Hearst had 
this experience last January, at Los Angeles, 
when Louis Paulhan, the famous French aviator, 
took him for an air trip on his Farman biplane. 

Friends of Mr. Hearst in the East received 
most enthusiastic telegraphic descriptions of this 
"baptism of the air." 

The air trip lasted about a quarter of an hour; 
through the unexpectedness of the event, Mr. 
Hearst, was in no way prepared sartorially for 
his dash through the atmosphere at forty-five 
miles an hour, and was consequently thoroughly 
chilled on alighting; he would, however, have 
gladly continued his flight for much longer, so 
exhilarating did the experience strike him. and so 
unexpectedly secure did he feel on the flyer. 

Since that day aeronautics, and in particular 
aviation, can count on William Randolph Hearst 
as one of its most prominent patrons. 



LIEUT.-COL. HERMANN MOEDEBECK 

\\/ ITH Lieutenant-Colonel Hermann Moede- 
'* beck, whose unexpected and somewhat pre- 
mature demise (he was in his fifty-third year) oc- 
curred on i\Iarch i, disappears a man who had 
perhaps exercised more influence on the develop- 
ment of aeronautics in Germany than any other. 

When he threw himself into the arena nearly 
thirty years ago, his country was wholly indiffer- 
ent to the new problem; the military use of 
balloons, in particular, appeared quite chimerical. 
He began, however, by word and pen the work of 
slow initiation, which was ultimately to awake 
public opinion. The first embryonic organization 
of aerostatic troops in the German Army is cer- 
tainly due in great part to his persevering insis- 
tence, although, belonging to the artillery, he 
did not himself have occasion to serve in this 
special branch of the service. 

Colonel Moedebeck did not devote himself, lit- 
erally speaking, to the practise of aerial locomo- 
tion; he was a technician and especially a highly 
informed and documented writer. 

His first important work, a general treatise on 
aeronautics, dates back over twenty-five years. At 
the same time he founded the Zeitschrift fur 
Luftschiffahrt (which later became the Illustri- 
erte aeronautische Mitteillungen), which he suc- 
ceeded in making a powerful agent of propaganda 
of aeronautic knowledge. His articles, his pam- 
phlets, his lectures, and especially his excellent 
Taschenbuch zum praktischen Gebrauch fur Flug- 
techniker und Luftschiffer, of which the first 
edition is dated 1904. placed Lieutenant-Colonel 
Moedebeck among the greatest authorities on 
aeronautics. 

This latter work was translated in Russian and 
English, and ranks with Chanute's " Flying Ma- 
chines " as an aeronautic classic. Some years 
previously Moedebeck had received the gold 
medal presented by the Sportsman's Show at 
Munich to the best work on aeronautics. 

Another popular work of his is " Die Luftshif- 
fahrt. ihre Vergangenheit und ihre Zukunft." 
which came out four years -ago. This little book 
might well be considered the vade mecuvt of 
all those desirous of knowing just what led up to 
the present successes in aerial navigation; the 
history of dirigibles in particular is a very com- 
plete and interesting expose of the efforts of the 
pioneers in this field. 

Colonel ^loedebeck died in his native city of 
Berlin, and the news created consternation in 
aeronautic circles not only in his country but 
the world over. 

Moedebeck came of a very old family which de- 
rived its name from the town of Medebeck. He 
started in his military career at the age of twenty 
in the Sixth Foot Artillery Regiment of Silesia, 
and it was about five years later that aeronautics 
first began to interest him. 

He was Vice-President of the permanent inter- 
national Committee of Aeronautics and President 
of the German Committee of Aeronautical Maps, 
to the work on which he had devoted, for the last 
year, the greater part of his activity. 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 



NEW FLYERS DESCRIBED 



intention of the editors of Aircraft 

to present every month original scale drawings 

iful machii 



of ihe more remarkable 
At the request of numerous subscribers the Pfitz 
ner monoplane and Herring-Burgess biplane are 
presented this month. These drawings are possi- 
bly not the first published of these machines; 
they claim originality, however, in absolute ac- 
curacy of detail, a point on which the greatest 
vigilance will ever be maintained in these col- 

A single glance at the annexed side elevation 
and plan will convince the initiated of the re- 
markable originality displayed in the construction 
of the single plane machine recently constructed 
by Mr. A. L. Pfitzner, in the Curtiss factory at 
Hammondsport, N. Y. 

This machine has made several flights over 
Lake Keuka and is possessed of great speed. 

Each of the wings of the main plane is made in 
three sections, each five feet long, which are 
attached and connected by steel sockets and steel 
cable, the latter forming a symmetrical double 
king truss with the beams, the king posts be- 
ing at the junction of the detachable sections. 
The wings are set at an angle of five degrees. 

The curvature of the surface is of the high-speed 
type, with the center of pressure eighteen inches 
from the front edge. The ribs have a camber of 
three and three-quarters inches in a six-foot 
highest part of the surface being 



the 



;-half inche 
le of inciden 
inique featu 
of equalize! 



abo 

ce is 



the front edge, 



systi 

planes. The main 

stops short thirty 



plan, 
end ot each 
panel thirty 



of the monoplane i 
rs at the tips of the 
surface, as seen in the 
nches from the 
space slides a 
incires wide by fifty deep, of the 
ture as the main surface. 

These two balancing tips are inter-connected 
to the hand wheel, and normally they project 
fifteen inches at each end. 

The three controls — vertical, horizontal and 
lateral^are embodied in a single wheel, which is 
pushed forwards or backwards to raise or lower 
the elevating plane, twisted to right or left to 
steer in a horizontal plane, and turned to ensure 
lateral stability through the sliding panels re- 
ferred to above. 

The Pfitzner monoplane is fitted with a Curtiss 
25-h. p. four-cylinder motor, driving a six-foot 
spruce propeller of four feet six inches pitch at 
1,200 revolutions per minute, ensuring a thrust 
of 235 pounds. 

The Herring-Burgess biplane is a result of the 
cooperation of A. M. Herring, the inventor and 
builder of many flying machines, and of \V. 
Starling Burgess, the yacht builder of Marble- 
head, Mass. 

It made a short flight some weeks ago, with 
Herring at the wheel. Its most salient novel- 
ties are the extreme curvature of the planes 
and the six fins placed above the upper plane, 
with the idea of ensuring automatic lateral sta- 
bility; the machine has not been sufficiently tried 
out as yet to ascertain the full efficiency of this 
control. 

Another novel feature is the use of foot control. 
to operate the elevating planes. 

The landing apparatus is also both original and 
ingenious in design, the aeroplane resting on a 
single skid or runner with, on each side, two 
smaller slightly elevated skids, on one of which 



the 



vhe 



RECORDS tSl STATISTICS 



SO much favorable comment has been made on 
the records and statistics published last month 
in this magazine that those interested in exact 
and precise data will be glad to know that Air- 
craft intends from month to month to keep 
as much up-to-date in this line as in every other. 

In April, reference was only made to perform- 
ances antedating the current year. 

By January i last just nineteen men had suc- 
ceeded in making flights of one hour. It is a 
little startling to contemplate that this sum-total 
of human effort in that direction (up to that time) 
has been increased 75 per cent, in the first twelve 
weeks of 1910. In other words the list now num- 
bers thirty-four. 

The order in which these master aviators ac- 
complished the feat is given below; the times of 
the first nineteen can be found in last month's 
data, those of the added thirteen are here given. 

(i) Orville Wright. September 9, 1908; (2) Wil- 
bur Wright, September 21, 1908; (3) P. Tissandier, 
Mav 20. 1909; (4) H. Latham, June 5; (5) L. 
Paulhan. July 15; (6) H. Farman, July 19; (7) R- 
Sommer. July 22; (8) C. de Lambert. August 26; 
(9) F. S. Cody, September 8; (10) H. Rougier, 
September 29; (11) Louis Bleriot, October i; (12) 
P. de Caters, October 10; (13) Captain Engel- 
hard, October 29; (14) Lieutenant Humphreys, 
November 3; (lO E. Chateau, December 12; (16) 
J. de Lesseps, iDecember 16; d;) Mortimer Sin- 
ger, December 21; (18) J. Ealsan, December 26; 
(19) L. Delagrange, December 30. 







— /2 - 


HERRIN 

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3-BURGE5S AEROPLANE 








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PFITZNER MONOPl^WE. 



20. Van den Born., i hr. 16 

21. Olieslaegers. .. i hr. 5 

22. Curtiss I hr. 25' 

23. Efimoff I hr. 48 

24- M^rot I hr. 4o' 

25. Chavfez I hr. 47 

26. Cammermann. . i hr. 6 
27- M. Farman. ... i hr. 

28. Gaudart i hr. 10 

29. Crochon i hr, i 

30. Molon I hi 

31. Popofif I hr. 33 

32. Gasnier i hr. 

33. Frey i hr. 9 

34. GrahamWhite. i hr. 5 

Van den Born has sine 

by flying i hr. 48' 50", on 



Feb. 

March 



:e bettered his record 
January 31, which con- 



stitutes the world's record for a flight, with a 
passenger. 

Crochon has also bettered his record with a 
flight of I hr. 9' 29" on March 27, at Cannes. 

A keen observer draws our attention to the fact 
that we mentioned last month that fifty-six hour 
flights were made prior to this year, but that the 
list contains but fifty-five. The omitted one is 
Roger Sommer's flight of i hr. 5' 30" of July 22; 
his flight of August 27 should read i hr. 5'. 

We might add that the dates of Lieutenant 
Humphreys and Jacques Balsan's performances 
should be November 3 and December 2(i, respec- 
tively, instead of those given, and that the An- 
zmi mentioned lower down in the tables is of 
[izani, the builder of the motor which 
ed Bleriot across the Straits of Dover. 



May, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



FLYING MACHINE MODELS 



the 
sport of model flying and 
requests, this magazine has tliought it advisable 
to help end encourage those interested in this 
fascinating branch of aeronautics. Every month 
Aircraft will devete a page to model making 
and Hying, together with news of the model 
clubs throughout the country. Drawings of the 
move successful types will be published, together 
with detailed descriptions and explanations of 
the" 



The 



Mc 



Christian As 



Matic 




TROPHY PRESENTED EY LEO STEVENS FOR LONG 
DISTANCE MODEL CONTEST. 

subject and study of aeronautics. To encourage 
interest the various branches are arranging nu- 
Tnerous model contests, and they are in all cases 
well attended and productive of highly interest- 
ing work. 

The West Side Branch has been holding regular 
bi-monthly contests in the Twenty-second Regi- 
ment Armory, New York. That held on March 
12 was one of the most successful; twenty odd 
machines were entered, the winners in the boys' 
class being: F. M. Watkins. first, with a mono- 
plane of his own make and design which flew 
121 feet 7 inches; Percy Pierce, second, with a 
Langley type which covered 113 feet 3 inches; 
Ralph Earnaby, third, with 76 feet 2 inches. 

The model of F. M. Watkins is deserving 
of special interest, inasmuch as it has been regu- 
larly winning :n these contests for some time 
past. This model is of the front rudder type and 
driven by two large propellers situated in the 
rear of the main plane; the latter is flat. 

The Aeronautic Society recently held, at the 
Sixty-ninth Regiment Armory, New York, an 
elimination contest for the purpose of selecting a 
team of three to represent it in the Octave Cha- 
nute Challenge model cup contest. Both men 



By W. H. Phipps 

and boys were invited to enter, and it turned out 
that the first three winners were boys. 

Watkins again secured first place with his crack 
flyer, which this time flew 148 feet. Lawrence J. 
Lesh, the champion glider, was second with a 
flight of 125 feet; his model is entirely constructed 
of wood, the parts being held together with 
rubber bands. It is interesting to note that Lesh 
is constructing a full-sized front-rudder monoplane 
on the lines of this model. Ralph S. Barnaby 
was third, with a flight of 114 feet; it is built 
on the lines of the famous Santos-Dumont "De- 
moiselle," and was quite the most graceful glider 
there. 



The International School of Aeronautics will 
hold on Sundav, May 15, a kite and model contest 
at its aerodrome, at Garden City, L. I. 

Professor Lawrence Rotch and Mr. Campbell 
Wood, who recently visited the School, have 
kindly consented to act as judges. 

The kite competitions will be for stability, lift- 
ing capacity and altitude. 

Experiments will probably be made with man- 
carrying kites, similar to the trials recently made 
by Captain Sacconev in France. 

The model contests will be for gliding models 
and motor-driven models, which must be able to 
fly in a moderate wind. These outdoor contests 
should afford a fine test of their stability. 

If weather conditions do not permit of flying 
the models, other competitions will be organized 
at a later date. 

The rules of the International Aeronautic Fed- 
eration will govern the different contests. 

The National Model Aero Club has been organ- 
ized in New York. The object of the Club is to 
rtjiulate model contests in this country. The 
directors of this club have laid down a set of 
rules to govern these contests and to be used by 
nil clubs competing for prizes offered by the 
National Model Aero Club. The organizers of 
the club are: W. H. Crocker, President; W. M. 
Sage. First Vice-President; P. W. Wilcox, Second 
Vice-President; F. S. Crocker, Secretary; Mr. T. 
Talmage, Treasurer. The other directors are: A. 
L. Stevens, the celebrated balloonist; Edward 
Durant, the energetic director of the Junior Aero 
Club; A. Armstrong, and L. W. Houck. 

We append the rules referred to: 

I.— These rules shall apply to indoor and out- 
door contests, and shall be enforced at all open 
competitions held by the clubs or societies affili- 
ated with the National Model Aero Club. 

IL— No flights made by models shall be deemed 
official or count as points towards the winning of 
any cup, medal or trophy offered by this club, 
or those offered by any affiliated club or society 



VII.— All machines must be started from a 
table or platform which shall not be over three 
(3) feet in height frorn the floor or ground; dis- 
tance of flight shall be measured from the edge 
of the platform in the right direction of flight. 

yilL— Each contestant shall be allowed three 
trials in every class for which they are entered. 

No flight shall be counted as such unless the 
machine covers more than twenty (20) feet. But 
only one such "no start" shall be allowed. 

If any machine collides with a spectator, or 
suffers any interference within the lines of flight, 
that flight shall not be counted against the com- 
petitor. 



the 



III. — Entrance in any competition held under 
the auspices of the N. M. A. C. shall he held 
as an unconditional acceptance of these rules as 
interpreted by the judges. 

IV. — Each contestant shall register his or her 
name, address, age, and type of machine with the 
proper person before the event for which they are 
entered, and will then be assigned a number. 

V. — Every machine competing must be built 
or designed by the competitor (No toys allowed). 
Every machine must be built on practical lines; 
that is, in a form capable of development to a 
man-carrying machine. 

VI. — A machine must conform to the following: 

(a) Must be equipped with suitable wheels or 
skids. 

(b) Motive power must be self-contained. 

(c) Must be capable of starting under its own 




OFFICIAL LANDING AREA ACCORDING TO 
N. M. A. C. RULES. 



Any machine which turns over in the air or 
alights improperly shall be disqualified for that 
flight. 

In the outdoor competitions all m.achines must 
be started facing directly into the wind. 

IX.— Special prizes may be given for stability, 
excellency of construction, originality of design 
and special contests. 

X. — These rules may be amended every year at 
the annual meeting of the N. M. A. C. 

XII.— The above is the course laid out: 
any machine alighting properly within these lines 
will be qualified as a flight. 

The public school boys in New York are tak- 
ing up model flying in earnest. It has come 
to be a regular part of the inter-school competi- 
tions. So far the boys have been content with 
flying models, but they expect to build full-sized 
machines after the designs of their most successful 
models. 

Seven schools have formed aero clubs. They 
are: No. 69, No. 77. No. 78. No. 1311, No. 1611, 
No. 166, and No. 173. Several meets have been 
arranged and various models will be tried. 



Aero Club of America 
By Ch&.rle5 H. Heltman 

ON" the occasion of the annual banquet of the 
Aero Club, held at the Hotel St. Regis on March 
24th, the dining hall was filled to its utmost capac- 
ity. This is the first time in the history of aero- 
nautics that a club has been able to display the 
two Gordon-Bennett Cups which stand for the 
world's championships in both branches of aero- 
nautics. On the speakers' table stood the avia- 
tion cup won by Mr. Curtiss at Rheims last 
August, and the balloon trophy won last Octo- 
ber bv Mr. Mix. There were also the Lahm Cup, 
the Scientific American Trophy, the bronze re- 
plica of the Michelin Trophy, for 1908, the cup 
presented by Mr. Bishop to the Aero Club of 
New England to be awarded to the pilot making 



CLUB NEWS 

Compiled by Ada Gibson 

the longest balloon flight in New England during 
1910, and a model of the new Country Life 
Trophy not yet completed, which is to be placed 
in the custody of the Aero Club of America for 
competition by heavier-than-air machines. 

President Bishop rehearsed the splendid achieve- 
ments of the representatives of the club during 
the past year, and described in his interesting 
fashion the great international contests abroad, 
also his first trip in an aeroplane with M. Paulhan 
at the Los Angeles meet a few months ago, 
which, according to Mr. Bishop, made him feel, 
for the first time, eligible to his position as the 
Club's President. Addresses were delivered by 
the Hon. J. Sloat Fassett, Wm. H. Page. Brig.- 
Cen. James Allen, Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch and 
Rennold Wolf. Also at the guest table were 
seated Glenn H. Curtiss, Chas. L Glidden, Presi- 
dent of the Aero Club of New England; Colgate 



Hoyt, J. C. McCoy, Com. E. C. Benedict and 
F. N. Doubleday. On Mr. Rudolph Schroeder's 
proposal lusty cheers were given by everyone 
present for President Bishop for making possible 
the successes of Curtiss and Mix. Several mov- 
ing pictures of the Rheims and Los Angeles 
meets were shown for the first time, at the close 
of the speaking. 

On Sunday, April 3rd, the hangars of the Club at 
Mineola, L. I., were formally opened. There are 
at present two of these hangars completed, and 
they have been allotted for the first month to 
Mr. Walter Lowe Fairchild. who has just com- 
pleted his new type monoplane, and to Mr. Clif- 
ford B. Harmon, who has purchased the machine 
used by M. Paulhan. On the evening of April 
13th. the club will have its house-warming at its 
new quarters, and it is expected that one thousand 
guests will be present. 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 




?en evolved by mem- 
iiachines are in pro- 



ideas of aerial craft hav 
bers, and some full-sizt 
cess of construction. 

They have a good membership composed of 
some of the best and most representative citizens 
of San Francisco. 

The officers of the club are: J. C. Irvine, 
President; H. A. Chandler, Secretary, and Joseph 
Maston, Treasurer. 



J. C. IRVINE,. PRESIDENT OF THE PACIFIC AERO 
CLUB, SAN FRANCISCO. 



Pacific Aero Club 

■THE Pacific Aero Club was organized May ii, 
* 1909, with twenty-five charter members, all en- 
thusiastic and actuated by a desire to build up 
a substantial organization, to foster the interests 
of scientific and practical aeronautics, to lend aid, 
assistance and encouragement to its members 
and worthy inventors who are making an hon- 
est endeavor for the advancement of the science 
of aviation. They also have in view the beneficial 
effect from a social and sporting standpoint, Cali- 
fornia being favored with the best climatic condi- 
tions of any locality in the world. 

They propose to have their own motordrome, 
where they can give annual midwinter aviation 
meets, monthly balloon races, etc. Three months 
after their organization they gave a most suc- 
cessful indoor entertainment, filling one of the 
largest halls in San Francisco. A few months 
later they promoted the most successful series of 
balloon races that have taken place on the Pacific 
Coast. Thev are now making elaborate prepara- 
tions for their first anniversary, and expect to 
entertain twenty thousand people in their three 
days' session. Some very promising and novel 




Aeronautic Society of Ne^v York 
By C. F. Blackmore, Treasurer 

THE past month has witnessed a period of un- 
usual activity in the affairs of The Aeronautic 
Society. The new officers and Board of Directors 
have taken hold with an enthusiasm that augurs 
well for another successful year. With the ex- 
perienced hand of Mr. Hudson Maxim at the 
helm, the Society looks forward to a season of 
continued advancement and prosperity. 

Arrangements have been made for the erection 
of an aerodrome on the Society's grounds at 
Mineola. Work has already been begun, and it 
is expected that the building will be completed 
and ready for occupancy about May i. The plans 
call for an aerodrome 48x150, which it is hoped 
will suffice for this season, although from pres- 
ent indications it will not be long before another 
building will be required. 

Dr. \Vm. Green has completed another machine 
and has made several flights. By the end of the 
month the Doctor will undoubtedly have some 
new records to his credit. 

Messrs. W. J. Deifenbach and Louis Rosen- 
baum are hard at work on their machines, and 
will be heard from early in May, 

As soon as the Society's aerodrome is com- 
pleted, several members will at once move to 
Mineola and commence work, turning their ideas 
into practical form, it is the intention of the 
Society to furnish the aerodrome with a com- 
plete working equipment, so that members con- 
structing machines will not only ha\'e all neces- 
saries, but also some "luxuries" at their disposal. 

Undoubtedly, from now on, work done will be 
rewarded with success. The experimental stage 
has been passed, and the laws governing suc- 
cessful construction are now so well understood 
that in future failures will be "few and far be- 
tween." 

The meetings during March were of special in- 
terest to the members, and the increased attend- 
ance at each meeting is a source of gratification 
and encouragement to the officers and directors 
of the Society. 

Amherst Aero Club 

By Prof. David Todd, President 

npHE Amherst Aero Club was formed in the 
i autumn of 190S by the professors and students 
of Amherst College and townspeople interested 
in the progress and development of aeronautics. 

About twenty meetings have been held for the 
discussion of open questions, with many illus- 
trated and other lectures for general audiences 
of town and gown. 

Several famous aeronauts, including Mr. C. J. 
Glidden, of Boston, Air. Augustus Post, of New 
York, and Mr. Leo Stevens, of New York, have 
given the Club interesting addresses on their 
ballooning experiences. 

On one occasion Mr. Hiram Percy Maxim, 
President of the Hartford Aero Club, gave an 
account of his first aerial trip and a demonstra- 
tion in the old College Hall of his remarkable 
invention, the gun silencer. 

His uncle, Mr. Hudson Maxim, who was re- 
cently elected President of the Aeronautic Soci- 
ety of New York, also gave a lecture on the 
future of aerial navigation in warfare and a 
demonstration of his wonderful inventions in the 
realm of explosives. 

At another meeting Mr. N. H. Arnold related 
his hairbreadth escape in ballooning over the 
North Sea. 

Further lectures in the early future will be 
given by Professor Moore, Chief of the Govern- 
ment Weather Bureau, and Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss 
who has promised to speak on foreign and Ameri- 
can contests in which he has competed. 

Several members of the Club made balloon as- 
censions last season. Professor and Mrs. Todd, 
with Mr. Glidden as pilot, made an ascension 
from Fitchburg in August, 1909, and Mr. Mitch- 
ell, Mr. Strauss and Mr. Tucker, of the senior 
class, made an ascension from Springfield last 
ith Mr. Arnold actingas pilot, 



natural facilities exist in the shape of fine hills 
particularly suitable for gliding experiments. 

As a result of a series of experiments carried 
out by Professor Todd and Mr. S. A. Thomp- 
son with heavier-than-air models, a very efficient 
type of propeller has been determined. What is 
most needed now is an absolutely reliable motor 
for full-sized machines. 

The Club has started publishing a series of 
papers, the first being by Mr. Goodnow on the 
best methods of generating hydrogen for balloons. 

The Amherst Aero Club has taken steps toward 
incorporation and has recently become affiliated 
with the parent association, the Aero Club of 

The officers of the Club are: President, Profes- 
sor David Todd; Vice-President and Treasurer, 
A. Mitchell; Secretary, W. W. Goodnow; Me- 
chanical Engineer, E. A. Thompson; Auditor, W. 
H. Kidder. 

CLUB NOTES 

Members of tlie Aeronautic Alumni Association 
of the West Side Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation, New York, are building a two-passenger 
biplane. 

In all its characteristics, even down to the 
pitch of the propeller, the aeroplane embodies a 
composition of the ideas of a dozen men. 

After many consultations and discussions on the 
minutest details, it was decided to btiild a ma- 
chine of the biplane type, but which differs widely 
from anything yet produced in aeroplanes. Every 
member actively interested in the building of the 
chine has made some part of it. Considerable 
e and much thought has been spent on the 
■king out of a special steering apparatus which 




Pla 



air 



ade for 



PROFESSOR DAVID TODD, PRESIDENT OF THE 
AMHERST AERO CLUB. 



ng the coming season, the first 
of which will probably take place from Spring- 
field in April. 

Mr. Cornell and Mr. Eaglefield, student mem- 
bers, are building a full-fledged aeroplane of the 
biplane type in one of the College laboratories, 
the engine for which is all ready to be installed. 

A committee of students purchased a glider 
last fall with which they made several success- 
ful flights, Mr. Mitchell and Mr. Van Auken 
being especially successful in their initial glides, 
and with the opening of Spring further experi- 
ments will be made in South Amherst, where 



THE LEWIS ELY CUP. 

will not encroach on the Wrights' patent rights 
and still be practicable and safe. 

Dr. Rex C. Northwood of New York is Presi- 
dent of the Aeronautic Alumni Association , and 
Francis E. Wilson is Secretary and Treasurer, 
both of whom, with four other members, are 
taking an active part in the building of the 
biplane. 

A very handsome cup has been put up by 
Mr. Lewis Ely, who is one of the directors of tlie 
Aero Club of St. Louis, competition for which 
is open to pilots of that Club. The rules of the 
contest are practically the same as those govern- 
ing the Lahm Cup. Several other members of 
the Club are contributing toward an aeroplane, 
which is to be used for the training of the club 
members who wish to learn to fly. 

Students of Yale have organized a club to be 
known as the Yale Aero Club. Although only a 
few weeks old it has a membership of more than 
fifty and the building of machines has already 
begun. Most of its members are students in the 
Shefi^eld Scientific School. They are building 
their own machines, and if any college aero 
races are held it is probable that an aeronautic 
building and professional aviator will be selected 
to train the competitors. Max Hoegen, a member 
of the new Club, built an aeroplane last year 
with which he made some experimental flights. 
The officers of the Club are: R. J. Carpenter, 
of Winchester, Mass., President; Max Von Hoe- 
gen, Vice-President; Reuben Jeffrey, of Norwich, 
N. Y.J Secretary. 



Aloy, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



"3 



RECENT PATENTED INVENTIONS 

Briefed by Gustave R. Thompson 



u 



XDER the above heading Aircraft will 
present each month the more interesting of 
latest patents granted in Washington. 

pace forbids anything but the most summar- 
d review, but those interested in the latest 

elopments in aeronautic ideas will find here 

mdex and up-to-date guide in patent matters. 


upper and under sides, into one series of 
the air is sucked and from the other ser 
which the air is expelled under pressure, 
ward motion is obtained by deOections in 
nection with the fans or suction devices, 
direct the air more or less rearwardly fro 


'. S. Patent 951,942. March 15, 1910. F. von 


Orj ^--r^^^ 



_ . _nberg. 

This is an anchor for airships, and, presuma- 
bly, primarily intended for dirigibles. It con- 
sists of a weight pointed at one end which, when 
driven by a mallet or dropped from above, pene 
trates into the earth. Spring arms attached to 
the weight expand and hold the weight fast in 
the ground. The anchor is released from the 
ground by drawing on cords attached to the free 
ends of the spring arms which draw them to 
gether, and by drawing upon the main rope at 
tached to the weight. 



r. S. Patent 952, 

derlich. 



March 15, 1910. A. Wun 



'ice the buoyancy is obtained by a 
(lirterence in the pressures of air operating upon 
the upper and lower sides of the apparatus 
These ditTerent pressures are created by a fan 
or suction device. The air is rarefied' above the 
device and compressed below. The body con 
sists of a series of cells, open alternately at the 





U. S. PATENT 951,942. 



being distributed 


under them. 


with a c 


orrespond- 


ing rarefac 


ion a 


jove them. 


No des 


cription of 


steermg me 


ans se 


ems to 


be g 


ven m 


he patent. 


U. S. Patent 95 


,316. J' 


arch 


15, 1910. 


T. Etrich 


and F, We 


s. 










In this de 


vice these well-kno^ 


vn Austi 


lan invent- 


ors propose 


to di 


spense \ 


vith r 


udders i 


1 steering. 


and to secu 


re sta 


ulity entirely 


by the 


:ontour or 




to the 


win^s 


The 


contour 


varies both 


from tip to 


tip ar 


d from 


front 


to rear. 


Near the 


middle, fron 


1 front to rea 


the 


wing ha 


s a double 


curve, witl! 


a con 


cavitv 


n the 


under s 


de toward 


the front. 


.As the wing 


appr 


caches 


he tips It 






oses it 


doi 


ble cur\ 


e and as- 


sumes a re 


rwarr 


flare. 


I'ron- 


tip to 


tip. at the 


front, the 


ving 


IS cone 


ave. 


gradually merging 


into a con\ 


exitv 


toward 


the r 


ear. Th 


e effect of 


puffs of air 


from 


the side 


s and rear or 


one wmg 


are counteracted 


by the 


other 


wmg. 


The steer- 


mg is done by 


varying 


the 


speed 


one pro- 


peller with 


refer 


■nee to 


the 


other. 








U. S. PATENT 952,316. 



NEWS IN GENER.AL 



It is to be regretted that the series of proposed 
flights by Louis Paulhan at the Jamaica Park race 
track was abruptly brought to a close after the 
third day's performance through disagreements 
arising between the aviator and his manager as 
a result of the Wright brothers' injunction. 

Pauihan's short flights of March nth and 13th 
will, however, long be remembered by the New 
Yorkers who witnessed them. 

Cromwell Dixon, of Columbus, Ohio, the youth- 
ful professional aeronaut, is about to resume his 
public flights in an airship of his own design and 
construction. His past achievements should en- 
sure him numerous engagements, especially dur- 

That Hempstead Plains. Mineola, is to become 
the aviation grounds of New York seems certain. 
The Aero Club of America is building individual 
hangars for its members on the ground it leased 
frorn the Garden City Realty Company, and so 

planes to commence work that several have hired 
tents to use temporarily until the Club can pro- 
vide sufficient housing ifor them. 

The Aeronautic Society of New York is build- 
ing a large enclosed shed 48 feet by 150 feet., 
spaces in which will be rented to members of the 
Society according to their requirements. 



By Mrs. J. Herbert Sinclair 

Just around the corner from these grounds is 
a 'small space where is to be found the tent in 
which Dr. Green stored the biplane which he 
built for Roy Crosby, of San Francisco, and in 
which both aviators msde such remarkably suc- 
cessful flights prior to the turning over of the 
machine to the purchaser. 

So satisfied was Mr. Crosby with the perform- 
ance of his new machine that in a few hours after 
its initial flight it was being dismantled prepara- 
tory to shipping it to San Francisco, its final 
destination. Altogether a dozen short flights were 
made, and on some of these turns were made 

The International School of Aeronautics is also 
close bv, and the whole atmosijhere of Mineola 
and the surrounding district is suggestive of. 
things aeronautic. 

Pro-f. T. S. C. Lowe claims to have solved the 
problem of confining the gas of airships, and 
thereby sustaining prolonged flights, in the dis- 
covery, after many years of research, of a fabric 
which becomes absolutely gas-proof when treated 
with a compound of his own invention. 

It is claimed that one test of three weeks' 
duration showed a loss of less than one cubic 
foot of the contents of the gas bag. Professor 
Lowe concluded his experiments a short time 
ago, immediately after which he started on an 



experimental dirigible. Should his dreams ma- 
terialize, there will be, in the near future, a 
passenger-carrying craft plying between New 
Y'ork and the Pacific Coast. The contemplated 
airship is to be of elaborate design and will 
contain staterooms and up-to-date comforts. One 
unique feature of the new craft is that it will 
require no ballast to govern its movements. It 
will carry sufficient gasolene and water for a 
twenty-one days' journey, and its crew will be 
composed of a captain, a mate, an engineer and 
four men. Among those who are supposed ' 
ally inte . . . ■ 



ford E. Harmi 
Gibbs, and E. 



Clif- 
W. J. Hogan, Judge G. H. 



C. Be 



"far fn 



the 



Alleghi 



veral years o 
with difl'eren 
the maddins 
Mr 



v,l" 



La\ 



hipla 



pla 



to publicl 
struction. The machine 
of which measure 41 feet bv 6 1-2 feet. 

The frame-work is built of Shelby steel tube, 
fitted together with light alloy castings, and 
bolted with specially designed forged iron bolts. 
Fligh tensile steel wire with patent turnbuckles is 
used for trussing. It has a sixteen-foot extension 
in front which carries a twelve-foot by twenty- 
eight-inch biplane elevator, together with a sim- 



114 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 



ilar extension at the rear on which is fixed a 
rigid tail of four surfaces, two vertical and two 
horizontal. It has no rudder, but lateral stability- 
is maintained by two methods, one being a patent 
of the inventor which he calls a retarder, and 
which consists in a system of vertical sliding 
panels (which operate somewhat on the principle 
of a window shade), one being located on each 
side of the machine, between the main planes. 
The other method is that of an electrically con- 
trolled gyroscope which works in conjunction 
with the radiator. 

The machine is mounted on wheels and is also 
equipped with two hydroplane floats to "land" 
on water. A Whitehead motor of 75 h. p. is to 
drive a propeller of eight feet six inches diameter 
and eight feet pitch. 

Mr. Lawrence has recently formed a partner- 
ship with Gustave Whitehead, who is the designer 
of the Whitehead engine, for the purpose of put- 
ting it on the market. 

The motor is made in two sizes, 40 h. p. and 
75 h. p., the latter weighing 200 pounds and 
the former 145 pounds. Both are equipped with 
thrust bearings, eliminating the danger of break- 
ing the crank shaft, where a propeller is fixed 
direct to the shaft. 

No carburettors are used, a vaporizer being at- 
tached to the gas chamber of each cylinder, 
which thus becomes a distinct engine in itself. 

The four vertical cylinder engines are of the 
two cycle type, and the disposal of the valves is 



ed to b( 

The cylinders are 
of cast iron with four 

Messrs. Whitehead 
the power actually c 
much higher than the 
back their claim up 



ith 



of great power. 

nickel-steel, the pistons 
ngs. 

id Lawrence claim that 
sloped by this motor is 
ting, and are prepared to 
guarantee. 



Carnival week. Six aviators have been engaged 
to make flights. The presence of some dirigibles 
is also assured. 

The free use of a flying field in Los Angeles, 
which has a perfectly level course of several 
milis, has been offered the War Department for 
manoeuvres with the army aeroplane. As the site 
available at Los Angeles will allow flying over 
Santa Monica Bay, it would be possible to carry 
out experiments in cooperation with the cruisers 
of the Pacific Fleet. 

While flying at the Wrights' practice grounds 
at Montgomery, Alabama, recently, Orville 
Wright had to glide to the ground from a height 
of 100 feet Both driver and his machine landed 
safely. 

This was the first flight made in America by 
Orville Wright since his famous cross-country 
flight from Fort Meyer to Alexandria on July 30th 
last, and the first he has made anywhere since 
flying in Germany last Fall. 

The city of Tacoma, Wash., had its first glimpse 
of a human bird when Charles K. Hamilton flew 
around the Athletic grounds, where the exhibi- 
tion was being held. He made several spec- 
tacular flights and reached an altitude of 1,000 
feet, remaining in the air from seven to ten 
minutes. In his final flight, when at a height 
of about goo feet, and with his engine at top 
speed, he dived down to within 50 feet of the 
earth, when suddenly, he again glided upward, 
just missed a fence, and flew away over the heads 
of the spectators, returning after a two-mile flight 



the 



:ity. 



According to ; 
Aviation Committee, San Jose 
aerial exhibition on JNIay 14th i 



t made by the 
Cal., is to have an 
d 15th during Rose 



The International Balloon race in October has 
been assigned to St. Louis, but the progressive 
city also wishes to have the international aviation 
meet, and with this end in view The Aero Club 
of St. Louis has obtained an option on the 



Gi^E, OF THE DCLIGHXS OF 



CELEBRATED 




old Union Race track. In case the club is not 
successful in getting the international flying meet, 
it will, in all probability, secure the grounds for 
exhibition flights. 

In view of the great possibilities of the gyro 
scope as an automatic balancer of flying 
chines, it is interesting to note the attention 
being given by inventors to this remarkable 
strument, which, up till lately, was mainly looked 
upon as a toy. Among those attacking the prob 
lem of gyroscopic balancing is Mr. Chas. E 
Dressier, whose electrically operated gyroscope; 
are at present being much discussed by experts, 

The following interesting letter from a famous 
navigator of the skies was recently received ir 
New York: 



Hotel, Vancouver, B, C, 

March 29, 1910. 

Dear Friend:— I received your kind letter of 
March 15 to-day. It has been quite a time reach- 
ing me, as it got to each city just after I had 
left. 

Yes, I had quite an accident in Seattle — had 
the calf of my left leg nearly torn off, struck 
my head against an ash pole, which put me in 
the land of dreams for a couple of hours. Since 
then I have been walking around with a cane 
and an umbrella, but flying every day. 

Yesterday I made a cross-covintry flight to 
New Westminster, going over the city and re- 
turning to Vancouver. I ended the flight by 
shutting ofT the motor and making a glide of a 
little over a mile in length from a height of 
about fifteen hundred feet. From the t^me I 
shut off the motor until I reached the ground 
the newspaper men timed it, and the glide lasted 
one minute and eight seconds. 

Have you seen Mr. Curtiss or Captain Baldwin 
lately? And what are you and all the other birds 
doing around New York? 

There is one thing about aeropla 
fly at a stated time regardless of the 
rain, snow or wind included. 

With best wishes, I am. 

Sincerely yours, 

CHARLES K. HAMILTON. 



ng — you can 



It will be noted that Hamilton considers him- 
self far less dependent on the weather since he 
has given up piloting motor gas-bags for driving 
a Curtiss biplane. 



^#^ NG^^r York ^"^ 

TUB IfEW FrRE-PROOP 

NAVARRE 

Seventh Ave. * SStb. Street 
BUSINESS WEN, FAMILIES. TOURISTS 

ilaximunL of I^uxury at Minimum of Cost 




Ticket admits to 
Turltisli and Russian 
Baths, Hot and Cold 
Baths, Swimming Pool, 
Spray, Gymnasium, 
Solarium, Smoking, 
Rest and Writing 
Rooms, etc. 



Open for Wo^ien. — On Mondays and Fridays from 
10 A M to lU P M. On Tuesdays, Wednesdays 
and Thursdays, 10 A.M. to 6 P.M. 
Open for Men.— At all hours of the day or nignt 
(except as abovel. Sleeping; accommodation for 
500 (men only). On Saturdays and Sundays, and 
all public holidays, Baths open to men only. 




accessible: — quiet — elegant 






c I T-sr • 



Kew Dutch Grill Rooms. Largest in the City 

Blectric Cars pass Hotel to all Railroads 

EUROPEAN PLAN 

A Room witb a Bath for a Dollar and a Half 
A Larger Room with a Bath for $2. 00 and $2. 50 

Where two persons occupy one room 
$1.00 extra -will be added to above prices. 

SEND FOR BOOKLET 

Edgar T. Smith Geo. L. Sanborn 



Press of J. J. Little & Ives Co. New York 



May, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



"S 



CHURCH 

AEROPLANE 

COMPANY 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



Heavier-Than-Air Machines 
Separate Parts 
Working Models 
Flying Models 
AeronauUc Specialties 

S\ipplies for Model B\iilders 

ALUMINUM TUBING, RATTAN, BAMBOO, 
WHITE-WOOD, BIRCH, SPRUCE, ETC. 

AEROPLANES, GLIDERS 
MODELS 

Made to Order from Working Drawings 

pr.opi:ller.s 

Scientifically Built from Selected Honduras Mahogany, 
one pound to the foot diameter. 6 inches to lo feet. 

KNOCKED DOWN FRAMES 

Ready to Assemble. 



AGENTS WANTED 

To take Orders for our Working Models and Flying Toys 
Liberal Commissions 

Address all communications to 

CHURCH AEROPLANE COMPANY 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

EVERETT V. CHURCH . President and Manager 

ALBERT C. TRIACA . . Aeronautical Engineer 
H. S. RENTON, 49 Wabash Ave., Chicago . . Agent 



CATALOG FREE ON REQUEST 



THE 

ROBERTSON 

AERONAUTIC 

SCHOOL 



THE ROBERTSON AERIAL CO. 

Builders 

Reconstructors 

Repairers 

Conductors of Experimental Work 

Machines built from your own design 



SUPPL Y DEPAR TMENT 

We can furnish you with all parts to build any 
type of flying machine from a tack to an Aviator. 



AERONAUTIC SCHOOL 
DEPARTMENT 

Our school is conducted directly under the super- 
vision of Mr. D. W. Robertson, founder of the 
largest Automobile school in Philadelphia. The 
school is fully equipped to give the most complete 
course of its kind in America. The course mcludes 
practice in building all types of full-size machines. 



Write your wants to us 
and we will supply them. 



The Robertson Aerial Co. 

BETZ BUILDING 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



ii6 



AIRCRAFT 



May, jgio 



FRANCAISE AMERICAINE AEROPLANE CIE. 







1111 BROADWAY 
NEW YORK CITY 



OFFICE 316 



AEROPLANES 

MOTORS 
PROPELLERS 

OF CONSEQUENCE 

This Company, having long since passed the experimental stage, proposes to give its patrons, at the lowest price, the 
benefits achieved by its experts who have for years been profound students of Aerial Navigation. 

POSITIVELY NO INFRINGEMENTS 




DESIGN 

MATERIAL 

CONSTRUCTION 

FINISH 

FLIGHT 

PRICE 



RIGHT 



MONOPLANES, BIPLANES -WITH MOTORS, PROPELLERS, COMPLETE FOR ASSEMBLING AND FLIGHT 

FIRST PRIZE AT FIRST TRIAL 
IN AMERICA FOR FLIGHT 

We Employ only the Best Designers and Experts on Aerodynamics 

Our Product is therefore Scientifically^ Mathematically and 

Mechanically Correct 

For excellence of workmanship, construction and durability, we stand without a peer. Our up-to-date method of keeping 
in touch with each new improvement and embodying it in our product, stamps us as being without competition. 

Our wind-proof surface covering and non-rusting wire are specially manufactured for our use. 

Our motors are designed by Horner, whose experience in engines is unsurpassed ; they are very light 

and very powerful, their rating of 25 H. P. and 50 H. P. being estimated at 700 R. P. M.; 

at greater speeds than this their power increases at an exceptional ratio. 



BRAINS IN BUILDING. 



GOODS TO DELIVER 



Delivery 30 days. Prices from 9t,300 to 93,000 complete. Terms on application 



THE FRANCAISE AMERICAINE AEROPLANE CIE. 

1777 Broadway, New York, U. S. A. 



May^ igio 



AIRCRAFT 



117 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 



10 cents a>. line 



CASH WITH ORDCR 

10 per cent. Discount for Six Consecutive 
Insertions all credited sixth insertion 



KXOCK-DOWX frames for a successful mono- 
plane glider. $ij.so F.O.B. Newark, N. J., 
H. Wells, 75 Ave. "L." 

FARMAN-TYPE AEROPLANE, complete, for 
sale at a sacritice. Apply to E. A., care Aircraft. 

/^URTISS-TYPE AEROPLANE, full size, with 
^ or without motor ; splendid workmanship. Ad- 
dress J. A., care Aircraft. 



WANTED. — An up-to-date business manager for 
aeroplane company. Cash bond required. Ap- 
ply B. F. M., care Aircraft. 

COR SALE.— One 40 h. p. Eight Cylinder Curtiss 
*^ Aerial Engine in good running order. Price, 
$7-^5.00. Address Box 188, Monett, Mo. 



HA\'E NEW MONOPLANE, no freak but a 
sane Langley-type machine, with absolutely 
new steering and balancing mechanism. Want 
$1,500 for construction of a machine. Offer in- 
terest in patents. John G. Planna, Box 55, 
Union Sta., Austin, Tex. 



ELECTRICAL Gyroscope and aluminum aero- 
plane inventor desires financier for its con- 
struction. I claim projection in my invention, 
possibility of overturning in mid-air will be 
eliminated, ribs are invisible, resistance com- 
pletely eliminated. For particulars address Aug- 
ust S. Praube, 2si6 Woodbrook Ave., Baltimore, 
Md. 



rHE best and most scientifically constructed 
propellers for Airships and Naphtha Launches 
re made by Jacob Naef, 3548 Park Ave., Bronx, 
Jew York City, 



AEROPLANES.— Have you built an aeroplane 
that has never flown? The writer will fly it 
for you or help you to fly it. Address care 
R. I. C. AIRCR^AFT. 37-39 East 28th Street, 
New York. 



THE FUTURE FLYING MACHINE. This 
' wonderful machine is automatically balanced 
in the air, it does away with the warping of 
the wings or tips, is operated by one steering 
\vheel and is driven by two propellers which de- 
rive their power from a 50-h. p. revolving cylin- 
der motor. Its wings have a spread of 30 ft. and 
are 27 feet in length. The simplicity of this ira- 
chine does away with accidents and makes it 
very easy for anyone to operate. I wish to form 
a company of one or more to manufacture this 
machine. If you are interested, address Ralph 
Cole, Norwalk, Ohio. 



■\X7ANTED.— Capital for patents and construc- 
' * tion Monoplane, new principle, designed for 
perfect equilibrium and control, and rise from 
ground easily. Quite different from every type 
of aeroplane in use. Moses Franklin, Grand 
Junction, Colo. 



COR SALE.— Record-breaking balloon Peoria. 
*■ 35.000 capacity. Just been overhauled. Fully 
equipped. Price. $400. Eugene Brown, 127-29 
Jefferson Ave., Peoria, 111. 



)UILD A GLIDER. Learn to fly. Gliding 
■'is the first step in learning to fly. I will send 
^mplete instructions and blue prints for build- 
ig a 20-foot biplane glider of standard type for 
ic (silver). D. H. Fairchild, Pana, 111. 



C LYING MACHINES. Demon Helicopter 
» Flyer, 25c. Fine Model French Aeroplane, 
good flyer. 85c. Materials for building 2-foot 
aeroplane with instructions, also five drawings 
and booklet for building two other models, all 
complete, for $1.75. Instructions for building a 
man-carrying machine, aeronautic books, spring 
and electric motors, supplies, etc. Monarch 
Aero Co., Box 133-K, Sta. A., San Antonio, 
Texas. 



IF you consider quality and you are looking 
for balloons or dirigibles, get my prices and 
samples of O. F. Lewis Balloons, fully equipped. 
Hydrogen generators for making gas for sale. 
Have applied for patent on a new steering 
device for aeroplanes that will not vary from 
an even keel. VVould like to hear from parties 
interested, with capital. Oscar F, Lewis, Sara- 
toga Springs. N. Y. 

WANTED.— A press representative in every 
city in the world to keep AIRCRAFT 
posted on the latest aeronautical doings. 
THE LAWSON PUBLISHING CO., 
27-39 East 28th Street, 
New York, U. S. A. 



I HAVE designed a flying machine which combines 
an aeroplane and helicopter. This machine will 
rise straight up in the air without a running start ; 
the planes being turned edgewise offer little resist- 
ance in the air when raising and when the desired 
height is reached they are pitched forward, thus 
sustaining the weight of the machine. The pro- 
pellers are thus pitched forward and used exclu- 
sively for driving the machine ahead. From results 
obtained from several small models I think it will 
make a great success. I would like to communicate 
with a gentleman of money who would like to 
finance, the building of a large one. Address 
J. W. B., care of Aircraft, 37 E. 28th Street, New 
York. 



DISCOVERED something which has a greater 
lifting power than hydrogen, the lightest known 
element. Will divulge the long-looked-for knowl- 
edge to party with capital, interested in U. S. Pat- 
ent 939,651, which has directly opposed aeroplanes 
united together and having a body mounted for 
tilting movement between said planes, a propel- 
ler at the forward end of the body, adjustable for 
steering purpose, propellers arranged centrally with- 
in the planes for rendering momentum, means oper- 
ating the said propellers in unison ; a tail piece for 
steering if the motor gives out, means of forming a 
ball and socket connection between the tail piece and 
the rear end of the body. 

SAMUEL WADE APPLEGATE, 

"World Famed." South Bend, Ind. 

SPECIAL NOTICE. 

A FTER an aeroplane is constructed and is cor- 
^rect mathematically, the most important part 
to consider is the motor, A number of aviators 
under-rate the power actually required to make a 
successful flight. "ADVICE": Do not under- 
rate your power. Be on the safe side and pro- 
cure a motor with power in reserve. "THE 
WHITEHEAD MOTOR," rates 75-h. p. at 1,000 
r. p. m. Weight, 200 lbs. Nothing to get out 
of order; will stand rigid endurance test; two 
cycle (new design) 4-cylinder vertical. A beauty 
and only $1,400. 40-h. p., weight 150 lbs., price 
$1,150. Geo. A. Lawrence, Mgr., "The White- 
head" famous motor, R. 405, Astor Theatre 
Bldg., New York, N. Y. 30-day delivery. Men- 
tion AIRCRAFT. 

XJOTICE TO THE PUBLIC— This notice is 
l^to make public a new invention in rudders 
for flying machines. This invention was com- 
municated by me on March 8, 1910, to several 
parties. My invention consists of a rudder 
divided into four parts, at the rear of the ma- 
chine, two parts on the right side and two parts 
on the left side; the two parts on each side 
hinged top and bottom and each part set at an 
angle and the parts on either side set at oppo- 
site angles. When not in use each part lies 
flat. They work from horizontal to vertical by 
means of connections extending forward in the 
machine. Joseph Thebeau, 315 West 51st Street. 



PATENTS 




■P A T*!? AJT^C SECURED or 

L l\. 1 H/iM 1 kj Fee Returned 

Send sketch for free search of Patent Office Records. 
How to Obtain a Patent, and What to Invent, with 
List of inventions Wanted and Prizes offered for In- 
ventions sent free. Patents advertised free. 



VICTOR J. EVANS & CO., Washington, D. C. 



GUSTAVE R. THOMPSON 
Room 1502 
Tribune Building New York City 

(Counselor at Law) 

Solicitor of Patents 

ESPECI.'VLLY QUALIFIED TO DO 

Aeronautical Work 

OF HIGH CHARACTER 

Work done with regard to its legal effect 
REFERENCES 



PATENTS 

Obtained or no charge made 

Easy payments, 15 years official Exam- 
iner U. .S. Patent Office, over quarter 
century actual experience, unexcelled fa- 
cilities, prompt efficient service, highest 
references. E.xperts in mechanical and 
aero navigation technique. Patents ad- 
vertised for sale free. Send sketch or 
description of invention for free search of 
U. S. Patent Office records and reliable 
report as to patentability. Send also for 
beautifully illustrated inventors' Guide 
Book on " How and What to Invent." 

E. P. BUNYEA COMPANY 
U.S. and FOREIGN PATENT ATTORNEYS 

Trade Marks, Designs, Copyrights 
606 F. ST.. N. W., WASHINGTON, D. C. 



PATENTS. 2H5ii225 

100 Mechanical Movements. Mailed Free 
FRED G. DIETERICH & CO. 

Patent Lawyers 
800 O. STREET, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

PATENTS 



FLY! THAT'S THE THING! 

BENNETT S. JONES 

PATENT ATTORNEY 
Victor Building:, Washing:ton, D.C. 

Can secure you a Patent that will PROTECT 
your invention on a flying- machine, for a 
moderate fee. Advice Free. 
Printed copies of Airship patents 10c. each 
WRITE TO-DAY 1 

PATPNTC THAT PROTECT 
r M I C R I O AND PAY 

Advice and Books Frte. Rales Reasonable. IllgliesI References 
BesI Services 

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent lawyer 

612 F St. N. W., WASHINGTON, D. C. 



ii8 



AIRCRAFT 



May, iQio 



rht 



ABC 



of 



AERIAL NAVIGATION 



CONSIDERING 



SPHERICAL BALLOONS, DIRIGIBLE 
AEROSTATS AND AEROPLANES 



Victor W. Page, M. E. 



j4 most complete and practical treatise for all interested in 

mechanical flight. Simple, non-technical 

and comprehensive. 

Over i 50 Illustrations and Charts. 



PRICE 50 CENTS 



THE LAWSON PUBLISHING COMPANY 

37-39 East 28th Street, New York, U. S. A. 



SOARING BLADES 

Made, to Order, Jlttachahk 
to ^our Aeroplane or Glider 

They increase the speed to nearly double the 
motor power, push machine if motor stops over 20 
miles p. h., which permits gliding and prevents acci- 
dents. Any height can safely be attained. Blue 
prints for aeroplanes with full patent rights, main- 
taining automatic equilibrium, also furnished. 

FOR TERMS APPLY TO 
R. DRESSLER :: :: Coney Island, New York 



Aeroplanes, Gliders, 
Models, Propellers 

Designed and built, or made to your own design 

Gliders, Parts and Aeronautic Supplies in Stock 
AERO MOTORS 

FRED SHNEIDER, 1020 E. irsth St., New York 

New York Agent for ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY 



SAMUEL F. PERKINS 

SCIENTIFIC KITE FLYING 

Aerial Advertising 

By Aeroplane Kites and Balloons 

Special Attention is called to the Spectacular Night Ad- 
vertising in which enormous beams or brilliantly colored search- 
light rays (visible for five miles) are thrown upon "ads" suspended 
thousands of feet in the sky. 

110 Tremont Street, Boston, Massachusetts 



GREEN'S ENGINE 

BUILT FOR THE JOB 

EVERY part of the Green Aerial Engine is designed especially for the 
purpose it is intended to fulfil. It is not an automobile engine modified 
or made to do duty for aeroplane work. From first to last it is constructed 
with a special view to the peculiar requirements of an aerial machine — 
lightness, efficiency, and consistent and continuous running under full load. 
Green's Aerial Carburetor embodies an entirely new principle called into 
existence by the requirements of aviation. It is one of many special parts 
which go to form the Green engine, and have made it so great a success. 
Full particulars sent on application. 

The GREEN'S MOTOR PATENTS SYNDICATE, Ltd. 

55y, BERNERS STREET, LONDON, W. 

Makers for the Patentees: The Aster Engineering Co., Ltd. 



AEROPLANE 
TIRES 




Clincher type only, 
which is the lightest 
and most satis- 
factory type for 
aeroplanes. 



SIZE 


Weight Complet 


20x4 in. 


6X lbs. 


26x2>^ in. 


6)4 " 


28X2>^ " 


7Y " 


28x3 " 


8 " 


28x3>^ " 


m " 



Wheels also furnished for the above sizes 

PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER. CO. 

JEANNETTE, PA. 

BRANCHES: 

New York— 1741 Broadway; Boston— 167 Oliver Street; 
Chicago — 1241 Michigan Avenue; San Francisco— 512 
Mission Street; Los Angeles— 930 S. Main Street. 



May, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



119 



The Greatest Aviation Motor of Modern Times 

NOW COMING TO THE FRONT RAPIDLY 
The World Famous 

WHITEHEAD 

MOTOR 

DESIGNED BY THE NOTED ENGINEER 
GUST AVE WHITEHEAD 

Non-Bursting Cylinders : Vibration Negligible 

Absolutely Nothing to Get Out of Order 

4 Cylinders Vertical : 8 Port Exhaust : 2 Cycle 

Will Run Until Fuel is Consumed 



75 H. P., 200 lbs. 
40 H. P., 145 lbs. 



$1,400 
1,150 



Order Quick : jo-Day Delivery : Now is the Time 

GEO. A. LAWRENCE, Mgr. 

Astor Theatre Bldg. New York City, N. Y. 

Exclusively adopted by Wittemann Bros., Aeroplane Mfrs. 




THE WARNER 

AERO-METER 

THE FIRST AEROPLANE ACCESSORY 

Teils the aeropianist just the force of the wind pressure against his planes, 
enabling him to guard against accident through diminished air resistance. 

Built on the errorless magnetic principle which has made the Auto- 
Meter the St3.nd3.rd auto speed indicator. 

It looks unlike the Auto- Meter but has 
the same honest "insides"' and consequent 
capacity for "delivering the goods." 

Warner Instrument 
Company 

4 WHEELER AVE., BELOIT, WIS. 



SELLING BRANCHES: 



BOSTON 

CHICAGO 

CLEVELAND 

ST. LOUIS 

ATLANTA 

DETROIT 

BUFfALO 

SEATTLE 



SAN FRANCISCO 
INDIANAPOLIS 
CINCINNATI 
PITTSBURG 
LOS ANGELES 
PHILADELPHIA 
DENVER 
NEW YORK 




MODEL M 
AUTO- METER 



FOR THOSE INTERESTED IN 

AERONAUTICS 



^o~c' 




/, V H-fi ^^.c^^ -T.j J '\.^^<.^_^ 



For particulars in regard to this combined 

Helicopter, Parachute 
and Gyroscope 

Apply to the undersigned 



IT requires little, if any, more expenditure of 
gasolene to operate the combination herewith 
than it does to drive any other style of mono- 
plane, as will become evident after a few mo- 
ments' examination. However, the foregoing 
arrangement possesses a number of very impor- 
tant advantages peculiar to itself which cannot 
be over-estimated by prospective aviators^ — i. e. 
The above machine can be easily operated 
by any novice; it can be started up without 
regard to locality by a single operator; it cannot 
be upset; it will come down like a feather 
should anything go wrong with the engine, and 
should it alight on the water it will float right 
side up. In case of wreck, the operator is less 
apt to be injured in this machine than in any 
other because he cannot strike the ground until 
after the machine has first given way, thereby 
breaking the force of contact. 



JOSEPH E. BISSELL 

p. O. Box 795 
PITTSBURG, PA. 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 



AVIATORS ATTENTION!!! 

A Timely Word About Motors ! 



C What you want is A Real Aeronautic Motor, light and yet strong, 
simple, and above all reliable. A motor, moreover, that the average 
mechanic can understand and operate. 

CL What you do not want is a combination motor cycle, or modi- 
fied automobile, engine. Lightness in these is secured only by the 
sacrifice of strength and efficiency; and yet either type is unduly 
heavy. We have tried both, and we know. Before you invest, it 
will be worth your while to write us, and hear what we have to say. 
C At an expense of several years' experimenting, and many thou- 
sands of dollars outlay, we have at last perfected a high grade, water= 
cooled, four-cycle, gasolene engine for aeronautic work. 
H By special method of construction, upon which we are securing 
patents, these motors are much stronger than the ordinary makes, 
and at the same time very much lighter. 

C The 40 horsepower engine weighs 3 pounds per horsepower, and 
the SO horsepower only 2i^ pounds per horsepower — about one 
half the weight per horsepower of any other adequately water-cooled 
engine. The weight, as also the quality, of each engine is guaranteed. 



C These motors are not of freakish construction, either in the num- 
ber of cylinders, or in any other respect. They are of the regular 
opposed type, similar to the famous Darracq aeronautic engine with 
which Santos-Dumont's machines are equipped, conceded by gas en- 
gineers to be the smoothest running, and nearest vibrationless type. 
C A scarcely less important feature is the fact that our motors are 
silenced (not muffled), which feature is secured without loss of 
power. They are, in fact, the only silent motors yet devised for 
aeronautic work. The importance of this feature can not be over- 
estimated; and in connection with their strength, lightness, and 
reliability, places these motors in a class by themselves. 

Price, 40 H. P S 700.00 

" 80 " 1,200.00 

Delivery, 30 days from receipt of order. 

Terms, 40% cash with order; balance sight draft 
with bill of lading. 
C Write to us and let us send you illustrations and description of 
these wonderful motors. 



The Aerial Navigation Co. of America 

GIRARD, KANSAS 

p. S. Send for particulars and price of our REVERSIBLE AERIAL PROPELLER. Something entirely new and absolutely indispensable 



Santos -Dumont 

Monoplane 

"DEMOISELLE" Type 

Original \<tll ^ 

18 Ft. Spread \ CPZ,/ J 



Hamilton Gliders 

$30 
$45 



20 Ft. Spread 
160 Sq. Feet 

22 Ft. Spread \ 
220 Sq. Feet I 



HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO. 

208 30TH AVENUE, SEATTLE 

Successors to 

Hamilton & Palmer 



" Dumonoplanes " 

Above Type 
SPECIAL DIMENSIONS 
21 Ft. Spread - $350 
24 Ft. Spread - $400 



'The Pioneers" 



$ 1 50 Cash Prizes 
For GLIDER FLIGHTS 

Write us for full information 

BIPLANES 

BUILT TO ORDER 



May, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



C.&A.WITTEMANN, 



AERONAUTICAL 
ENGINEERS 



Designers, Constructors, Developers of Heavier-than-air Machines 
GLIDERS MODELS SEPARATE PARTS 




Our Gliders are the best, 
the safest and easiest to 
operate. 

Practical Lessons in 

Gliding. 

Experiments conducted. 
Large Grounds for Testing. 
GLIDERS IN STOCK 



Wittemann Glider in flight 

Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road, Staten Island, N. Y. 



Light Metal Castings for 
Connections always car- 
ried in Stock. 

Clear Spruce Finished to 
Order. 

Also all other Fittings. 



Telephone 390 L W-B 



KNABENSHUE'S FLIGHT IN NEW YORK 



mm^ 




Aeronautical Supplies 

at Money Saving Prices 



Complete catalogue of supplies, motors and gliders 
mailed FREE. We can furnish anything used in the 
construction of an Aeroplane, dirigible or glider. Get 
our quotations before placing your order. 



E. J. WILLIS CO. 

8 Park Place ... New York City 



Above is a sample of the Aerial photographic 
work done by 

LEOPOLD LEWIS 

915 Eighth Avenue - - . . . New York 



A full line of Eastman 's Kodaks and supplies always on hand 
DEVELOPING AND PRINTING A SPECIALTY 



BAMBOO 

Specially selected for Aeroplanes 
ALL SIZES IN STOCK=^^ 

J. DELTOUR, Inc. 

49 Sixth Ave. - - - New York 



Telephone 5565 Spring 



AIRCRAFT May, igio 



AEROPLANES 



of unrivalled qualities in design and finished workmanship 

are built by the 

W. STARLING BURGESS CO.E^ 



OF 



MARBLEHEAD, MASS. 

Licensees and Sole Manufacturers in the United States of 
the Herring-Burgess flying machines. 



This Company is also building Air Ships, Gliders and 
Flying Models of other types, and will be pleased to submit 
estimates of cost to those who wish to furnish their own de- 
signs. All machines will be tested and flown at the Company's 
Trial Grounds on Plum Island in Massachusetts Bay. 



J.H.MacALMAN 

Agent for W. Starling Burgess Co., Ltd. 

Showrooms, 96 Massachusetts Ave. 

BOSTON, MASS. 



.l/(;v, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



123 



PROPELLERS 




/- 



"PERFECT SCREW 



■-ssaiw^ '■■■ 



LAMINATED WOOD 



IN STOCK FOR IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT 
6 Ft., $50 7 Ft., $60 

Weight 61^ lbs. Weight 9 lbs. 

ANY SIZE TO ORDER 



8 Ft., $70 
Weight 12 lbs. 



OUR 6 Ft. PROPELLER GIVES 200 Lbs. THRUST AT 1 200 R. P. M. 



I 



1.. a. Wi. iWotorg Co. 



PROVIDENCE, R. 



March I, I9IO 



THE REQUA-GIBSON CO.. 

225 West 49lh Street, 

New York, N. Y. 

Dear Sirs:- 

The propellers your company are manufacturing fulfill every claim you make, 
in fact, the 6 ft. dia. 4 ft. pilch propeller delivered to us did even better work than you 
guaranteed. 

We will need more very soon. 

Respectfully 

L. A. W. MOTORS CO.. 

Per OLIVER LIGHT. 

P. S. The PULL we obtained mas about 210 lbs. at 1,000 to 1,050 R. P. M. 

OLIVER LIGHT. 



When ordering state if 3 right or left-hand propeller is required. When standing in the breeze created by the 
propeller a left-hand propeller turns in a direction opposite to the hands of a clock. 

REQUA GIBSON CO. 

225 West 49th Street 
NEW YORK CITY 



PHONE 



7200 COLUMBUS 



124 



AIRCRAFT 



May, ipioi 



INTERNATIONAL 

SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS 

FOUNDED 1908 

The First Private School Established in the World 
The Only Aero Institute in U. S. A. Directed by a Licensed Pilot 

FOUNDER-DIRECTOR 

ALBERT C. TRIACA 

Pilot Aero Clubs of America, France, Italy 
Ex-Technical Director Foreign Department New York School of Automobile Engineers 




THE AERODROME OF THE I. S. A., 

with Aeroplane Sheds, Gas, Shops, Lecture and Model Hall, Ladies' and Juniors' Rooms and a private mile track for experi- 
ments is located at Garden City, L. I., adjacent to Hempstead Plains, where flights of lo miles in straight line 
can be made. (Take 34th Street Ferry or Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn, L. I. R.R.) 

HOME STUDY COURSES 

IN AEROSTATS, DIRIGIBLES AND AVIATION. Prepared by Lieut.-Colonel G. Espitallier of the French Balloon Corps. 

RESIDENT COURSES 

Private lessons in all branches of Aeronautics for Ladies and Gentlemen. Juniors' Class with contests for Kites and Models. 

I. S. A. SUPPLY DEPARTMENT 

Sole Agents U. S. A. and Canada for the CHAUVIERE INTEQRALE PROPELLERS, holders of all the records 
for Dirigibles and Aeroplanes. HUE (Paris) Aeronautical Instruments. COMPLETE LINE of Imported and Domestic 
Aeroplanes, Balloons, Dirigibles, Motors, Fabrics and parts. 

Models and full size apparatus made. Estimates and consultations given. Illustrated lectures arranged. 

Subscriptions taken for Foreign Aero Magazines 

I. S. A. Aerodrome, Garden City, L. I. (near the Garage) 

New York Office: Care of H. Ducasse Co., 735 Seventh Avenue [ i841"b°ryant ] 
Paris Office : 52 Rue Servan, Paris 



May. jgio 



AIRCRAFT 



125 



AERONAUT LEO STEVENS 

Leading Balloon and Airship Constructor of the World 

REPRESENTING THE 

CONTINENTAL RUBBER CO. 

OF HANOVER, GERMANY 

MAKERS OF THE FINEST AND STRONGEST BALLOON AND 
AEROPLANE MATERIAL IN THE WORLD 




Passenger 

Aeroplanes 

and 

flying 



SACE 
Engineer 



ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS 

MODELS DEVELOPED 



CONTRACTOR TO THE U. S. GOVERNMENT 

AND 

NINETY-FIVE PER CENT OF THE CLUBS IN THIS COUNTRY 
Also Representing the Santos Dumont Aeroplane 



The Wilcox Propeller 



AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE 

CARTON <& LA CHAMBRE 

Balloon and Airship Builders 
OF PARIS, FRANCE 



ADDRESS 

Box 181, IVIadison Square 
New York 



126 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 



PRESERVATIVE VARNISH 

For Balloons, Dirigibles, 
Aeroplanes and Tents 

An elastic, non-porous varnish for silk, linen, mus- 
lin or any other fabric used in the manufacture of 
air-craft. 

This varnish saves the big expense of Balloon 
Sheeting. 

Send for Free Sample to 

VICTOR BRUNZEL 

1383 Third Ave. : : New York 



-^he STENZY 



Latest and 
Most Reliable 



^ero ilotor 



Positively 
guaranteed to 



run at two thousand revolutions a minute at 50% 
less gasolene day in and day out. One pound 
weight per horse power. 50% cash with order. 
Motor guaranteed as the best. As represented or 
money returned. Delivery 60 days from date. 

Orders received, 1019 Binney Street, Baltimore, 
Md. From 100 pounds up; from 100 h. p. up. 

Send Stan,/. /,.- r,/.!y. A. F. P. STENZY 



THE HALL'S SAFE COMPANY 



p. O. BOX 846 

Principal Office and Factory 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 



Manufacturers of the HIGHEST 
grade of Screw Door and Square 
Door Banl<ers' Safes and Vaults 




Salesroom 

393 BROADWAY 

Bet\A/een White and \A/alker Streets 



NEW YORK 



Makers of 

HALL PATENT (April 3, I906) 

FIRE PROOF SAFES 



H. C. Strattons hollow SPARS 




Used in all Modern Aeroplanes 

THE GREATEST STRENGTH FOR 
THE LIGHTEST POSSIBLE WEIGHT 

Write us for Prices and Samples 
Mail Orders Promptly Attended To 



741 BOYLSTON ST. 



BOSTON, MASS. 



New York Agent 

FREDERICK P. SHNEIDER 

1020 East 178th Street 




}f(i\\ igro 



AIRCRAFT 



127 



Henry FARMAN Biplanes 

Are the best 
the safest, 
most rehable 
and easiest 
to drive 



A FEW RECENT RECORDS 

Grand Prix de Champagne (H. Farman). 

Passenger Prize (two passengers and aviator) (H, Farman). 

Grand Prize of Blackpool (H. Farman). 

Speed Prize (H. Farman). 

Distance and Speed Prize, Doncaster (Sommer). 

Height Record by Paulhan (300 yards). 

WORLD'S record distance (234 kms.) (H. Farman). 

WORLD'S record time (4 hrs. 18 mins.) (H. Farman). 

WORLD'S record for Height (4,165 feet) (Paulhan). 

Longest town to town record, Mourmelon Chalons and back ( Paulhan). 

At the Los Angeles meet Paulhan won the First Prizes for Height, 

Endurance and Passenger-Carrying Contests with a Henry 

Farman Biplane. 

MICH ELI N CUP (H. FARMAN) 



Works: Camp de Chalons, Marne. Offices: 22, Av. de la Grande Armee, Paris 



Contractors to the French War Office 



^A/'hat Kind of a Motor Do You Want? 

Let us answer: 

1st, A reliable motor 
2nd, A powerful motor 
3rd, An enduring motor 

Curtiss Motors 

Have these Qualities 

The Kind You Do NOT Want: 

1st, A motor of "freak" construction 

2nd, A motor of extremely light construction 

3rd, A motor of unproven merit 

CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES 

Built in All Sizes. New Models of Highest Type and Greatest Efficiency 
Send for Catalogue 4 XX 

CURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD 

HERRING-CURTISS CO., Hammondsport, N. Y. 




128 



AIRCRAFT 



May, igio 



Important to Inventors, Builders and Owners of 

AEROPLANES AND FLYING MACHINES 

Mechanical Defects and Faults of Construction in Aircraft of Every Description Remedied by 

pLJAOT f7Q P DRF^m RR Expert Manufacturing 

^^1 l-T^l VJ_jl_-<kJ 1_^. l->/l vJ_-<>JkJJ_^JL-*l\, and Consulting Engineer 

THOROUGHLY EXPERIENCED IN RESEARCH WORK, DESIGNER AND MAKER OF MODELS, EXPERIMENTAL 
MACHINES AND FULL SIZE MACHINES FOR ACTUAL USE. WORK GUARANTEED TO GIVE SATISFACTION. 

Office and Factory, 386-390 SECOND AVENUE, NEW YORK 

With fully equipped workshop, skilled workmen, up-to-date specially designed tools, apparatus and modern machinery. 

PROMPT DELIVERY GUARANTEED OF THE SMALLEST MODELS OR THE LARGEST CONTRACTS FOR WORKING 

MACHINES. 



THE DRESSLER GRAPH-O-VIEW MOVING PICTURE MACHINE, for the home, club, lodge room, 
school and college, has no equal as an entertainer and educator. Reproducing all kinds of animal and microscopic life. The 
actual flight of aircraft satisfactorily shown by this machine. 

The electrically operated GYROSCOPE, showing the fundamental principle of automatic balancing of aeroplanes, pro- 
duces effects at once striking ar.d instructive. This was first successfully manufactured by Charles E. Dressier in I 889. 



CHARLES E. DRESSLER 



386-390 SECOND AVENUE 



NEW YORK CITY 



\Vrite for Price and Sample of Special Silk Aeroplane Covers 




2/4-yard 
Silk Scarfs 



Send $z. 50, and re- 
ceive a scarf like cut. 
Your choice in the 
fol lowing colors : 
blue, lilac and cerise 
ombres; Persian 
print pattern , and 
black, white, helio. 
pink and blue. 



13-inch 

Pure Silk 

rlanakercniex 



A new idea in lace 
bordered, durable, 
pure white and 
washable handker- 
chiefs. Will retain 
its color when 
washed properly. 




Send 50 cents, and receive in return 
a new lace bordered pure silk hand- 
kerchief like cut. 



We also manufacture a fine quality of Silk for Balloons 

VICTORY SILK CO. l^Z^f^^. 



BOOKS 



We have conijMled a list of the very best aeronautical books written in the English 

language and offer them for sale to our readers. Earnest students 

of Aerial Flight should read every book in this list. 



Make all Drafts, Express or Post Office Orders payable to 
THE LAWSON PUBLISHING CO., 37-39 East 28tli Street. New York, U. S. A. 



Artificial and Natural Flight, by Sir 
Iliraiii S. Maxim. Being a description of 
his own experimental work and the devel- 
ojiment of flying machines generally $1.7o 

POCKETBOOK OP AERONAUTICS, by H. W. L. 

Moedebeck. Containing many features of 
aerial travel and a splendid text-book for 
the beginner or the aeronautical engineer. . 3.2.5 

Vehicles of the Air, by Victor Lougheed. 
One of the very latest aeronautical books, 
covering almost e\'ery detail of the science 
of xVviation 2.50 

Aerl^l Navig.\tion, by A. F. Zahm. A book 
written by one of the world's great scien- 
tists who has made an extensive study of 
the aeronautical subject for the past 20 years 3.00 

Airships ix Peace and W.\r, by R. P. 
Hearne, with an introduction by Sir Hir.im 
Maxim. A popular account of the progress 
made by the dift'erent countries of the 
world in Aircraft 3.50 

Aerial Navigation To-Day, by Chas. C. 
Turner. A finely illustrated work on the 
principles of Ballooning, Aviation, Aerial 
Law, Military .\eronautics, the aerial ocean 
and the industrial side of flight 1.50 

The Problem of Flight, by Herbert Chatley; 
A most instructive work written principally 
for aerial engineers 3. .50 

The Force of the Wind by Herbert Chatley. 
A scientific treatise, dealing with the subject 
of wind pressure in reLition to engineering 1 25 

My Air Ships. By Santos-Dumont. The 
thrilling story of this Intrepid Brazilian's 
wonderful success in aerial navigation, told 
in an entertaining way, free from techni- 
cality. With 55 full-page pictures from 
photographs. 12ino, 400 pages I 50 



Handy Man's Workshop and Laboratory, 
by A. Russel Bond. A popular work on 
almost everything pertaining to the every- 
day life of the mechanic. 370 illustrations 
and two chapters relating to flying $2.00 

Conquest of the Air, by Alphonse Berget. 
A book covering the history, theory and 
practice of the science of aeronautics, with 
explanatory diagram and photographs. . . . 3.50 

The Conquest of the Air, by A. Lawrence 
Rotch. A subject treated by an accepted 
authority In a manner appreciated by a 
popular, as well as a scientific audience. . . 1.00 



Airships Past and Present, by A. Hilde- 
brandt. A general sketch of the past and 
present state of the art, together with its 
problems, presented In a way that can be 
understood by ever3body 3.50 



Aerodynamics, by F. W. Lanchester. Con- 
stituting the first volume of a complete 
work on aerial flight, with appendices on 
the velocity and momentum of sound waves, 
on the theory of soaring, flight, etc 6 00 

Aerodonetics, by F. W. Lanchester. Con- 
stituting the second volume of a complete 
work on aerial flight, with appendices on 
the theory and application of the gyroscope, 
on the flight of projectiles, etc 6.00 

All the World's Airships, by By Fred T. 
Jane. Being the first annual Issue, con- 
taining photographs of almost every flying 
machine built up to 1909 ". 10.00 

"Born Again." A philosophic novel written 
by Alfred W. Lawson. Has nothing to do 
with the science of aerial flight. The ninth 
edition of cloth bound copies being ex- 
hausted, a few paper cover books being 
in stock can be had for fifty cents each ... .50 



6, k A 




Elbridge 

Featherweight 

Engines 

The Only American Aerial 
Motors with a guarantee 
based on actual performance. 



40 to 60 H. P., No. 167. $1050. Unlimited Guarantee. 



THE makers of the 
Elbridge ^\'ere spend- 
ing time and money on 
the development of light- 
\veight engines more than 
four years before the word 
"Aeroplane" was used. 

The Featherweight is the lightest engine of its power in the world. Will actually 
show 75 H. P. 

An Elbridge rated at 20 H. P. showed a pull of 200 lbs. turning a 6 x 4 propellor 
1200 r. p. m. 

Elbridge Featherweights are made in four sizes from 10 to 100 H. P. Higher power 
to order. 

This type of motor is used by Mathewson Automobile Co., Denver; Frederich Schneider, 

New York City; McCallum Aeroplane & Mfg. Co., Kansas City; N. E. Brown, 

Grand Haven, Mich.; Lieut. A. F. M. MacManus, U. S. A. (Retired) San Antonio; 

Wm. F. Milligan, Portland, Ind. ; James W. Wade, Salt Lake City; Eric Bergstrom, 

Chicago; S. H. Pankost, 

Sacramento; Martin A. 

Schmidt, Buffalo; Western 

Aeroplane Co , Spokane; H. 

O. Belden, Chena, Alaska; 

George A. Metcalf, Boston; 

John ]. Frisbie, Rochester, 

N. Y."; Dr. William W. 

Christmas, Washington, D.C.; 

Auchinvole, Botts & Crosby, 

San Francisco, and many 

others. 

Factory always open for your 
inspection; demonstrations by 
appointment. Full particulars 
of both air and water cooled 
engines on request. 

Elbridge Engine Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 








Edited by ALFRED W. LAWSON^ 15 Cents a Copy 



BALDWIN'S 

VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL 

WINS 



LAHM BALLOON CUP— 697 MUes. Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon " New York" 

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE 

35 Hrs., 12 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon " New York'' 

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD 

48 Hrs., 26 Mins. Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial 

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD 

24,200 Ft. Harmon and Post, Balloon " New -i^ork," St. Louis Centennial 

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 

30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 
GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES 

QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 
2nd— 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 

2nd— BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE— Glenn H. Curtiss 



BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL 

USED IN THE U. S. GOV. DIRIGIBLE AND SPHERICAL BALLOONS 

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the 
same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and 
ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of 
oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double- 
walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A 
man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to 
spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, 
width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming 
balloon material, and which, through its superior qualities and being an absolute gas holder, is 
bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon 
must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS. 



AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY 

Prices and Samples on application 

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN, Box 78, Madison Square, NEW YORK 



Jioic, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



129 



FRANCAISE AMERICAINE AEROPLANE CIE. 






IWINEOLA, L. I. 

AEROPLANES 

MOTORS 
PROPELLERS 



OF CONSEQUENCE 

This Company, having long since passed the experimental stage, proposes to give its patrons, at the lowest price, the 
benefits achieved by its experts who have for years been profound students of Aerial Navigation. 

POSITIVELY NO INFRINGEMENTS 





DESIGN 

MATERIAL 

CONSTRUCTION 

FINISH 

FLIGHT 

PRICE 



RIGHT 



MONOPLANES, BIPLANES -WITH MOTORS, PROPELLERS, COMPLETE FOR ASSEMBLING AND FLIGHT 

FIRST PRIZE AT FIRST TRIAL 
IN AMERICA FOR FLIGHT 

We Employ only the Best Designers and Experts on Aerodynamics 

Our Product is therefore Scientifically, Mathematically and 

l\nechanically Correct 

For excellence of workmanship, construction and durability, we stand without a peer. Our up-to-date method of keeping 

in touch with each new improvement and embodying it in our product, stamps us as being without competition. 

Our wind-proof surface covering and non-rusting wire are specially manufactured for our use. 

Our motors are designed by Horner, whose experience in engines is unsurpassed; they are very light 

and very powerful, their rating of 25 H. P. and 50 H. P. being estimated at 700 R. P. M.; 

at greater speeds than this their power increases at an exceptional ratio. 



BRAINS IN BUILDING. 



GOODS TO DELIVER 



Delivery 30 days. Prices from 91,SOO to $3,000 complete. Terms on application 



THE FRANCAISE AMERICAINE AEROPLANE CIE. 

Address direct to Factory, Mineola, L. I., N. Y. 



I30 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 



DO you believe in PROGRESS? 
WE do, and to stimulate progress in mechanical 
flight three years ago, we gave this handsome 
trophy to be competed for annually by the aviators 
of the world. 

Each year the conditions have been made harder. Starting 
with a kilometer in a straight line, they have increased in diffi- 
culty until this year, when the cup goes to the aviator making 
the longest cross-country flight in excess of forty miles. 




The Scientific American Aeroplane Trophy 

If you have taken up the new sport of aviation, we should 
be pleased to have you try for our trophy. 

If you are interested in the well-nigh magic progress that is 
being made in dynamic flight, by all means read 

tElje ^tiEtitific American 

the only and the oldest weekly in America dealing with 
aeronautic and mechanical progress. 

Subscription price, S3.00 per year 
SPECIAL TRIAL OFFER 

Send us Si. so — the regular price for 6 months subscription — and 
we will send the Scientific American to you for the balance of 1910. 

MUNN & CO., Inc., 361 Broadway, New York 



AERONAUTIC PATENTS 



..._,.i to aeronautic apparatus, and will he pleased 
patentability of your invention if you will write 



(botli domestic and for- 
We pay especial atten- 
" ' you reg:arding tlie 



and submit sketch 
MUNN & CO., 365 Broadway, New York 



CHURCH 

AEROPLANE 

COMPANY 

BROOKLY\, N. Y. 



Heavier-Than-Air Machines 
Separate Parts 
Working Models 
Flying Models 
Aeronautic Specialties 

Supplies for Model Builders 

ALUMINUM TUBING, RATTAN, BAMBOO, 
WHITE-WOOD, BIRCH, SPRUCE, ETC. 

AEROPLANES, GLIDERS 
MODELS 

Made to Order from Working Drawings 

PR.OPELLER.S 

Scientifically Built from Selected Honduras Mahogany, 
one pound to the foot diameter. 6 inches to 10 feet. 

KNOCKED DOWN FRAMES 

Ready to Assemble. 



AGENTS WANTED 

To take Orders for our Working Models and Flying Toys 
Liberal Commissions 

Address all communications to 

CHURCH AEROPLANE COMPANY 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

EVERETT V. CHURCH . President and Manager 
ALBERT C. TRIACA . . Aeronautical Engineer 
H. S. RENTON, 49 Wabash Ave., Chicago . . Agent 



CATALOG FREE ON REQUEST 



June, ipio 



AIRCRAFT 



131 




AT THE RECENT GREAT FLYING MEET AT NICE, ALL THE MORE FAMOUS AVIATORS VENTURED OUT OVER THE MEDITERRANEAN. RAW- 
LINSON AND ROUGIER ARE SEEN HERE SAFELY RETURNING FROM A CRUISE OUT TO SEA. OTHERS WERE LESS FORTUNATE. 
SEE "the NICE MEET," PAGE 147, AND "a LADY WRITES FROM NICE," PAGE ISO. 



Esnault-Pelter 



CONTENTS — JUNE. 1910 

Cover Drawing . 

Frontispiece — Glimpses of Aircraft's New Editorial and Business Offices 
Summary of Human Flight .... 

Women Who Fly ...... 

Editorial ........ 

Letters from Sir Hiram S. Maxim, Louis Bleriot, and Robert 

Safe Flight 

Big jNIen of the Movement 

Law and the Air 

How to Build a Glider ..... 

The Wright and Selden Patents : A Comparison 

Records and Statistics 

Foreign News 

.A Lady Writes from Nice 

liritish Aeronautic Notes 

The Wright Company is an Incentive to the Development of 

Three Impressions 

Club News ....... 

New Flyers Described 

Flying Machine Models .... 
Recent Patented Inventions .... 
News in General 



Aviation 



G. A. Coffin 



Mrs. J. Herbert Sinclair 
. Ada Gibson 



James S. Stephens 

Denvs P. !Mvers 

W' H. Ph'ipps 

Hugo C. Gibson 

George F. Campbell Wood 

Albert C. Triaca 



C. G. Grey 

John G. Hanna 

Gertrude Bacon 

Ada Gibson 

George F. Camobell Wood 

W."H. Phipps 

. Gustave R. Thompson 

Mrs. J. Herbert Sinclair 



13^ 
133 
134 
137 
138 
i.W 
140 
142 
143 
144 
144 
145 
150 
ISO 
151 
15^ 
153 
154 
154 
15.=; 
156 



AIRCR.AFT 



ALFRED \V. LAWSON 
President and Treasurer 



Published Monthly by The Lawson Publishing Company 
37-59 EAST 28TH STREET, NEW YORK, U. S. A. 

Telephone, 5017 Madison J*f|uiire 

TERMS TO SUBSCRIBERS 



ERNEST C. LANDGRAF 
Secretary 



In the United States. Mexico. Puerto Rico, Gua 
Islands, Cuba (including Postage), $1.50 per year. 
Fifteen Cents the Copy, of All News Dealers. 
Foreign Subscriptions, Two Dollars per year. 
In changing order give old as well as new addre 
Advertising copy must be in hand by the 1st of : 

Only high-grade advertisements of thoroughly r 



n. Philippine Islands, Hawaiian 

Qonth previous to date of piibli- 
tliable firms are solicited. 

[Cofiyri^ht, igio, by Tk. 



WHEN YOUR SUBSCRIPTION EXPIRES 

One month before a subscription expires we enclose a renewal blank on which 
you will write your order for the renewal. 

When first notified that your subscription will expire, ^ou should send your 
renewal at once, in order not to miss a number. New subscriptions which are re- 
ceived by us on or before the 15th of any month will begin with the issue of that 
month. If received after that date they will begin with the following month's issue. 
We cannot enter subscriptions to begin with back numbers. One month's notice is 
necessary before a change of address can be made. 

'.aivson Publishing Co'\ 



132 



AIRCRAFT 



June, iQiQ 




GLIMPSES OF AIRCRAFT'S NEW^ EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS OFFICES 




SUMMARY OF HUMAN FLIGHT 



By Mrs- J. Herbert Sinclair 




(Continued from May Aircraft) 

JLI HOUGH it seems that the lineage of the Zep- 
|n_hn diiigibles is an unbroken one and that 
L Kh big ship was followed by an improved siic- 
ets-,or there was in reality an interval of several 
Ncais between the building of the first of the 
great rigid airships and that of the second. 

In this interval others were experimenting, 
hnwe\er more especially in France, where 
■^ mtos Dumont was continuing his first experi- 
ments and where his dirigibles were succeeding 
each other with bewildering rapidity. 

Whate\er ma^ be said of the lack of scientific value or use- 
fulness of the daring Brazilian's experiments, it is certain that 
none have ever called forth the popular enthusiasm or drawn 
public attention to the possibilities of aeronautics, as they did. 
It was the Santos-Dumont VI which won the famous prize of 
100,000 francs, offered by M. Deutsch (de la Meurthe) to the first 
dirigible which should rise from the grounds of the Aero Club 
of France, at St. Cloud, near Paris, and, under its own power, 
circle the Eiffel Tower, three and a half miles away, returning to 
the St. Cloud grounds, within half an hour. 

After two unsuccessful attempts in July, with the No. V, the 
feat was performed on October 19, 1901, with the new No. VI ; 
it will long be remembered by the countless thousands of 
Parisians who witnessed it. 

The start occurred at 2.42 in the afternoon ; the wind being 
favorable on the outward journey, the Eiffel Tower was reached 
in nine minutes and the turn successfully made. 

The return trip against the wind, notwithstanding motor trou- 
ble and loss of lifting power when passing through the cool air 
above the Bois de Boulogne, took but twenty minutes, the finish 
line being crossed twenty-nine and a half minutes after the start ; 
the rules prescribed, however, that the time should be taken at 
landing, and it was forty-one seconds over the half hour before 
he had doubled back after crossing the finish line and landed. 
The prize was, however, not withheld on this technicality. 

Of Santos-Dumont's later dirigibles, the most interesting cer- 
tainly was his tiny No. IX, of 1903. Small dirigibles are an 
anomaly, but this little gas-bag, with its diminutive engine, did 
sterling work for its designer and owner. 

Santos-Dumont named this the " Runabout " and used it as 
such. One day he made a trip to the Aero Club grounds, and 
after a short call started off again, recrossed the Seine and 
stopped for refreshments at the restaurant of the Cascade : he 
crossed the river twice more before returning to his own 
grounds. 

On another occasion he actually sailed up the Avenue du Bois 
de Boulogne on a level with the roofs of the houses, and down 
that of the Champs Elysees to his own apartments, where he had 
breakfast. ,-\nother day he allowed a young American girl to 
navigate the little craft from Neuilly St. James to Bagatelle ; 



the No. IX also carried Santos-Dumont to the annual Military 
review of the Fourteenth of July, at Longchamps. 

Santos-Dumont had many remarkable escapes from death in 
the course of his daring trials, but a compatriot of his was less 
fortunate than he, and met his end under most tragic circum- 
stances. 

Severo d'Albuquerque and his friend Sache rose into the air 
on Way 12, 1902; their craft was a dirigible of most peculiar 
shape and design, the gas-bag of about 85,000 cubic feet capacity 
being sustained by an inner framework, and the two propellers 
being placed at the ends of the longer axis of the bag itself. 

A quarter of an hour after the start, flames were noticed at the 
back of the car and a violent explosion followed. Immediately 
after this a bright flame was seen in the middle of the lower side 
of the main body and another explosion took place. The balloon 
fell from a height of 1,300 feet, and Severo and his companion 
were killed on the spot. It was subsequently found that the 
gasolene tank showed signs of having been on fire, and the 
whole of the car was more or less burnt. 

The fault lay in placing the car too close to the body of the 
balloon. 

The explosion must have originated at the motor : the flame 
was then carried along the chimney and came in contact with a 
stronger explosive mixture with the result that a second explo- 
sion took place. The balloon then crumpled up, and as the outer 
envelope was not firmly secured, it did not act as a parachute, 
the fall being in consequence ver}' rapid. 

1902 was a most unfortunate year for dirigible-fatalities, the 
death of another experimenter and his aide following the Severo 
accident, on October 13 ; these were Baron de Bradsky-Laboun 
and a young engineer named Morin. 

The dirigible was 112 feet long and of 30,000 cubic feet ca- 
pacity. 

When de Bradsky made his ascent, one of the propellers caused 
a tilt about the vertical axis, and a much greater height was 
reached than had been expected. 

De Brad.sky seemed to be about to give up the attempt, and 
began to descend. When he was about 300 feet from the ground, 
he called for information as to a suitable landing place. As 
soon as he had satisfied himself about this point, it was noticed 
that Morin moved toward de Bradsky, and the centre of gravity 
was shifted to such an extent that, the car toppled over. Both 
aeronauts were thrown out and killed on the spot. 

In the history of aeronautics, more perhaps than in that of any 
other art, successes have been built on- failures, and failures have 
had a most potent eflfect on its development. 

The deaths of Severo and of de Bradsky — martyrs to science — 
were deplorable in every way, but from their accidents much 
was learnt as to what should be avoided in dirigible construction. 

No further fatalities were to occur in bona fide dirigibles for 
seven years. 

(To be continued in July Aircr.\ft) 



134 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 



WOMEN WHO FLY 

By Ada Gibson 



T was not without some surprise that the success 
of the Baronne Raymonde de Laroche, at the 
recent flying" contests held in Egypt, was learned 
of in America. 

Throughout the winter some news and much 
rumor had crossed the Atlantic concerning the 
efforts being made by some venturesome sports- 
women to emulate the prowess of Continental 
aviators, but it remained for the Heliopolis meet 
to reward this perseverance, and to prove beyond 
doubt that the joys of driving a flying machine were not to be re- 
served to the sterner sex. 





MiSi DOROTHY LEVITT^ OF LONDON 

Mme. de Laroche was the first woman to pilot an aeroplane in 
flight ; this feat she achieved as long ago as last November, at 
Mourmelon — that human aviary, where, throughout the last few 
months, so many would-be birdmen have graduated from the 
fledgling class. 

She was by no means, however, the first of her sex to experi- 
ence the novel sensation of flying, for manj' before her had soared 
aloft, as passengers of the more experienced aviators. 

To a Flemish girl, Mile. P. van Pottelsberghe, of Ghent, belongs 
the distinction of having flown before any other woman; thi- 
occurred just two years ago when she rode by the side of Henrx 
Farman, on his famous old Voisin biplane. 

He had come to Belgium to make the first exhibition flights 
ever given by an aviator and on one of his trials the young Gan- 
toise was taken along as a lightweight passenger : the machine 
only severed contact with Mother Earth for a few yards or so 
and did not rise more than two or three feet, but during those 
brief instants it certainly was fl3'ing. 

A few days later, but in a widely different location — at Turin — 
another Voisin, piloted by poor Leon Delagrange, carried as a 
passenger for .some few hundred feet, the French sculptress, 
Madame Therese Peltier ; Delagrange, it will be remembered, was 
himself a sculptor of no small merit. 

It was announced at this time that Madame Peltier was to learn 



to drive the biplane but she apparently abandoned the idea, the 
death of Delagrange having no doubt much to do with this deci- 
sion. 

The honor of being the first woman to fly on a Wright machine 
and the further dignity of being the first lady passenger of Wilbur 
Wright himself belong to Madame Hart O'Berg, whose husband 1 
was Wright's European business manager. It was on October 7, 
1908, that she flew with him at the military parade grounds of \ 
Auvours, near Le Mans, where he had recently been astonishing] 
the world with his demonstration of mechanical flight, and, the 
next day, another lady experienced the delights of flying in the 
same machine, driven by the same master hand ; this was Madame [ 
Leon Bollee, whose exhilarating air-trip lasted just four minutes 
and twenty-one seconds. Leon Bollee is of course the well- 
known autom.obile manufacturer of Le Mans, and it was in his 
workshop that Wright assembled his machine for the reception- 
trials made before the French Syndicate. 

Madame Lazare Weiller, the wife of the Parisian banker, who 
was then negotiating for the purchase of the Wrights' French 
patent rights was his next — and for a considerable time his last 
— lady passenger, for it was not until the Spring of 1909 that the 
preserves of these ladies were encroached upon bj' the Comtesse 
de Lambert, the wife of Wright's first pupil, and by Miss Kath- 
arine Wright, the aviators' sister ; these ladies made several 
flights at Pau in the famous flyer. 

Several women in America have also temporarily left the earth 
for a brief space of time, as passengers in flying machines ; Mrs. 
Ralph H. Van de Man took a short trip in the Army Wright : 
aeroplane ; this was at College Park, near Washington, last Octo- 
ber, with the elder Wright once more at the helm ; no other lady 
has flown in a Wright in this hemisphere, but several flew with 
Paulhan in his Farman during the Los Angeles meet, last Janu- 
ary, notably Mme. Paulhan, Mrs. Clifford B. Harmon, Mrs. Cort- 
landt Field Bishop, and Mrs. Dick Ferris. 

Mrs. Van de Man, the first lady in America to fly, is the wife 
of one of the Captains of the Army War College, and her great 
ambition is said to be to become a competent aviator ; no one who 
has seen this daring rider of thoroughbred jumpers taking the 
obstacles in the hunting field will doubt her capability to master 
this latest strenuous sport. Mrs. Glenn H. Curtiss is another 
American who has recently flown ; it goes without saying that this 
was with her famous husband — the winner of the Gordon Bennett 
Cup — on one of his swift little biplanes. 




MADAME THERESE PELTIER, ON THE LATE LEON DELAGRANGE's FIRST 
AEROPLANE 



June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



135 



111 Europe there are many women who have soared in Hying 
machines since the beginning of last Summer, as passengers of 
renowned aviators ; among these are Jiladame Colliex, whose 
husband is the Voisin brothers' head engineer, and who, nearly a 
year ago, was one of the " men " in the first " three-man-flight " 
ever made. Mme. Frank was one of Farman's passengers in the 
world's record one hour three-man-flight, which he made quite 
r-cently; this is the longest flight ever made by a woman; Miss 
Gertrude Bacon, another passenger of Farman's, is one of the very 
few women who has been so favored as to have experienced all 
tiie different methods of air-travel: her interesting impression^ 
appear elsewhere in this issue. 

Then there is ^Ille. Jeanne Laloe, the lady-journalist who flew 
several times last October, on Bregi's Voisin ; there is also JMme. 
Anna Warchalowski ; she is an Austrian — the first Austrian 
woman to fly, — and the only woman to have flown so far, in 
Austria ; she is the sister-in-law of Adolf Warchalowski, to whom 
she is indebted for her trip skyward. 

In the last few months a great many of the passengers of the 
more famous flyers, especially in France, England and Belgium, 
have been women, so many in fact that an enumeration of them 
would be fastidious. 

Among the first women of title to take up the aerial fad, — 
(every new locomotion must apparently pass through the stages 
of science, sport and fad, in the order named, before becoming 
a world-wide industry) — are the Comtesse de Gnittant and the 
Princesse de Crcy, who were recently Sommer's passengers at 
INIouzon. 

]Mr. Claude Grahame-White. the hero of the first attempt to 
win the $50,000 London to Manchester prize, took his mother for 
an air-spin over the Chalons plains the other day — certainly the 
first time mother and son have flown together — while in a recent 
" tliree-man-flight " at !Mourmelon, the fair se.x preponderated 
aboard the flyer ! 

As to the bona-fide women aviators, those who drive their 
own machines, it was not until the end of last Summer that the 
Baronne de Laroche, who as mentioned above, is the pioneer of 
them all, took the first lesson in handling her Voisin; it did not 
take this well-known sportswoman and automobilist very long to 
become mistress of her new craft, and only a few weeks later 



found her making her first flights. She has since made many, 
remaining at times aloft for half an hour at a stretch. Nor 
have these been accomplished without incident: she sustained 
one verv bad accident last Winter, but, with characteristic deter- 




■' / 


W:' 


^\ 


- 1I'.,. ■■ 


*'-::.i¥ i 


'^f'' ' ' 


1 , -..i 


Im 




liiH 


MRj 






-^ ■ -■-. . ti nsmMj 







THE E.^RONNE DE LAROCHE, THE FIRST WOMAN TO PILOT AN AERO- 
PLANE IN FLIGHT 



mination, resumed her trials as soon as she had recovered from 
the fall. 

While Madame de Laroche originally took up flying as a sport, 
her try-out at Hehopolis against some of the most famous pro- 
fessionals proved such a success that she has entered for several 
of the many European meets. 

Several other women are adopting the new art as a profession : 
such are Helene Dutrieu and Aboukaia, two feminine profes- 
sionals who have already achieved fame in various pursuits calling 
for especial daring and initiative. The former, as a professional 
cyclist, was famous a dozen years ago ; she won the world's 
championship for women, held at that time, and still holds the 
world's hour record for her sex ; when the interest in racing 
waned she took up trick riding and some of the more dangerous 
circus specialties, such as " looping the loop," a pursuit whicn 
nearly cost her her life ; Helene Dutrieu has since achieved suc- 
cess as an actress but is now returning to the excitement and 
danger of professional mechanical sport; she has already flown 
in a Santos-Dumont " Dragon-fly " and sustained a bad spill 
without harm or even emotion ; she will shortly fill an engagement 
in Russia where she will appear on a Sommer biplane.* Mile. 
.'\boukaia was also a professional cyclist at the time of the 
bicycle craze, and was a familiar figure at the races held at that 
time on small indoor saucer-tracks, in London ; she is a very 
small woman and now drives a diminutive Santos-Dumont mono- 
plane. 

These are out and out professionals and look on flying as a 
matter of business ; Mademoiselle Marvingt, on the other hand, 
is a sportswoman pure and simple ; famous as a horsewoman 
and as a swimmer, she has also earned the reputation of being 
one of the cleverest balloon pilots in the world and her recent 
hair-raising crossing of the North Sea is one of the most daring 
feats in the annals of aerostation. 

This plucky Frenchwoman is also an adept at the thrilling Nor- 
wegian sport of skiing; she recently won the ski races for ladies, 
both at Chamounix and at Gerardmer. with little or no effort. 



MLLE. LALOE. ABOARD ERIJGl's VOISIN (tHE IDENTICAL BIPLANE ON 
WHICH PAULHAN ACHIEVED HIS EARLY TRIUMPHS). BREGI IS HID- 
DEN BY THE CLUB PENNON 



*A photograph o£ M 
page 146. 



Dutrieu as a passenger of Sommer's occurs on 



136 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 



She has now taken aviation into her affections and has made 
many flights with Latham on his Antoinettes ; her great ambition 
being to drive an Antoinette which, if it is one of the hardest of 
aeroplanes to learn to master is also the most bird-like of them all. 

Although American women have not up to the present become 
sufficiently enthusiastic to take up the new sport in earnest, they 
must not for a moment imagine that the field has been left en- 
tirely to Frenchwomen. 

Miss Dorothy Levitt, of London, whose successes on the stage 
are only second to those she has achieved as an expert automobile 
race-driver, made her first flight as a passenger of Paulhan, at 
Blackpool, and so enthusiastic did she become that she immedi- 
ately went to Chalons to learn to drive an aeroplane. She made 
arrangements to come to America and exhibit her skill as an 
aviator at the Los Angeles aviation meet, but was deterred from 
doing so, through not having obtained her pilot license. 

Some Irish women, too, have added flying to their other pas- 
times, and in some instances are perhaps more actively enthusi- 
astic than their French sisters. One of them at least. Miss Lillian 



on a Bleriot, Misses Anna and Rosa Stier, of Austria, on Voisins, 
and Mile. Elsa Bechart, also on a Voisin, (the latter at the new 
Sanchez-Besa flying school, near Reims). 




MADEMOISELLE MARVINGT TAKING A LESSON FROM HUBERT LATHAM 
IN HANDLING AN ANTOINETTE MONOPLANE 



S. Bland has constructed a machine entirely herself ; Miss Bland 
has christened her aeroplane " Mayfly " and believes it was the 
very first biplane to be built in the Emerald Isle. 

Judging from the success obtained with this machine as a 
glider it might have appropriately been re-christened '' Doesfly," 
by its modest owner. 

Other ladies from Ireland interested in aviation are Miss 
Sheila O'Neill and Miss Spencer Kavanagh. The former has 
been learning the intricacies of managing a flying machine of en- 
tirely novel design, at Wimbledon, near London, and dreams of 
nothing less than crossing the Irish Channel in it, while the latter, 
who is an expert balloonist and parachutist, is a pupil of Mr. 
Grahame- White. She has been serving her apprenticeship at Pan 
and has made several flights on her " Channel-crossing " Bleriot. 
She was the first woman of British nationality to pilot an aero- 
plane. 

Both Miss O'Neill and Miss Levitt, as well as Miss Gertrude 
Bacon, are members of the English Women's Aerial League, who 
have been giving a series of " aerial teas " at the Criterion Res- 
taurant, London, where music intersperses, and tends to relieve 
whatever tedium or dryness accounts of aeronautical experiences 
and speeches on aeronautical topics may present to feminine ears 
when served as a steady diet ! 

Other ladies now learning to fly in France are Lady Campbell, 



..Iv \ 




DIMINUTIVE MLLE. AEOUKAIA ON AN AEROPLANE TO MATCH: A 
SANTOS-DUMONT " DRAGON-FLY " 

In Germany, Fraiilein Ida Perry, w.bll known to Berlin theatre- 
goers, has ordered a monoplane from Hans Grade, the famous 
German aviator, who recently came to grief at the Nice meet, but 
who, on the whole, has been remarkably successful with his racy 
little flyer. 

About the only women in America who have announced their 
determination of driving an aeroplane are the Misses Curzon, 
of New Orleans, whose brother purchased one of the prize-win- 
nnig Henry Farman biplanes after the Reims meet. 

More will follow in the tracks of these aerial amazons and, if 
precedents count for anything, there seems no reason to doubt 




A GROUP AT THE BLERIOT FLYING SCHOOL AT PAU. IN THE CENTRE 
MISS SPENCER KAVANAGH; ON HER RIGHT. CLAUDE GRAHAME-WHITE. 
THE HERO OF THE FIRST ATTEMPT TO WIN THE LONDON TO MAN- 
CHESTER $50,000 PRIZE 

that, when the sport develops, quite as many and as competent 
feminine aviators will be found to the West of the Atlantic as 
to the East. 



June, iQio 



AIRCRAFT 




TO THE WORLD AT LARGE inured to scepti- 
cism by centuries upon centuries of unsuccess, 
the idea of successful and efficient travel through the 
planet's atmosphere, instead of on its surface — ter- 
reous or aqueous — is distinctly a revolutionary one. 

It is the role of this magazine to contribute an ear- 
nest and fruitful share towards making this at present 
startling idea a familiar one, and to record, month by 
month, the progress and the extension of aeronautics 
throughout the world. 

It is an eminently encouraging task at this time. 
Only three years ago the mention of aerial navigation 
still called forth open derision — and the writer, among 
others, can vouch for this — ; a year later this had 
"toned down" to a sceptical smile; last year interest 
began to be genuinely felt, — it was still amused in- 
terest, but interest, nevertheless — ; and now amuse- 
ment has no further part in the interest, whether it 
be casual or intense, manifested by the individual in 
the present developments and prospects of air-craft as 
instruments of human usefulness. 

Thus, in three years, has been accomplished for air- 
craft what took thirty years for the steamboat, twenty' 
for the steam-engine, and ten for the automobile. 

In Europe, however, " I'idee aerienne " has made 
far more rapid strides than in America. 

In taking up a new idea, Americans may be said, 
generally speaking, to be all more or less " from Mis- 
souri " ; they do not let themselves be carried away 
by enthusiasm or sentiment; scepticism and suspicion 
of " new fangled ideas " are in fact among the most 
valuable stocks-in-trade which go to make them the 
business men of the world par excellence. 

It is therefore, perhaps, too much to expect that this 
necessary change in point of view, as concerns aerial 
navigation, should be brought about with such revo- 
lutionary rapidity as it has been in the Old World ; 
but, through being more evolutionary in character, 
the change is all the more definite and all-embracing, 
and when it is ultimately consummated no relapses of 
incredulity occur such as a too rapid change of ideas 
almost invariably brings about. The people of this 
country may be a little slower in drawing their conclu- 
sions, but when these are arrived at they are liable to 
be both more permanent and more correct. 



But quickly as the idea is gaining ground among 
the masses, it is not keeping pace with the events 
which prompt it ; not a single day passes — one single 
day in the world's history — that a new fact, a feat, a 
record, a performance, or a discovery, an invention, a 
new idea, is not recorded, to be added, as a single 
stone, to the ever-growing tower of aeronautical 
knowledge and achievement. 

Take the events of a single month: 

A month ago for an aeroplane to risk itself over the 
sea was considered a deed of heroic recklessness : the 
other day eight aeroplanes soared out over the blue 
waters of the Mediterranean on a single afternoon. 

A month ago to fly from one spot to another fifty 
miles distant was still a dream of the future : to-day 
such a flight would probably not be deemed of suf- 
ficient interest to warrant the cost of cabling the news. 

A month ago the Comte de Lambert's feat of last 
October was still spoken of as a marvel among mar- 
vels : a young man with six weeks' practise at driving 
a bran-new type of monoplane — a monoplane, let it be 
noted — duplicates this feat, soars over Paris, and lands 
in the Bois de Boulogne ; three lines are cabled on the 
event, and the next who accomplishes a similar per- 
formance will no doubt pass unnoticed. 

A month ago a three-man flight was considered a 
marvellous weight-carrying feat; what would it be 
thought of now that Sommer's machine has carried 
four aloft for several miles? 

It is only a few^ weeks since the winning of the 
$50,000 of the London " Daily Mail " and that of the 
$20,000 of the Michelin brothers were deemed mere 
possibilities of the dim future ; the former is now won, 
and it is obvious that we may expect the other to be 
attempted any day. 

Here in America a short news-despatch tells us that 
one man has taken another, as a passenger, up five 
hundred feet, and that a second native aviator flew at 
nine hundred feet. Let us imagine for a moment the 
sensation this would have created had it occurred on 
April 23, 1909, instead of on April 23, 1910! 

And so it goes, the exceptional of yesterday is 
merely the unusual of to-day, before becoming the fa- 
miliar of to-morrow. 



138 



AIRCRAFT 



June, jgio 



LETTERS FROM SIR HIRAM MAXIM. BLERIOT AND ESN AVLT-PELTERIE 




E recently wrote to Sir Hiram S. Maxim, the 
famous inventor, to M. Louis Bleriot, the well- 
known French aviator and builder of mono- 
planes, (which were recently declared to be in- 
fringements of the Wright patent) and to Mr. 
Robert Esnault-Pelterie, President of the S3'n- 
dicate of the aeronautical constructors of France, 
for their points of view on the Wright question, 
and have received in reply the following letters : 



SIR HIRAM MAXIM'S LETTER 

Dear Sir: 

I have read with a great deal of interest the correspondence 
and editorials which have ajppeared in Aircraft relating to the 
Wright patents in America. 

To make the front edge of an aeroplane rigid and the rear 
edge thin and flexible and to keep the machine on an even 
keel, by flexing the thin edge, is certainly not new. 

Lord Kelvin took a keen interest in my work at Baldwyn's 
Park: he visited my place on many occasions and brought some 
very distinguished scientists with him. He spoke very highly of 
my work but he had his own ideas and in time these ideas may 
be proved to be right. He thought it would be possible to make 
a machine in which the aeroplanes, although very large, could 
still be revolved at a low speed, the machine moving forward 
through the air the same as at present. I thought the matter 
over and it appeared to me to be quite plausible and I ultimately 
applied for a patent on a flying machine having eight aeroplanes 
mounted on two shafts. These were to be placed at a very low 
angle, to rotate slowly to get their lifting effect principally from 
being driven forward onto undisturbed air. 

The machine took the form of both a helicopter and an aero- 
plane. This patent is referred to in my book "Artificial and 
Natural Flight." It can be seen that it is claimed as an aero- 
plane as well as a helicopter and the flexing of the outer and rear 
edge of the aeroplanes is certainly shown and described and is 
used for keeping the machine on an even keel. In fact the flex- 
ing aeroplanes represent the pith of the whole patent. 

The law relating to patents is not by any means a fixed quan- 
tity. There are many factors in the equation and the strongest 
factor in the Wrights' favor, in the United States, is, without 
doubt, the factor of patriotic bias. 

Everyone who has anything to do in the decision will naturally 
have a strong bias ; they will even strain a point to give the 
credit of the invention of a flying machine to an American : I 
have no doubt, however, that a determined effort on the part of 
American aviators, if supported by money, would be quite able 
to greatly curtail the preposterous claims made by the Wrights. 

I was present at the Rheims meet last year and I noted what 
people had to say ; it generally amounted to this : " The Wright 
machine has had its day ; it is now a back number." Whether 
this be true or not the Wrights are certainly entitled to very 
great credit for the part they have played in the history of 
aviation. 

With the money that they have at their disposal they may be 
quite able to greatly retard the progress of aviation in the United 
States, but in Europe I do not anticipate that they will be able 
to give aviators any trouble whatsoever unless these aviators use 
the specific device of the Wrights, as described in their patent. 
Yours sincerel)'. 




^CCa^:^^ 



BLERIOT'S LETTER 

Dear Sir : 

Concerning the Wright patents my opinion is that the warping 
of the wings, taken in itself, is public property, and I think this 
can easily be shown : the vertical rudder is itself public property 
and it is only the combining of these two effects — balancing and 



steering — in a single lever of control which can with some show 
of reason be claimed by the Wright brothers. 

I have personal reason to regret that they did not confine their 
claim to this single lever, for it is an interesting improvement and 
one concerning which we could have established with the 
Wrights an understanding, which would have been of profit to 
all aviators. 

In all my present French machines the warping of the mono- 
plane surface is brought about by the left hand, while the steering 
is dependent on foot control. These two effects are completely 
independent and in no way necessarily corrective, as called for in 
the Wright patents ; on the contrary experience shows that the 
major part of the time their effects should be added one to the 
other instead of corrective of each other. This independence of 
control necessitates a somewhat more delicate and longer appren- 
ticeship, but one which the present uncompromising attitude of 
the Wrights forces me to maintain. 

I have gone further ; in view of their threats I have tried to 
completely do away with warping, using only for balancing pur- 
poses a somewhat larger vertical keel. The result was entirely 
satisfactory ; I was in this manner able to fly without warping, in 
winds as strong as those faced by the Wrights. 

I delivered to Paulhan two such machines for his American 
trip and, in his trials at Pau, prior to leaving France, he flew 
perfectly without any warping device. He made as sharp turns 
as previously and merely had to use a greatef tilt, when doing so. 

To sum up, this question of warpmg, about which so much 
fuss has been made, and which seemed to be a sine qua non 
condition of lateral equilibrium, proves to be of far less impor- 
tance than this. If warping renders sipnal service in keelless 
machines of wide wing area, such as the Wright machines, it be- 
comes a far less necessary improvement in machines of small 
breadth of wing, provided with keels, and is entirely needless in 
machines with vertical partitions, such as the Voisin biplanes. 

As aeroplanes will tend more and more toward increasing 
speed and diininution of breadth of wing, the question of warp- 
ing will more and more lose its importance. 

I merely wish to say that it was regrettable to see at the dawn 
of a science, (to encourage which all should have united in their 
efforts) inventors make the unjustifiable claim of monopolizing 
an idea, and, instead of bringing their help to their collaborators, 
prevent them, for no reason, from proliting by some ideas which 
they should have been happy to see generalized. 





ESNAULT-PELTERIE'S LETTER. 

Dear Sirs : 

I duly received your letter of the l8th inst., and sincerely thank 
you for the impartiality which you are good enough to show in 
the question of the Wright patent. 

I can only repeat what I have already said, that I consider the 
judgment rendered against Paulhan unjustified. As regards the 
practical result of the action of the Wright brothers, it has been 
that we have joined together on the continent and taken meas- 
ures to eventually have justice rendered to us in our country. 
We will also try to reach this result in America. It is true that 
the precedent of the Selden affair is unfortunate and tends to 
make one doubtful of success, but we are decided that, if we do 
not succeed on judicial territory, we will take up the conflict on 
other lines. 

I remain, yours very truly. 




June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



139 



SAFE FLIGHT 

By James S. Stephens 




\FETY' in flight has acquired a new interpre- 
tntion with the advent of tlie (lying machine. 
I his phrase, which previously meant to run 
iway, now means to stay, or staying power, 
ttadiness, equihbrium, as applied to the art of 
Ihmg. 

Flying is an art the broad possibilities of whicli 
Inve as yet only been dreamed of. The wonder- 
tul developments of the past few years have been 
to a great extent but practical demonstrations of 
the theories and plans of would-be man-birds, for hundreds of 
years past, made possible by the invention and improvement of 
the gasoline engine. To "fly" has been the first aim of all 
wlio in the past have devoted their time, their talents, and some- 
times their lives, to the subject. This aim having been accom- 
plished, it now devolves upon those who are giving their thought 
and time to the matter to work for improvement of methods. 
Safety and service should be the watch-words of future progress. 

To a great extent safety will always be a question of stability 
and control. jNlany inventors are now working along this line. 
Swinging weights, gyroscopic action, air or hydraulic pressure, 
and electrically operated devices have been proposed, any of which 
might be used singly or in combination to operate the controlling 
functions of a flying machine, applied either directly or as auxil- 
iary regulators. 

The application of many of these devices at present in use for 
other purposes, would be a simple matter. It has been taken 
for granted that such devices must be made to operate the con- 
trolling methods in use. All of these devices require a consider- 
able amount of power, in fact with the Wright method of wing- 
warping, and the swinging of the hinged surfaces as in the 
Farman and Curtiss machines, the more critical the conditions 
become under which they are used to return the machine to its 
normal position the greater the power required. There is always 
the imminent possibilitj' that the operator or auxiliary apparatus 
may not possess sufficient strength or leverage promptly to ac- 
complish the desired effect — with an accident as the result. 

This feature of requisite power renders present methods of 
maintaining stabilit}' inefficient and but poorl)' adapted to control 
by automatic apparatus, resolving the problem into the supplying 
of some other and better method than the warping or swinging of 
unbalanced surfaces so as to oppose them to the lifting pressure 
of the air by sheer force. 

The writer believes that the greatest improvements can be made 
by a design which will so locate the supporting surfaces relative 
to each other and to the weight carried that they will co-act 
within themselves. Such a machine normally will have the nec- 
essary inherent stability, either when flying under power or when 
soaring with power shut ofif. 

This disposition of the supporting surfaces should be so made 
that no vertical surfaces other than those made necessary by the 
details of construction shall be used. Only such dihedral angles 
should be utilized as may be required to obtain the necessary 
inherent stability, no greater angles from the horizontal being 
used under normal conditions than the angle of incidence of the 
planes or aerocurves necessary for support. This method elim- 
inates the vertical rudder and all vertically disposed surfaces, 
which the writer is confident, notwithstanding the recently re- 
ported successes of the Voisin machine, as flown by Rougier at 
Monaco, will be found objectionable and dangerous.* 

The perfected machine will of course need provision for 
steering by the operator, as well as provision for supplementary 
control of longitudinal and lateral balance, which, in this case, 

*Ed. Note. TheVoisins are now building biplanes without vertical parti- 
tions. See page 146. 3rd column, and page 148. 



would come more properly under the head of steering, since the 
steering of a flying machine contemplates turning to the right 
or to the left as well as ascending or descending, while the 
balancing calls for the maintenance of the machine on a level, 
longitudinally and laterally. 

The cut here shown illustrates a method wherein is utilized a 
principle undoubtedly new for this purpose and eminently adapted 
to meet the requirements outlined in this article. 




In a biplane-construction an inclined shaft A is journaled in 
ball bearings on the ends of each plane ; midway between the 
planes on this shaft a circular plane B is attached and supported 
in a normally horizontal position by suitable wire guys. An 
arm C projecting at a right angle from the lower end of each 
shaft, has a flexible wire connection D, from one to the other 
on one side, while the connection on the other side E, passes up 
through pulleys F, to a rocking arm G. Any movements of 
the ends of this arm up or down will rotate the shafts A, tilting 
one of the circular planes up and the other down, giving a lifting 
effect on one side and depression on the other, the rocking of 
the arm G being a natural movement in opposition to the tilt of 
the machine. 

These plans are of circular form and in section as shown 
at H, this form and section presenting a sharp edge to the air 
as it meets and leaves the surface and at the same time providing 
a concave surface on either side, thus greatly adding to their 
efficiency. 

A practical demonstration of the operation of this device may 
be made b}' mounting two circles of card-board, six inches in 
diameter, on two lead pencils, placing them at angles as shown, 
and turning the pencils slightly in either direction. 

These circular planes will undoubtedly prove as efficient as 
any method heretofore used and will have the great advantage 
of operation without resistance other than the slight friction to 
overcome, which may be regarded as negligible, making it much 
easier to maintain manual control and possible to use any of the 
means of automatic or au.xiliary mechanical controls that have 
been suggested. 

This same principle as shown for maintaining lateral balance 
has been utilized in a different form for steering in any desired 
direction and incorporated in a machine now being constructed 
to demonstrate the views herein set forth. The entire control 
of this machine is governed by the movement of the single 
handle-bar G. 

Patents have been applied for covering the principle of this 
device and its various applications, as also upon details of con- 
struction for the various purposes for w-hich it is proposed to 
use it. It is the intention of the writer to submit for publication 
at an early date drawings and a complete description of the ma- 
chine referred to, inviting the criticism of the rapidly increasing 
number who are interested in the Conquest of the Air. 



140 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 




BIG MEN OF THE MOVEMENT 



ROBERT ESNAULT-PELTERIE 



?Or.ERT ESXAULT-PELTERIE 
ol of brilli; 



of the 



neers who have been seized by tlie fascination of 
the problem of flight and are devoting all their 
energies towards completing its solution. 

As President of the Svndicate of French Aero- 
nautical Constructors he holds a very high posi- 
tion in the '" aerial " world, a very natural one. 
for hint, considering his talents, but somewhat 
svirprising if his youth be considered, for M. 
iiaiilt-Pelterie was but twenty-nine years of 



Nc 



niate 



Sth !a 



Tar 



on de Sailly. in 
:ence es-sciences." 
1 Esnault-Pelterie 
fic questions, and 
echanical toys of 



He look up the studv of aeronautics and espe- 
ciallv of the application of the gasolene engine to 
flvin? machines. It was thus that he came to 
biiild^ his famous " R.E.P.'' motor, wdiich he fitted 
to a monoplane of his own design earlv in the 
Fall of iQor. His first flights were made in Octo- 
ber of that vear and excited a great deal of com- 
ment, as much because of the novelties in the 
design of the motor as because of those which 
characterized the monoplane itself. 

The wings could be warped, a peculiarity which 
no French aeroplanes of that time shared, and 
because of this the machine steered much better 
than the others being experimented with in Eu- 
rope, in fact Esnault-Pelterie may be said to have 
accomplished the first voluntary deflections from 
rectilinear flight, made in the "Old World. The 
length of these flights or hops did not exceed 500 
feet, however, and it was only in the following 
year that he succeeded in flying three-quarters 
of a mile — temporarily holding the world's record 
for monoplanes. 

Esnault-Pelterie machines have recently made 
flights of ten minutes, but they are still some- 
what hard to handle, the inventor retaining cer- 
tain features which he hopes, when improved, 
will make his machine superior to others, but 
vhich in their present form appear to handicap 



the 



raft. 



■ R.E.P." motor has been often described; 
it is built in four sizes or powers and embodies 
five, seven, ten or fotirteen cylinders, disposed 
fan-shape, around the crank case; both design 
and construction are of a highly original char- 
acter. 

As a leader in the aeronautical movement. 
Robert Esnault-Pelterie stands as high as any: 
it was virtuallv he who organized the first aero 
shows in Paris, in iqoS and^last year, and it wns 
due to his untiring zeal and energy that they 
were sucli an iniqualified 



LOUIS BLERIOT 

T oris BLERIOT. the hero of the ''Channel 
^ Crossing " and the famous French builder and 
driver of monoplanes, was born at Cambrai. "luh" 
I, 1^72. ' ' 

He graduated from the Ecole Centrale des Arts 
et Manufactures and as early as 1900 was tackling 
the problem of mechanical flight. liis first at- 
tempt, like that of many other pioneers, was an 
ornithopter or flapping-wing machine. Discour- 
aged by the failure of this premature etTort, he 
turned his attention to the automobile industry, 
and put on the market the famous acetvlene 
headlights which bear his name, and the "great 
sale of which enabled him to later spend so 
lavishly on his aviation experiments. 

In 1903. when Ernest Archdeacon led his cam- 
paign of propaganda in France. Bleriot was one 
of the first to rally to his standard, and under- 
take a serious effort towards solving the perennial 
problem. 

In 1905 and 1906. Bleriot. either alone or in col- 
laboration with Gabriel ^'oisin. built several bi- 
plane gliders and fivers which he experimented 
on the Seine, near Paris. 

It was not. however, until 1907 that he was 
actually to fly: and this was to occur, not on a 
two surface machine such as he had previously 
been experimenting w^ith. but on a monoplane, 
the style of aeroplane from wdiJch he was later 
to derive undying fame. 

Leaving the ground for a few feet on April 
5. 1907. Bleriot improved his record on July nth, 
and on September nth: on September 17, 1907. 
he attracted universal attention by covering 303 
yards in flight, only 3S yards less than Santos- 
Dumont's record (it must always be borne in 
id that the Wright brothers' records were at 



tha 



On December 4th and 6th of the same year. 
Bleriot again bettered his record, with a new 
machine, his flights extending from one to three 
furlongs— a world's record for monoplanes. 

It w^as not until the following Tune that this 
record was broken by INL Esnault-Pelterie. but ? 
few days later Bleriot came into his own again, 
driving his No. VIII Bis through the air for 
nearly a mile. From then on he rapidly increased 
the length of his flights, improving 'his record 
July 3. 4 and 6. 190S, the last one extending 
between eight and nine minutes. 

But Bleriot. far from satisfied with the results 
obtained, built yet another machine, which he 
experimented in 'the Fall of 190S. in the Beauce 
country, south of Versailles. 

How Bleriot steadily bettered his performances 
last year and finally.' on his No. XI made his 
great cross-country and cross-channel flights is 
too recent and too familiar a storv to repeat in 
these columns. Sufl^ce it to say that Bleriot has 
proved himself to be one of the greatest among 
the great men engaged in achieving, step by step, 
the Conquest of the Air. 



ORVILLE WRIGHT 

T'HE FIRST MEN TO FLY !-Whatever may 
* be the opinion held by some as to the efl'ect 
_ their present attitude may have on the dawn- 
'ing flying machine industry, or as to the rectitude 
or justification of this attitude, there is little or 
no doubt that to Posterity, the brothers whose 
likenesses appear here will stand out as heroic 
figures of no mean proportions. To the two men 
who first succeeded in flying, places are reserved 
in the Hall of Fame of Human Progress in im- 
mediate proximity to such immortal pioneers as 
Guttenberg. Watt, Fulton, Stevenson, Edison, 
Bell and some others, and to those who see in 
mechanical flight not only a step forward but the 
birth of a new era of incalculable import to Hu- 
manity, it must appear that the \\'"rights will 
stand head and shoulders above even these men. 
Clement Ader. of France, and Sir Hiram S- 
:Maxim. of America and England, succeeded be- 
fore them in overcoming gravity in man-carry- 
ing machines. — the first step in the problem,— 
but it was reserved to Wilbur and Oryille Wright 
to be the first to make real flights. 

It is perhaps because of this tremendous pres- 
tige as pioneers that so much is expected of the 
^\' rights in magnanimity and disinterestedness, 
and there is reason to suppose that their ener- 
getic efforts to get what they can out of their 
invention would be considered entirely natural by 
their present detractors were they merely looked 
upon as two average citi;^cns seeki'ng a living from 
the fruits of their labor, rather than as world's 
history-makers, saddled with a moral obligation 
of living up to their greatness as such, and, in 
a spirit of "noblesse oblige." of merely looking 
upon themselves as stepping stones in the Path 
of Progress. 

These sk,^tches are primarily intended to be 
biographical in character but, to men interested 
in aeronautics, the biographies of the Ohioan 
inventors seem more or less of an old story. The 
Wrights have themselves told how their attention 
was first attracted to flying when, as children, 
th-^y were given by their father a small helicopter 
as a toy. how they later built such toys them- 
selves and w^ere much surprised to find the diffi- 
culties vastly increasing with the size of the 
models, how they later indulged in kite-flying, 
and finally in the summer of iSg6 took up in 
earnest the study of the Problem of Flight. 

They had built iip a small bicycle business in 
their native city of Dayton, but after they became 
really interested in aviation, this was neglected 
for the studies and experiments which were to 
have such a remarkable result. Their first actual 
experiments on a large scale took place in Oc- 
tober, igoo, wdien they tried out large gliders as 
kites. Some months later thev entered into rela- 
tions with Mr. Octave Chanute (who figured 
among Aircraft's Big Men of the Movement, 
in a recent issue), and 1901 saw their first glide 
in a motorless biplane. 



Juiu-. igio 



AIRCRAFT 



141 




BIG MEN OF THE MOVEMENT 



WILBUR WRIGHT 

Tlie following winter was spent in an exhaus- 
tive study of the laws of air-pressure, and the 
conclusions reached were confirmed m the gliding 
experiments of the ensuing year; these glides in- 
creased in length until the Fall of 1903, when the 
brothers were ready to replace the force of gravity 
as a motor, with a mechanism embodied in the 
flyer. , 

A gasolene motor was designed on the general 
lines of the automobile engines of the time, but 
when it came to figuring out the shape and size 
of the propellers the Wrights had once more to 
revert to investigations of their own. 

On the seventeenth day of December. 1903. how- 
ever, the first Wright motor-driven biplane was 
placed on the starting-rail and the engines set 
in motion. When those holding the machine let 
it go, it started down the track and a few seconds 
later, as it approached the farther end of the rail 
that event occurred for which the world had 
waited such countless centuries: under the com- 
bined impulse of its propellers and of the strong 
wind it was meeting, the machine, carrying its 
inventor, rose into the air, maintaining itself for 
twelve seconds in the element it was designed to 

Ader had torn himself free of the ground for 
a longer period than this, thanks to the temporary 
elasticity of his steam-engine, but with every 
possible tribute to the great Frenchman (to whom 
this magazine never fails to give the full share 
of credit due) no one with any genuine sense of 
values, would compare the wild uncontrolled leap 
of the Avion III, on December 12, 1897, to the 
steady, well-controlled, straightaway flights of the 
Wright biplane, on December 17. 1903, especially 
to those which immediately followed the first 
twelve-second attempt, on that historical day, 
at Kitty Hawk, . , , 

The only feature which places Ader s perform- 
ance on any plane approaching Wright's is the 
fact that it was accomplished six years before. 

Experiments were resumed by the Wrights m 
the Spring of 1904, and bv November, turns, cir- 
cles and five minute flights had been made; 19115 
saw further trials by the brothers, who. after mak- 
ing some adjustments and improvements to their 
machine, accomplished several magnificent flights. 
fully warranting their assertion, made at that 
time, that they had turned out a practical flying 
machine. 

Owing to their subsequent secrecy and reti- 
cence, general doubt was entertained by the vast 
majority as to the validity of their claims, and 
it was only when the wonderful biplane was pub- 
licly produced in 1908. that it was proved to de- 
tractors on both sides of the Atlantic— and proved 
beyond the peradventure of a doubt.— that two 
years before anv other man had flown for one 
halt minute. Wilbur and Orville Wright— of 
America-^-had made consecutive flights of over 
hrenjji miles. 



HENRY FARMAN 

HENRY I'ARMAN, who may well be re- 
ferred to as the world's most successful aero- 
plane maker at this date, was born in France 
some thirty-seven years ago. His father, an En- 
glishman, is the well-known Parisian correspond- 
ent of a big London newspaper. 

Henry Farman has always been closely and 
professionally interested in the newer forms of 
locomotion and his connection with them extends 
over' three distinct periods, in each of which he 
achieved both fame and prosperity. 

When the pneumatic-tired bicycle first appeared 
some twenty years ago, the Farman brothers, 
Henry, Maurice and Dick, were among the first 
to take up the novel pastime and sport. 

Henry Farman's first great success in this line 
occurred in the great Paris-Clermont road-race, 
where, although little more than a lad, he de- 
feated the most famous professionals of the time 
—Farman now hopes to win the Michelin Grand 
Prize by flying over the same course—; he then 
won the 100 kilometres track championship, and 
later formed, with his brother Maurice— now a 
rival aeroplane maker— the most famous tandem 
bicycle team the world has ever known. 

When the motor car first made its appearance, 
Henry Farman was again to the fore; he will be 
long remembered as a race-driver, if his aero- 
nautical success does not too completely over- 
shadow his performances on terrestrian vehicles. 

In the great Paris-'Vienna race of 1902, Farman 
was first in the heavy car class and the next 
year came very near winning the Gordon Bc- 
nett Cup, in Ireland— finishi 
Jenatzy and de Knyff. 

In the eliminatory race ti 
team for the 1908 Cup race, I 
car falling down a ravine, and Farman being kept 
from following it by the providential presence of 
a tree, the branches of which caught him as he 
went by. Farman looks upon his sudden swoop 
onto this aerial perch as his 
aviatic 



third to 
elect the French 



true debut 



September. 1907, that Farman first 
piloted a Voisin ofT the ground, and since then 
his success as an aviator and as a constructor 
have been beyond those of any of his competitors. 
As an aeroplane-driver he triumphed, in 1908. in 
the Deutseh-Archdeacon prize of 50,000 francs, 
in the Armengaud prize and the height prize 
of 25 metres. With his own machine he won 
the Grand Prize at Reims last year, and 
countless others, while his pupils, Sommer, Cock- 
burn. Paulhan, Van den Born. Efimofl. Frey. 
Kinet. Crochon. Christiaens, Duray, Rawlmson, 
Chavez, Grahame- White. Dickson, Camermann, 
Edmond, etc., etc.. have captured nearly every 
prize worth winning in the aviation world, the 
last being, of course, the famous London to Man- 
chester prize of £10,000, which apparently only 
his pupils deemed themselves capable of at- 
tempting with chances 



GLENN H. CURTISS 

riLENN H. CURTISS, the man who won for 
'-J America the first Gordon Bennett Aviation 
Cup, comes from Ilammondsport, N. Y. 

When still a boy he acquired local celebrity as 
a cyclist, and, later, as a motorcyclist, — his great- 
est success in this line being his famous mile in 
26"%, the greatest speed at which a human 
being has ever travelled. Showing great mechan- 
ical ability he undertook the construction of 
motorcycles, and achieved remarkable success in 
this business; his motors, which were marvels of 
lightness, became known all over the country and 
Captain Thomas F. Baldwin, learning of their e.t- 
cellence ordered one for one of his dirigibles. 

In 1907, Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, formed 
the Aerial Experiment Association, the other 
members of which were Glenn H. Curtiss, F. J. 
Baldwin. J. A. N. McCurdy and the late Lieu- 
tenant T. Selfridge. Throughout 1908 four ma- 
chines — each one designed by a member of the 
association— were built in Curtiss's shops at Ilam- 
mondsport and experimented: the "Red Wing." 
the "White Wing," the "June Bug" and the 
"Silver Dart." All were fitted with Curtiss 

On May 22, 1908, Glenn H. Curtiss took his 
place in the seat of this machine and on his first 
attempt flew 1017 feet— grazing the earth after 615 
feet had been covered but keeping aloft for an- 
other 402 feet. The time of this first flight was 
nineteen seconds and Curtiss throughout seemed 
to be in perfect control of the biplane, which 
was fitted with triangular wing-tips. 

On June 21, 1908, the " June Bug," built after 
Curtiss's design, was experimented and made 
three very successful flights; further experiments 
were made on June 2 and 25, flights of 2,17s 
feet, in 41 seconds, and of 3,420 feet, in one 
minute, being accomplished on the latter date. 

The Aerial Experiment Association then made 
application to compete for the " Scientific Ameri- 
can " Trophy, for the first flight of a kilometre 
straightaway, the machine to land without injury. 

Further trials were made and, on July 3d. a 
flight of 1,300 yards in 68"!4 successfully accom- 
plished, by Glenn Curtiss. 

On July 4. 190S. after a trial of 900 yards in 56 
seconds Curtiss easily won the prize, flying about 
two thousand yards in l minute. 42 1-2 seconds, 
the official distance, measured in a straight line, 
being 5090 feet. 

The early successes of Curtiss have been pur- 
posely dwelt on here, as being those least known 
and appreciated. 

All the world knows how he won the Gordon 
Bennett Cup last year at Reims, driving his little 
biplane at forty-eight miles an hour around the 
French course, and later won all the more im- 
portant prizes at Brescia, in Italy. Few, if any, 
men have done more for aviation, and in par- 
ticular for American aviation, than America's in- 
ternational champion. Glenn Curtiss. 



142 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 



LAW AND THE AIR. 

By Denys P. Myers 

Continued from May Aircraft 

THE CRIMINAL IN THE AIR 




j F, as has been stated, the criminal Hfe appeals to 
its followers largely because of the absence of the 
prosaic in it. the evildoer ought to come into his 
own in that regard when he takes to the air. To 
the bulk of the criminal class extensive use of 
the sea, either for perpetration of illegal acts or as 
a means of escape, is precluded. Gambling 
aboard ship must obey the economic law of the 
demands of games of chance at sea, and ver}' few 
evildoers have been financially successful enough 
to elude their pursuers by taking a water trip in their own craft. 
Furthermore, only a relatively small number find it worth their 
while to escape, by going abroad as passengers. 

These objections are reduced, from the criminal point of view, 
in the case of air-craft. From the vantage of the air, firearms 
and bombs can be used with some purpose on earthly targets, 
which fact places violent crime at an additional advantage. But 
especially, the aeroplane or even the balloon is within the financial 
possibility of a good man}' of the criminally inclined. Many a 
criminal might have $5,000 to buy an aeroplane, and by its aid 
could either avoid or excessively complicate his extradition. 

Neat little mystery stories will shortly be written around such 
circumstances, and as usual the possibilities are greater the 
more boundaries you introduce. For instance, a perfectly good 
American — speaking nationally — has a pet enemy, who is 
an Italian, and both are in France. The American suavely invites 
the Italian aboard his airship, and takes him up into the air be- 
yond all limits claimed by anybody to be under the control of the 
subjacent territory. In this stratum of air the American pilots 
the craft above Swiss territory, knocks off the Italian, who lands 
in Berne and in the yard of the residence of the Russian minister, 
a portion of Swiss soil which is acknowledged to be Russian by 
reason, of its diplomatic use. The American continues his aerial 
voyage, landing in Germany. 

That is a first-class mess of crime. Look at it a moment. No 
known jurisdictional dicta apply. There is even a question of 
whether crime was committed, although a dead Italian is there 
to show that something out of the ordinary happened. He was 
undoubtedly dead before striking the ground, but the push given 
him by his comrade certainly did not kill him. Moreover, the 
push was administered when the vehicle was beyond the jurisdic- 
tion of any state. France really has no interest in punishing the 
American, for he simply began a perfectly regular aerial trip from 
her soil; and Germany has no more concern, for he only landed on 
her territory. Fle did not enter Swiss jurisdictional boundaries, 
although the Italian probably expired while passing through her 
atmosphere. Enter Russia with an interest in preventing the 
dropping of corpses upon her ex-territorial possessions ; Italy 
desires to protect her citizens from Americans, and has difficulty 
in realizing that as neither France, Switzerland, Russia nor Ger- 
many harbored the perpetrator when the crime was committed, 
she will have to split hairs some way to establish her right to 
securing the American for trial. Inasmuch as the latter was out 
of his country during the whole series of circumstances, the 
United States can scarcely be appealed to under rigid rules. 

Such a series is infinitely more complicated — although it does 
not exhaust the aerial possibilities — than anything that could oc- 
cur at sea. Doubtless the legal decision would be somewhat 
along the lines of Commomvealth vs. Macloon (loi Mass. i) 
where a foreigner to the United States on a foreign vessel be- 
longing to a state different from that of which the defendant 
foreigner was a liege, injured a man, who died in Massachusetts. 
The court held that jurisdiction lay where the crime took efifect, 



and Massachusetts proceeded to punish. In the case above, then, 
Switzerland would prosecute as a plaintiff in error, if, as sup- 
posed, the Italian died in midair within its jurisdiction. 

Before such a clear-cut decision could be rendered, however, 
laws would have to determine how much of a drop through air a 
man is entitled to without being considered legally dead and even 
if jurisdiction should lie for the consummation of a deed during 
such a transitory and casual passage. 

These are fundamentals, and although it does not touch the 
former, Fauchille's code deals well with crime in the air in his 
Art. 15, which says : 

Crimes and misdemeanors committed aboard aerostats (or aero- 
planes) wherever they may be in space, by members of the crew 
or other persons aboard, are within the compe'tence of the 
tribunals of the nation to which the aerostat (or aeroplane) be- 
longs and are judged according to the laws of that nation, what- 
ever be the nationality of the authors or victims. 

"This would secure unity of procedure at the expense of 
justice," comments Judge Simeon E. Baldwin. Arthur K. Kuhn 
adds that the principle adduced is likewise against the basis of 
Anglo-American law, which is territoriality. While these glosses 
are correct, it would seem that probably an international agree- 
ment will compromise in the direction of this statement of the 
case. 

One of the earliest brochures on legal relations in the air was 
one by Dr. Gruenwald, military counsel of the first German guard 
division. He concludes : 

" Only so far as the interest of the territorial state extends is it 
justified in the exercise of jurisdiction over crimes committed 
in its property-sphere." 

With characteristic German thoroughness he scientifically views 
the subject from every standpoint. He finds that culpable actions 
may be committed over the high sea or state-free land districts, 
when the perpetrator is in a state or a private airship, and with 
or without right of nationality in his home state ; and, culpable 
actions may be committed over states, their property or coastal 
waters, in a public or private airship, where the deed is limited in 
influence to the immediate vicinity of the airship, where the deed 
affects the sphere of interest of the territorial state and where it 
is committed on one airship and affects another airship or its 
occupants. 

A little thought will show that in the majority of these in- 
stances it would naturally be the state to which the aircraft owes 
allegiance that would claim jurisdiction, and that otherwise the 
proper interest of the territorial state in protecting its own 
sovereignty would give rights in a specific case. So, if we con- 
sider the paragraph from the Fauchille code merely as the 
enunciation of a general principle, it can easily be defended. 

One point that will probably arise frequently involves the situa- 
tion in which the late Hubert Le Blon found himself at Don- 
caster, on October 25, 1909, some months before his death. A 
strong and erratic wind was blowing, but the starting park was 
so enclosed that he mounted into the air on his Bleriot monoplane, 
in a virtual calm. No sooner was he up, however, than he 
struck the strong currents prevailing. He drove his machine into 
the teeth of the wind, which turned him toward the large crowd 
assembled. He accelerated his engine, raised his elevator, cleared 
the crowd at a height of barely twenty-five feet and, dropped 
like a stone beyond it. smashing the chassis. 

Here was a case where homicide or personal injury might have 
been inflicted upon a bystander in the crucial five seconds the 
mancEuvre required while the aviator was attempting to save him- 
self. The legal maxim says sic utere tuo, tit alienum non laedas 



Jtinc, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



H3 



(Vou shall use your own in such a manner as not to injure an- 
other), which would indicate that Le Blon was well advised by his 
own genius in avoiding the crowd. It has been judicially deter- 
mined that one cannot intentionally take another's life to save his 
own (Rcgina vs. Dudley, L. R., 14 Q.B.D. 273), but if in taking 
the \-oyage a man is doing a lawful act, the law of self-preserva- 
tion would speak in his favor in such a hazard (Morris vs. Piatt, 
32 Conn. 75 ). 

There is no dissenting voice to the proposition that infractions 
of law affecting the safety or fortune of a state, such as con- 
spiracy, treason, counterfeiting, etc., shall be judged by the 
tribunals and under the laws of the injured state, if such deeds 
are committed in any part of the air-space. 

In fact, the general principle of the right to preserve its own in- 
terests and institutions from injury or threatened injury from the 
air will probably be the chief guide-post in setting up a code of 
law for aerial machines. 



Another interesting case suggests itself. Suppose a crime or 
misdemeanor has been committed upon a craft, which then lands 
upon the soil of a state not otherwise concerned. If the deed is 
within the ordinary or treaty competence of the state, it will 
likely be determined that it should proceed to try and punish, 
especially in European countries. If the act is beyond the state's 
competence, then it should proceed with the arrest of the alleged 
culprit and take the necessary measures, subject to instructions. 

These things refer to private air-craft only. Public air-craft 
will, of course, be as free as public sea-going vessels, and local 
authorities in such cases ought to interfere only upon the written 
request of the official in charge of the machine. 

One thing is certain : Law will be applied to aerial situations 
about as quickly as criminals enter the field. 

To be continued in July Aircraft 



HOW TO BUILD A GLIDER 



A SIMPLE glider of the biplane 1 
'» be constructed at home or in 
shop; the cost of materials is not 
construction does not necessitate 
^\or men. MATERIALS, 

selecting materials 



asily 



that the 



ned. 



The 



free fn 



ed throughout 



should be spruce, from which strips should be 
prepared 
Eight k 



folio 



spars % inch thick, iVi inc 

_ __ long; these spars are to 

joined together by the method shown in Fig. 

Twelve crosspieces \'i> inch thick, V2 inch \\ 
and 3 feet long; 

Twelve uprights % inch thick, i!4 inches v\ 
and 4 feet long; 

Forty-two strips for the curved ribs, V^ i: 
thick, V2 inch wide and 4 feet long; 

Two arm-sticks 1V2 inches thick. 2 inches v 
and 3 feet long; 

Two rudder-sticks % inth by % inch an( 
feet long; 

In making the tail, ^/^ -inch-square st' 
be used for the frame and the ribs 
foot apart, as shown in Fig. i. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

The framework of the main planes 
put together first by bolting the ci 
marked C in Fig. 2 to the under si 
main spars marked M in Fig. .:. be 
to^space them apart as shown. 

bolts to be used throughout thi 



spaced 



should be 
OSS struts 
les of the 



tion of the glid< 
bolts, fitted wit 

These main pi 
No. 16 piano \ 
shown in Fig. 4 
per tube will bt 
inch pieces. 

The ribs may now be nailed 
by using i-inch brads; the jc 
rapped securely 



xteenths 
washers. 
les should no 
re, the joint 
for which abi 
needed, wher 



nch stove 

be braced with 
used being that 
It 7 feet of cop- 
cut up into V2- 



the 



spars 



I us formed 
hoemaker's 
The ribs are to be spaced i foot apart; 
ust all extend i foot beyond the rear spars 
main frames; they should be steamed and 

the curve shown in Fig. 3. 
:overing for the planes should be bleached 



th 



efullv fas 



stretch it tightly 
ing 2 feet by 4, in the centre, a; 
The main planes may now b 
by inserting the twelve uprigh 
and Fig. 3); the uprights art 
main spars by using small iron 
and bolts, as shown in Fig. 4. 
should be braced with piano wi 
ening shown in Fig. 4. The cr 
made according to the dimensic 
I. 2 and 3- This tail should be 
same stuff as that used on the 
should be braced with 



lautical cloth; it should 
e rear edges of the ribs and sewn 
stretched along this edge. After 
edge, 



ng the cloth to the 



ope 



shown in Fig. 2. 
joined together 
(see U, Fig. i 
fastened to the 
ight-angle joints 
;ntire frame 
ng the fast- 
1 should be 
en in Figs, 
ed with the 
planes; the 



Th. 



sho 



The tail 



fastened to th 
rked TS in Fig. 3; 

ilso by guy wirei 
shown in Fip. 2. 
sticks AA CFig. 
; apart and the 
re they fit undei 



sticks. 

onal wires and 

The two ar 
spaced 14 incl 
rounded off w 

The glider ■ 
and tested for strength: th 
placing the two ends on 1 
then suspending his weight 
glider should not bend undei 
GLIDING. 

To perform a trlide take the glid 
of a mound, get into the centre < 
machine up, put the arms over t 



frame by the tail- 



d by diag- 
leading to the 



the arms. 
fulv examined 
I be done by 
the operator 
le centre; the 
strain. 

to the top 
it, lift the 
; arm-sticks 



By W. H- Phipps 



F — 1 


rT^ 


c1 1 ■ ' 1 ' 1 — 7 


1)1 


\ 1 1 




-1 1 1 771 






y 


\ 




^ 


X 


/\ 




/ 


/" 


1 1 












T- i 1 



>ZOi- 




BOTTOn 





and grasp the front; then face the wind, run a 
few steps against it. and jump from the ground. 
The glider will glide down the hill, if the 
weight of the operator is kept in the right place; 
the exact position of the operator in the machine 
will vary with his weight, and the only way to 
get the best gliding flights is to practice daily. 
ff possible, beginning with short glides and grad 



The proper position of the operator is slightly 
ahead of the centre of the planes, but this will 
vary with different weights and must be ascer- 
tained by experience. 

Glides should not be attempted 



illy increasing the 
gains skill. 



length as the operator store the bala 



to fiffe 

'inds balancing 1 

only the quick shiftii 



hour. Even 
11 be found quite a 
: of the legs can re- 



144 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 



THE WRIGHT AND SELDEN PATENTS— A COMPARISON 



Techn 

THE situation brought about by the susten- 
tion of the Wright patent is an illustration 
of the repetition of history in this country of big 
commercial patent suits. It is not so long ago 
that automobile interests were in the throes of 
active legal conflict, in which the chief ammuni- 
tion of the defense was such suggestions as 
"Throttling the Industry," "Trust," etc., and per- 
haps the most persuasive argument of the prose- 
cution was the threat to attack individual owners 
of machines on which a license had not been 
secured, and was addressed to the purchaser, 
against whom it was used as a direct intimida- 
tion. 

The effect of this was to cause the unlicensed 
manufacturers to assume all responsibility of le- 
gal suits brought against each purchaser of their 
machines, and consequ'ently the makers who had 
enough sand to build their houses with were re- 
warded by the confidence of the public and a 
remarkable flood of orders. 

It is interesting to note that each individual, if 
he be the first to fight a monopoly, is also the 
first when he conceives an idea to rush to the 
patent office with a demand for the grant of a mo- 
nopoly.— Human Natur 



The 



sed 



the 



ely supporting the fight against the monop- 
oly, on principle, and not because it cost more 
for a licensed car. The licensed makers of- 
fered cars just as low in cost as the unlicensed. 
In the early days of the Association of Li- 
censed Automobile Manufacturers, known as the 
" A. L. A M.," somewhat heavy demands were 
made of each prospective member, entailing 



By Hugo C. Gibson 

al Expert for the A. L. A. M. in 1 



as a result the direct antagonii 
ally caused hundreds of thousa 
be spent on a usele 



vhich eventu- 



the obviously ■ 

is the world 

the inventor), 

could have been savi 

and the art in that 

have stood still, for nat 



ids of dolla 
seless be 



ature 



vhereas 



Lild aK^ 



The outcome of the 



nt stagnation. 



i the patent. Neither 
e better off (nor is 
ich money and time 
a moderate attitude, 
would certainly not 
competitive incentive 



rts 



uld 



the 



equity 



that whe 
any substantia- 
'' Trust," by 



of the accusation of the defens 
of the ihtn extremely le 
the plaintiffs, the verdict was given in favor of 
the validity of the patent. Contrast this with 
the results of the I'nental attitude inculcated by 
a hoggish demeanor of the patent holders. Is 
it reasonable to suppose that any court would 
give a patentee much satisfaction if it were shown 
that he had a oasic patent, kept same in the 
dark, and eventually swooped down upon in- 
fringers with exorbitant demands after holding 
it aloof while the trade built up? No. Equity 
dictates a reasonable reward to the inventor and 
reasonable treatment of the manufacturer desiring 
to work under the patent; generally known as 
"Infringer." 

The Wright patent situation must be solved 
by the imposition of a reasonable license fee in- 
discriminately upon all machines involving the 
subject, that are used for gain or are sold. 

Inasmuch as the Wright Company seems to 
see more profit in the " Show," or " Aerial Acro- 
bat." end of things at the present time, it is likely 



that they would require a considerable proportion 
of any gains made by an infringing machine, and,, 
while justly entitled to these rewards, they should 
ease the way for the inventor and investor. 

The art as a commercial success will be made, 
not by the Wright Company, who, as they stand 
to-day, are restrictive, but by the masses of in- 
ventors and investors. 

The general solution to be recommended is: 

To the Wright Company: 

To allow everyone to develop the art, and in 
doing so to develop popular enthusiasm, which 
means demand. To this end impose a very low 
license fee on all machines obviously infringing- 
the disclosures of the patent. This will encour- 
age inventors of details to enter the manufac- 
turing end in a commercial way. 

To the Public: 

If you are svre that your machine does not 
infringe, go ahead. However, most machines 
do infringe under the present rulings, so get 
busy with men with sand, grit and money, and 
do as Henry Ford did in the Selden suit- 
make money, have public sympathy with you,, 
and, as in that famous suit, compel the Wright 
Company to be reasonable. 

They have to be reasonable if they wish to 
retain decisions in their favor, for equity and 
popular opinion count in the mental construing 
of the question: What is the mechanical equiva- 
lent of a warping wing? 



RECORDS AND STATISTICS 



WE wish to thank all those who have written 
concerning our "Records and Statistics." 
Several foreign publications have printed lists 
similar to ours in the last few weeks, but, with 
the exception of that of the "Revue de I'Avia- 
tion," of Paris, it must be said that they 



ompiled 
accuracy. 

With a view of 
national agreement 
ive merit of the; 



th 



ufficient 



I'Aviatit 



published. 



eaching some definite inter- 
3n the validity and respect- 
historical "past perform- 
ive written a letter to the "Revue 
' concerning the slight discrepan- 
espective lists and data, and con- 
inreliability of some lists recently 

a translation of parts of this let- 
11 go far towards answering the 
s received as to why certain per- 
;re omitted from our pages and 



week he held the air two hours, winning the 
' Mecanicians' Prize,' but it was not in continu- 
ous flight, and I have been often assured that 
none of his individual flights reached the hour- 
mark. I would be glad to hear from you on 
this point. 

"Hans Grade is in sixteenth place on vour 
list. I know of a fine flight of his of 54 t"o 55 
minutes, early last winter, but I never heard 
of his flying a full hour. The place he has in 
your list (between de Lesseps arid Mortimer 
Singer) would indicate that the performance 
qualifying him to it was accomplished between 



De 



i6th 



ist. 



" Dear Sir:— In a short 
'ill be such an ordinary occ 
e difficult to establish an 



list; it 



■ill be 



ry to 



hour-flight 
that it will 
lutely accurate 
fine oneself to 



flights. 

"This difficulty already exists to 
gree, and our two lists do not ex; 
"In your list H. Farman, Somn 
han occupy the fifth, sixth and 
tion, respectively. It seems to me 
get the fine flight made by Paulha 
hr. 7 min. 19 sec, July 15th), in 
18 seconds of Latham's 



seventh 
that vc 
1 at Dc 

which 1 



It is with this flight 
fifth, " ' ~ 
19th) 



'ith F, 

and Sommer sd 
July 22d). 
1 regards Sommer, 



xth 



d that I pla 
.1 hr. 23 mi 
enth (i hr. 5 



Paul- 
posi- 



July 
1. 30 



think that 
for did he not make a 
flight of 64 minutes on July i8th? He is thus 
the sixth to accomplish an hour-flight. 

"You place Bunau-Varilla ninth; but has he 
ever really made a continuous flight of one 

"In the last hours of the unforgettable Rheims 



"The German publications gave an account 
of his S4-minute flight under the head 'Grade 
Flies for an Hour,' but the account itself showed 
that the duration of the flight lacked several 
minutes of an hour. 

"You place Chateau between Mortimer-Singer 
and Delagrange (December 21st and Decem- 
ber 30th) ; was not Chateau's flight of 61 min., 
15 sec. made on December 12th? Furthermore, 
do you not omit the hour-flight of Jacques Bal- 
san on December 29th? 

"Both you and I give nineteen aviators as 
having flown for an hour, prior to the present 
year; I do not include Bunau-Varilla and Grade, 
but I include Balsan and Lieutenant Hum- 
phreys. The latter is the second American pupil 
of Wilbur Wright; on November 3d he f^ew i 
hr. I min. 20 sec, with Lieutenant Foulois as a 
passenger (the latter was in control at times 
through the supplementary levers). 

"The first pupil. Lieutenant Lahm, just missed 
the hour mark by a minute and a half, at about 
the same time, last year. 

"As regards 1910. our lists coincide except 
on two points — I place Van den Born before 
Olieslaegers (because of his 76-minute flight on 
January 5th), and I include Curtiss (who flew 
I hr. 25 min. 5 sec, at Los Angeles— the first 
time this speedy type of biplane has flown an 
hour). 

"A later list which appeared in a Parisian 
newspaper seems to contain many errors. 

"Thus the flights of Rougier and of Calderara, 



at Brescia (September 12th). and of Paulhan. at 
Tournai (September 13th), were not continuous 
flights at all. 

"Furthermore, Rolls is credited with a 64-min- 
ute flight on December 31st, whereas the Eng- 
lish papers agree that this flight lasted 55 min- 
utes. 

"Captain Marconnet is also credited with an 
hour flight on April 6th; he was referred to, 
however, as a passenger on this flight, at the 
time it occurred. 

"There are also some discrepancies between 
this list and the accounts published, at the time, 
of the Johannisthal meet and the final flights 
of the year at Mourmelon, when trving for the 
Michelin Cup." 

The latest men to make continuous flights of 
an hour (see the May Aircraft) are: 

35. Edmond i hr. 02' March 29, 1910 

36. D. Kinet i hr. 02' 30" April 2. " 

37- Gibbs I hr. 12' 45" " 3. " 

38, Christiaens i hr. 02' 58" 2-5 " 3, || 

39, Dubonnet i hr. " 3, 

40, Capt. Dickson, i hr. t,^' " 5, " 

41, Jeannin ahrs.oi' " ir, " 

42, Leblanc i hr. 15' " n, [] 

43, Legagneux. . . . i hr. 30' " 20. 

44, Rolls I hr. 04^ 02" " 21, " 

45, Fequant i hr. 07' " 21. " 

46, Bouvier i hr. " 28, " 

47, Koechlin i hr. 10' " 29, " 

Edmond's official time on March 29th was 59 

min. 32 sec, but it appears that he only passed 
the starting point 2 min. 30 sec. after leaving 
the ground ; Kinet's flight was made with a 
passenger; the total duration of Dubonnet's 
cross-country flight of April 3d was i hr. 48 min. 
54% sec, but he alighted for a few minutes to in- 
quire his way, an hour after starting. 

On April 8th Kinet beat the world's record 
for a two-man flight. In view of this, and the 
particular interest such flights offer from a mili- 
tary standpoint, we publish herewith a table 
showing the progression of the world's record 



thi; 



PROGRESSION OF WORLD'S RECORD 

For "TMro-Man" Flights in Heavier-than-air Machines 



March 
April 
May 



July : 

September i 
January ; 
April 



A second or two . 
A few seconds . . . 



hr. 09' 45" 3-5 



Wilbur Wright. 
Orville Wright! 
Wilbur Wright! 

Orville Wright! 



Henry Farman . . 
Gabriel Voisin . . 
Mr. Farman, Sr. . 



C. W. Fi 



Lieutenant Lahm . . 

Major Squier 

P. Tissandier 

F. Reichel 

A. Fordyce 

M. Painleve 

Lieutenant Lahm . . 
Captain Engelhard. 

M.'LeiDedeff.'.'.! ! ! ! ! 



Voisin 

Wright 



Antoinette 
Wright 



Issy-les-Moul: 



■ Paris. 



Near Kitty Hawk, N.C.. U.S.A. 
PortMyer.Va.,U. S. A. 
Near Le Mans, France. 



Fort Myer, Va., U. S. A. 
Near Pottsdam, Germany. 
Mourmelon, France. 



June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



I4S 




^^jJWdqA^ CTriaca 



PAULHAN ARRIVING AT MANCHESTER. 



Dutch Katst Indies 

Jrondgeest, of Holland, arrived at Ea- 



atly, 



Argentine Republic 

ng the many flight: 



champ 



Voisin, at Euenos A 
;d that of April iSth, wh 
the 19 miles separating the Villa ] 
from Lugano, soaring over the city and sub 
tinis winning the Lonsquit prize: he attained an 
altitude of 1,000 to 1.300 feet. Aubrun flew over 
Estancias on his Bleriot, while Valeton made a 
flight with a passenger, on his Henry Farman. 

Another meet, with $35,000 in prizes, is pro- 
jected. 

Austria 

Tlie first Austrian airship construction company 
has just been formed with a capital of 300,000 
kronen; it is understood that the War Office 
is immediately placing an order for a dirigible. 
The constitution of the company is largely due 
to the fact that the efforts of the Go 
to obtain a dirigible from Germany di 
recent crisis failed. 



Earlv in April, 

II with his Bleriot. when fly 

e was, however, but little hurt, 



had quite a bad 



Belgiun\ 

A monoplane has been built at Liege by M. 
Moulins; it is of the Antoinette type. 

Several new prizes have recently been offered 
in Belgium; the Brichart prizes, a challenge cup 
worth 2,700 francs and three cash prizes of 2,500, 
2,500 and 2,300 francs go to the aviators " lifting " 
the greatest " useful weight," i. e., pilot, passen- 
gers, fuel, lubricant; the Haardt and Devos dis- 
tance prize is a $400 cup; the Altenlot height 
prize is a $100 cup. 

Much interest is being shown in Belgium in the 
splendid showing being made abroad by Belgian 
aviators; Van den Born, OHeslaegers, Kinet, 
Gaudart, Christiaens, Tyck, Duray, Bn. P. de 
Caters are certainly names to be reckoned with. 

Bra^zil 

Mr. Bergeron, who has been taking lessons 
from the Comte de la Vaulx in piloting a Zod;' 
dirigible, is about to come to Brazil with a 
titable airship of this type. 



demo 



.Ta 



flights 



ill see its first aeropl; 
ithin a few weeks; a promising machi 
nearing completion there. 

Canada 

The last flights made over the ice, 
Scotia, in April, occurred just too late to fig 
in the May Aircraft. 

The Canadian Aerodrome Company have h 
turned out a most promising monoplane, wh 
was driven in several successful flights by th 
owner, Mr. Gardiner Hubbard, of Boston. 

Like in Messrs. McCurdy and Bald' 



sful biplane, the Baddeck II, 
a six-cylinder Kirkham. 

China 



the motor used 



International 
gth. and will 
of the fea- 
Ve have not 
in China so 



It is said that at the Nanking 
Exposition, which opened on May 
be kept open until December, on 
lures will be an aviation meet, 
heard, however, of anv real flying 
far. It is probable that when the Lhmese take 
up the game, however, it will not be long be- 
fore they become master-aviators, for their 
centuries of familiarity with the science of kite- 
flying will no doubt hold them in good stead 
when it comes to replacing the string with a 
motor (which is, of course, the main distinction 
between an aeroplane and a kite). 





Tlip 


np 


V5 that a 1 


umber 





f Chinese 


soldiers 


hr 




pnt 


their 


names 


down 


for a cours 


at the 


I-' 


riedr 


irh« 


hafen 


Colle 


■re o4 


Af 


ronautics 


in Ger- 


m 


anv 


is 


only 


the I 


esult 


It 


the deep 


interest 


shown 


by 


their 


Cover 


nment 


in 


all things 


relating 




th 


Conquest of 


the A 


r. 


The new 




;\' 


inister 


Hsn- 


Shi-Ch 


ung, 1 




n ardent 




n 




in a 


ad it 


is due 


1 


his unr 


emitting 






ors 


that 


Princ 


Toa, 


he 


ad of the 


General 


s 


aff. 


attended 


by a 


coram 


iss 


ion of ofiScers, is 



ope to investigate the 
dition of aeronautics in the different countries, 
and order several such dirigibles as are best 
suited to the purpose of the Chinese. An enquiry 
has also been instituted by every province in the 
huge empire to find persons who by profession 
or study are interested in and have a grounding 
of aeronautics. The names will be collected by 
the Traffic Department for further reference. 
Professor Chatley at Tang Shan ought to be 
useful to this new enterprise. 

Cochin CKindL 

The first aeroplane to reach this colony is the 
Bleriot of the " Cross-Channel " type, recently 
purchased by the Saigon section of the French 
Aerial League. Mr. Affolito will pilot the mono- 
plane. 

C\iba>. 

The French aviator Bellot 



weeks ago and is 
Both colonists £ 
with impatience 
over Javan soil. 


about to undertake some flights, 
nd natives are looking forward 
to witnessing the first flights 

Egypt 


Jacques Ealsar 
was hurt during 

left, entirelv rec 
fall in his swift 


, who. it will be remembered, 
the Heliopolis meet, spent his 
the Upper Nile; he has now 
overed from the effects of his 
Bleriot, 



England 

LONDON-MANCHESTER. 

Both the successful and unsuccessful attempts 
made to win the " Daily Mail's " $50,000 prize, 
for a flight (to be made in twenty-four hours, 
with two stops allowed) from within five miles 
of their London headquarters, to within a simi- 
lar distance of their Manchester offices, have re- 
ceived such deservedly universal notice from 
practically every newspaper in the two hem- 
ispheres that there is little which we can add to 
emphasize the nature, merit and significance of 
the performances accomplished. 

To Paulhan, the invincible virtuoso, and to 
Grahame-White, the plucky and remarkably pro- 
ficient newcomer, equal praise is due. 

That twelve hours and. one stop sufficed the 
former instead of the twenty-four hours and 
two stops allowed him, shows pretty clearly that 
his performance was no fluke; darkness, cold and 
wind contributed their share to the difliculties 




THE BIG FRENCH DIRIGIBLE '' CLEMENT-BAYARD II/ INTENDED ORIGINALLY FOR ENGLAND, BUT 
BOUGHT BY THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT. 



146 



AIRCRAFT 



June, iQio 



t K. nvprr-nme but these could not stop the so many occasions has always b 

mtle F7enchmaA, who llnded in the allotted by the veteran automobUe fi 

field, near Manchester at 5:32. •" the '"O'"'"! That°this same combination should do well in 

'°TS'',hl "same way that Bleriot literally caught very first attempt a _ performance so remarkabl- 



T atham napping on that fateful July 25th of last 
year on thel'^e'nch side of the Channel, Grahame- 
^Vhite-who could not believe Paulhan could get 
his machine put together and be otf in it, within 
eleven hours-was asleep when Paulhan started 
for Manchester; it cannot be said that this lost 
him the prize, however, for he did not succeed 
in reaching JIanchester in the allotted twenty- 

°\Vith°"a'''little more experience Grahame-White 
could also have successfully battled against the 
gusts of the following wind, in the early morn- 
ing, in which case he and Paulhan won d have 
raced to the goal in actual sight of each other 
(for White came down at four o clock witli n ten 
miles of Paulhan's stopping place, whicli tue 
Frenchman only left at ten minutes past four). 

Grahame-White's great attempt of the previous 
Sunday (April 24th), when he flew for over two 
hours at a single stretch, shows what such ma 
chines as the Henry Farman fitted with Gnome 
engines, can accompbsh in the hands of \irtual 
beginners. , .,, ,, ■ u 

The $50,000 were presented to Paulhan in a gold 
casket, at the banquet given on April 30th his 
unsuccessful and generous rival receiving a hand 
some silver cup— a well-deserved tribute to his 
grit and sportsmanship. 

The monument commemorating the landing of 
Bleriot at Dover was inaugurated on April sth 
in the presence of Bleriot. A picture of this 
appropriate memorial occurred in the April num 
ber of Aircraft. 

Grace made a great flight in Kent recently, 
during which he soared over the British battle- 
ships in the harbor. He had his Short-Wright 
under fine control and was up fifty minutes. 

To C H. Parkes, of Monmouth, Wales, belongs 
the distinction of constructing the first aeroplane 
vet built in Wales. The machine, like so many 
ithers of British make, takes after the Channel 
Crossing " Bleriot type. 



that 



plished by the young French sports 



The 



The " Clemen 
long to France, 
last minute, stepped 
chase itself, the big 

nderstood, was dest 



France 

t-Bayard 




one furnished longer than any straightaway flight yet made, but 

,?f Paniard- is llso the longest he has ever made under any 

01 tannara ^^^^^j^j^^.^^^ ^^^ jj,^ third longest ever made by 

anyone in the history of aviation, the first two 

standing to the credit, of course, of his friend 

and teacher, Henry Farman. 

Not satisfied with this historical achievement, 

Paulhan left the ground next day at the spot 

■ had landed —■' ■' "'" '-- 



_^.. Gnome er 
Henry Farn 



propelled by its tir 
old headquarters " 
Chalons plains. 

The three-day tour 

with only two stops between start 
it is little wonder that the express 
touring " was used for the first Jime 
tion with it by the enthusiastic Frenc 



le, to the 
, on the 

220 miles, 
nd finish; 
)n " aerial 
in connec- 
reporters. 



Mr. Clement asserts, howeve 



.„, after all, to be 
Government has, at the 
and undertaken to pur 
gible, which it had been 
i for England 



KOGER SOMMER AND HELENE DUTRIEU ON A 
SOMMER BIPLANE. 

MLLE. DUTRIEU HAS SINCE DRIVEN A SOM- 



On April 2d, at Pau, Bleriot, on his ne\y mono- 
plane, built to withstand a powerful engine and 
fitted with a Gnome motor, made a flight of one 
hour and a quarter. This exceeds his previous 
longest flight (that of October 10th, at I'rankfort) 
by just one minute. * -i *i 

Another record went bv the board on April 4tli 
when Roger Somnier made a circular cross- 
country flight lasting 65 minutes. 

In passenger-carrying the month has also tur- 
nished many remarkable performances, notably 
that of Daniel Kinet, who on April Sth, smashed 
the world's record for a " two-man flight," re- 
maining in the air with a passenger 2 hrs 19 
min. 15% sec. A tabular history of the two- 
man " record appears on page 144. 

Another fine flight with a passenger was made 
on April 6 by Lieutenant Camermann, on his 
military Farman. It lasted i hr. 10 min. Cap- 
tain Marconnet, another army officer, was the 

''^Perhaps' after all the most remarkable perform- 
ance in passenger-carrying, however, was that ot 
Roger Sommer, who, on April 20th, at Mouzon 
carried up three passengers. Although they did 
not average the regulation weight of 60 kilogs. 
(n-'Vi lbs ) tTie amount of fuel taken up counter- 
balanced this, as will be seen from the following 
analysis; 

Roger Sommer '32 lbs. 

Helene Dutrieu '°o „ 

M. Colombo 132 _^ 

M. Frey "'* .. 

Gasoline ■_^ 

Total 536 lbs. 

The flight lasted several minutes. 

Sommer has now opened a sub-school at Mour- 
melon- it was recently inaugurated by i>ega- 
eneux' who is an expert handler of the little bi- 
plane ' Sommer biplanes will, by the way, make 



that 



niaKc 111a long-planned trip to London. 

Trials have already been made, but a slight acci- 
dent to the rudder has delayed their completion 
a week or ten days. 

On May 3d the War Department announced 
that there would be ready for participation in 
the summer manoeuvres a semi-rigid dirigible, 
which had been constructed under its direction 
and with strict secrecy. 

Although being but of 3,200 cubic metres capac- 
ity "La Fregate." as this dirigible will be called, 
will, it is claimed, carry two cars, containing 
motors giving 240 h. p. A speed of 50 miles an 
hour is mentioned as likely; France is evidently 
waking up to her deficiency in aerial warships. 



It had lieen MLLE. DUTRIEU HAb bjii\i,ii univti-i ^ .J^."i -j^^^ Sommer biplanes wii 

^- .„ i MER IN FLIGHT FOR FIFTEEN MINUTES, AND (1,^;^ fi^t public appearance 

he will first ^,„,„„ „„.^„ . p...p„nER. meet, as will also the Tellie 




THE HUMBER MONOPLANE: A RACING FLYER, DESIGNED 
BY THE LATE LEON DELAGRANGE AND HUBERT LE BLON. 



The cyclone which swept over the Chalons 
plains on April 15th was not as serious in its 
consequences as was at first thought; the plant 
of I-Ienry Farman at Mourmelon was destroyed 
and several of his biplanes badly damaged, but 
little harm was done to the aviation-colony out- 



FLOWN WITH A PASSENGER 

man, Emile Dubonnet, on April 3, .- ..---.. - 
more than passing comment and commendation. 
A great many accounts have been published ot 
this great cross-country flight of the bran-nevv 
Tellier monoplane, which occurred as our last 
month's issue was about to go to press. The 
actual distance was 68V, miles, from Juvisy, just 
south of Paris, to the village of La Fertc-St. 
Aubin, some miles south of Orleans; the official 
time: I hr. 40 min. 54 Vi sec. ». ^ ,1 -„ 

It is not correct to say, however, that tins 
flight was made without a stop. As apparently 
often happens in cross-coun- 
try flights, Dubonnet lost 
his way after flying for 
about an hour, and flopped 
down into a field, near 
lome startled peasants, to 
enquire his wav of them. 
He never stopped the mo- 
tor however— merely throt- 
tled it down— and was off 
aijain in less than a minute, 
almost before the amazed 
rustics had realized what 
had happened. This flight 
won for Dubonnet the 10.- 
000 francs of the Prix de 
" La Nature," for a straight- 
away flight exceeding 100 
kilometers in length. 

It also stood as a world's 
record for cross-country fly- 
ing until April 18th, when 
Paulhan made his amazing 
raid from Orleans to Arcis- 
.=ur-.'\ube. in his Henry Far- 
man biplane. 

On April irth Henry Far- 
man himself had flown with 
a passenger (M. Robert Cau- 
e) from his aerodrome near Etampes to 



it the coming Lyons 
jll also 'the Tellier monoplane. 

Tlie leading particulars of the Sommer biplane 

rthy of are: Span, 34 feet; chord, 6 feet 8 inches; carn- 

ber, 4 inches; gap, 6 feet; skid track, 9 feet, 

areas— main planes, 456 square feet; tail, 67 Mi 

sq. ft.; elevator, 45 sq. ft.; rudder, 9 sq. ft. 

We publish both pictures and drawings of the 
Sommer machine, and also of the new type of 
Voisin biplane; in the latter the presence ot 
ailerons (a pair on each side, . very ong 
aid narrow, placed between the wings) shows 
a" most radical departure from all previous 
Voisin machines. which relied solely on 
their construction for lateral stability— natural 




MONOPL\NE MODEL IN' 
PRINCEbb OF WALES 



Mil III 1,11111. I'RESENTKD TO THE 
NOW QUEEN OF ENGLAND. 



which 
for a 



iide of thi 
The 



llitary dirigibl 
;ckage. 



id two workr 



ngar. 



kille 



automatic. The span of the main planes is 
_ distance Sf'benve™ 3o";nd^ 40" mfles:- 29V2 feet, as is also the °jerall length 
s still the world's cross-country record Kougier,_ the Voisins crack drixer new o 
two-man" flight. Paulhan mounted this new machine for the fi"y"?f °?,^1^P"' Jf„' if 
" next day, took flight, and only is claimed to be yeryfast-60 miles an hour i 

.Aube. The distance covered some reports are to be believed Kougierno^i^ 

■ -■ • ■ ever, used his old Voisin at Nice; it was 01 

course reduced to matchwood when hauled out 
of the Mediterranean, after his fall of April iStn. 



The name of Tellier has long been associated 
with sterling motorboat construction, and the en- 
gine which has carried these craft to victory on 



landed at Arcio-=,ui j.^.^^. *..^ „..,.„ ^ 

by Paulhan in this uninterrupted flight amounted 
to fully 130 miles, which is equivalent to the dis- 
tance separating Governor's Island, in New York 
Bay, from the ocean-side of Block Island in the 
Atlantic, or from Pittsfield, Mass.! Paulhan took 
somewhat over three hours to wing his way over 
that tremendous stretch of territory. Flis flight, 
therefore, not only took him further and lasted 



The 
Farm 



other day. 



latest aviator to take pupils is Maurice 
n- the Marquis Ugolino Vivaldi Pasqua 
flrst lessons on the swift biplane the 



June, igio 



I.ICIHH-; .1.- I.csscps wislics to (ly from Calais 
Iti" Duvti :iiul l)aok willioiit aliRlilins; lie will 
cnliT for iIk- Iviiiiiarl prizo of Fes. ij.500. wliicli 
EIIrri.>t failtil lo win. when he crosscil the Chan- 
nel, throiiKl' ""' complying with the entry rules. 

The aeroplane of Nicnport caught fire on 
April iSth while in flight; lie was. however, able 
to land safely anil quickly put out the con- 
flagralittn. 



A 1 R C R A F T 

S PopolT (WriMht. W'riKht) ■ hr. 10' oi" 1 

M..I0.1 (lil'Tioi. Anzanil 1 hr. 05' .is' 

7 l);iral..ux OVri«hl. VVriliht) Si' .1')" 

X lie Rieiiis.lvk (Cnrliss.Cnrlissl. . iS' .id" ; 

9 Sanils t.Xnloinette, Antoinette). . 10' o:' : 

Loiigirst Co/if/'nututs I'liglit 

1 Crochon i hr. 0' 29" 

3 Chrisliacns s.j' 00" ; 



.1 Crochon. 
5 Frcy. 
Crochon 
7 Christiai 1 



147 



3«' 04' 3-5 
35' SH' 1-5 
35 **»' 3-5 



: Dc Kiumsdyk, 
! Crochon, 



3 Christiacna 



4 Molon, 
Edmcnd. 




Edmond, 
! Clirisiiaci 



Spffd I't 



I'opoff. 
Haratoux. 



Height Prize 
1 Prince PopoiT, 680 feet. 

Tllli: NICE MEET. 

The Nice meet was a triumph in every way, 
and any previous display of competitive flying 
appears tame in comparison with the results ob- 
tained there. "Everyone was flying all the lime," 
would apll> describe the impression of the on- 
luukers; it was not unusual to see, not niL-rt-ly 
half a dozen aeroplanes aloft, but six difTerent 
types of machines whirring through the air. 

Ehmoflf, Chavez and l-arman covered ninny 

hundreds of miles in (light during the week; 

they would only come down to replenish their 

empty tanks and start ofT again, adding tap after 

c their "lolaliza- 



Lath 



oli. 



:ham indulged in high flying, and when 
other machmcs were crowding each other 

lower reaches he would be soaring eagle- 

r above. 

laegers showed what can be done with a 
plane when in the hands of a true 



1,111 ImiiI. whilst Grade did both hims' 
iicv little monoplane credit, until his unfortunate 
Iruiding" in the River Var. 
The meet was held at La Californie. a few 
les east of Nice, on the seashore. All the fly- 
made trips out to sea, a great many of them 
ing for miles over the Mediterranean, in all di- 
t'ons. Rougier, de Riemsdyk and Latham were 
■ ones who got duckings, but they were all 
ptly fished out. 



i:iiEX AND HIS FAMILY GETTING POINTERS ON AVLVTION, FROM ROUGIER, 
AT NICE. 



man biplanes were out, at Mnurmelon. When 
one thinks of all tlie other machines of this make 
which have been winning prizes in Europe re- 
cently, it is apparent what a thriving industry 
that of aviation is already for the larger firms. 

On April 23d, Emile Dubonnet duplicated Comle 
de Lambert's feat of flying over Paris. He 
steered his Teltier monoplane with great daring 
and unerring skill over the maze of roofs and 
chimney pots, and flew up the Champs- Elysces, 
barely above the treetops, to the amazement of 
boulcvardiers and populace. He landed at Baga- 
telle (at the very spot where Santos-Dumont's 
first flights were made four years ago). 

It seems churlish to voice any criticism of such 
an exploit; it is nevertheless to be hoped for the 
general advancement of the Art that no further 
over-town flights will be taken for the present, 
at too low a height for a safe landing place to 
be picked out to glide to in case of motor trouble. 

Dubonnet has an excellent motor, but it is un- 
pleasant to contemplate what a stopping of it 
would have meant at this time, and the fact that 
it is especially the "man below" whom it would 
endanger, rather than the aviator, should make 
flying-men particularly chary of indulging in 
these flights. 

A few davs later he flew before President 
Roosevelt, at* Issv-les-^loullneaux. A strong wind 
was blowing, but he insisted on flying neverthe- 
less: his machine was somewhat damaged on 
alighting. 

.'\mong the latest passengers taken up by the 
Comte_ de Lambert were Miss Ethel Roosevelt 
and Kermit Roosevelt. They much enjoyed the 
trip in the Wright. 

Hreguct, who, it was feared, was badly in- 
jured in his fall of the i8lh of April, is on the 
nigh road to recovery. 



veiled 



Carlo and back. 



Cap Ferrat 
lar. 



the water by all the aviators 
emarkable that not more were 
a when away from land, 
i the first to carry a passenger 
; flew all the way to Monte 

on the last two days— flying to 
nd to Antibes— were most spectacu- 



5 Edmond, 
Rcgulayiiy Prize 



FRENCH BOOKS. 
The latest French aeronautic works of note are: 
L' Aviation Triomphante. — By Messrs. d'Es- 
tcurnelles de Constant, C. Bouchard, E. Lavisse, 
P. Painleve, Louis Bleriot. Paul Rousseau, Cap- 
tain Ferber, Comte de Lambert. Pierre Mille. etc., 



1 Crochon. 

2 Frev. . . . 

3 Edmond. 



9 2 9 
9' 02 

52' ZZ 



Eiffel. — Recherchcs cxpe 



ntale 



la 



Parisians arc promised 
at the doors of th ~ 
Aubigny is the instigator of th- 
the site chosen is near the village of Ic Bonrgct, 
some three miles from the northeastern limits 
of Paris; the course is to be five kilometres in 
circuit. 



permanent aerodrome 
French capital; Comte d* 



RESULTS OF THE CANNES MEET. 
Grand Prize 0/ the City of Canues. (Totalized dura- 
lion, during meet.) 

I Christiacns (Farman, GnAme) 5 hrs. 45' Jo* 

9 Crochon CFarman. GnAmc) 4 hrs. 50' 8* 3-5 

3 Prey (Farman. GnAme) 3 hrs. 57' 4.1*' 

4 Edmond (Farman, Renault) 3 hrs, 06*46*4-5 




THE TAIL OF THE SHORT-WRIGHT BIPLANE. VSED BY THE HON. C, ROLLS, AT NICE, SHOW- 
ING THE AUDITION MADE BY THE ENGLISH BUILDERS TO THE ORIGINAL WRIGHT DESIGN, OF A 
FIXED HORIZONTAL SURFACE AT THE REAR. 

rolls' RACING NUMBER, SO CONSPICUOUS ON THE RUDDER, PROVED A VERY LUCKY ONE. 



148 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 



Saconney 
militaires. 

Paul Painleve.- 
Locomotion Aer 

Calderaia et B 



(Capitaine J.-Th.)— Cerfs-i 

;. — L'organisation tn Fiance 

let-Rivet.— Manuel de Tav 



Aeroplai 



de 1910. — By R. de Gaston, Sec- 
"e Navigation 
Aeronaut! que, 



the Societe Frangaisi 
(.Edited by the Librai 



Paris")" 

This latter work is an interesting technical 
publication, which includes the data of the best- 
known apparatus, arranged in alphabetical order. 

A large table gives a very complete description 
of fifteen types of aeroplanes— which should be of 
efficient help to the reader for comparative work. 

Germany 

Count von Zeppelin invited Colonel Roosevelt 
to take a trip in one of his dirigibles during his 
stay in Germany, but the latter was unfortunately 
imable to accept, through lack of time. 

It is certain that the Colonel must have greatly 
regretted his inability to accept the invitation; 
it would have been a far more exhilarating — and 
also safer— experience than going down in a sub- 
marine — as he did some years ago. 

The new rigid dirigible Siemens-Schuckert 
was inspected recently in its great revolving 
hangar at Blesdorf. near Berlin, by General von 
Lyncker, Commandant Gross, Commandant Sper- 
ling. Captain Gena, and General Commandant 
Basenach ; the three 200-h. p. motors were tried 
out at different speeds, the trials being very sat- 
isfactory. The Siemens-Schuckert has three cars 
and six propellers. 

The loss of the "Zeppelin 11. '' which broke 
away from the soldiers in charge during the storm 
of April iSth. is in no wav as keenlv felt as was 
that of the "Zeppelin III" in 190S. 

It is well realized that, compared with the 




the row of aeroplane sheds at nice: the flags indicate the nationality of the 
aviators: gradEj German; efimoff, rltssian; duray, Belgian; chavez^ Peruvian; olies- 
laegers. belgian; rolls and rawlinson, english..* latham, french ; swendsen, 
danish; etc. de riemsdyk is dutch; it is no doubt because he drives a herring-cur- 
tiss biplane that the stars and stripes are above his shed. 




THE NEW RACING VOISIN BIPLANE FITTED WITH AN E. N. V. MOTOR: IT IS SAID TO FLY 
AT SIXIY MILES AN HOUR. 

THE USUAL VERTICAL PARTITIONS ARE REPLACED BY AILERONS. 



"Zeppelins" now nearing completion, the "Zeppe- 
lin II" must be looked itpon as more or less 
obsolete. 

The collapse of the dirigible hangar at Munich 
on April 14. entailing the death of two and in- 
jury to fourteen, emphasizes once more the dif- 
ficulty of building these huge structures of suf- 
ficient strength, while the series of accidents to 
spherical balloons were plainly attributed to neg- 
ligence; they can be accurately explained away 
by the saying: "Familiarity breeds contempt." 

This great number of accidents to German 
the last few weeks, has 



The Minister of War has offered prizt 
gating $4,500 for the best altitude and p; 



subjects 



meet. 



, performances ^ .^,. ^.- 

man-constriicted aeroplanes, aurniij avis 
■ek. at .Tohannisthal next August. A sim 
n will be contributed for the Octobe 



lighter-thai - 

somewhat turned opinio 



the di 



ction of a£ 



There .. .. ^ „.^ ,.-„ „„-^ _.. 

the main German cities, either on domestic 
imported machines. 

On April nth, Jeannin, driving a Farman, 
made a flight of two hours and one minute, 
which, with the exception of Rougier's great ef- 
fort of October 1st U hrs. 41 mm. 36 sec), is 



the longest one yet performed above German 
soil. 

The Parseval monoplane — one of the largest 
aeroplanes in the world — fell into the lake over 
which it was manceuvring the other day, but 
without harm to the aviators. 

Pega and Emich, of Griesheim. are building 
a six-plane machine designed to carry six to 
eight people and to be furnished with an 80- 
h. p. motor. 

On May 3 Wiencziers flew from the aerodrome, 
outside Strasburg, to the city, and twice en- 
circled the steeple of the historical cathedral, 
on his Antoinette. 

It is interesting to recall that the only other 
over-town flight ever made on this most bird- 
like of aeroplanes also took place in Germany — 
when Latham flew last October from one aero- 
drome to another, over the suburbs of Berlin. 

Holland 

A peaceful invasion was made of Holland, or 
rather of the Dutch atmosphere, on the after- 
noon of April iSth. by the German Imperial air- 
cruiser "Zeppelin II.'' Intricate evolutions were 
made over the town of Vaals before the great 
ship returned to Cologne; this was but a few 
days before the partial destruction of this 



:ible 



Hungary 



Hunga 



.me ist the entries clost 
tic fortnight under the 
Internationale. The ji 



to ensure absolute 
["ouring Competition is th 
)rogramme. with a prize o 
11 the other races are like 
s far as the prizes i 



for the Buda-Pest 

rules of the Fed- 

iry consists of six 

of other nations 

impartiality. The 

chief event on the 

100,000 kroners, but 

se well looked after 



India 



onth 



Aircraft expressed some doubt last 
as to the authenticity of a news item received 
from India. It is now learned, however, of a 
resident of Trichinopoly, in South India, that 
it was a large gasoline-driven motor that flew 
on the Maidan, near Calcutta. The full-sized 
machine shown in the picture published last 




VOISIN BIPLANE RACER 



June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



149 



i. The first flight in Indi 
heard of. but. judsinff fn 



flight at that 
C. d'Angelis, 
;refore 



New ZeaLlaLrvd 

H. Smith, of Smith & 







Russia 

Russia's aero week is not dead after all, as 
influence has been at work to secure the neces- 
sary funds, and now tlie financial success of the 
aeronautic meeting may be looked on as estab- 
lished. The date fixed (June 5th to 9th) in- 
cludes the latter half of the Motor Salon, which 
also takes piacu at St. Petersburg. A number 
of French entricr. is expected, and it is also 
quite likely that the German aviator, Hans 
Grade, will compete. A fillip is to be given to 
the enterprise by flights by the Farman aero- 
plane and ascents by the Parseval airships, 



to the Rus 



utho 



The 



al is not yet finished, but it is regarded 
I certainty. The other three airships owned 
the Army, "Kommissionny." "Pebedj" and 
^chebnv." will hardly be able to ascend, as 
have 'to be rebuilt. 



th 

Guyot's second trip to Russia was far mon 
extensive than his first; the interest in aviatioi 
has increased to such an extent all over the em 
pire, in the last six months, that not only doe 
his itinerary include St. Petersburg and Mos 
cow, but also such towns as Warsaw and Nijni 
Novgorod. 



THE NEW SPANISH DIRIGIBLE ESPANA. 



Outotchkine, the erstwhil 
Russia. like his fellow citi 
has been tlying at the: 



impion cyclist of 

Efimoff recently, 

native city of Odessa. 



nly 



matter of weeks 



ity displayed tliere, 
or perhaps days. 

Italy 

The Aviation Clubs of Rome, Alilan and Turin 
have "got together" and formed the "Aero Club 
of Italy," with Sig. Rava-Sforni as president. 

The new organization will control the sport 
of aviation in Italy, while the Societa Aeronau- 
tica Italiana will confine itself to aerostatics. 

A committee, known as the "General Commit- 
tee of the Societa Aeronautica Italiana"-~which 
is the official representative of Italy in the In- 
ternational Federation — will, in the future, gov- 
ern Italian aeronautics. 

The committee will include delegates of: a, 
clubs interested in aviation exclusively; b, clubs 
interested in aerostatics exclusively; c, clubs in- 
terested in both heavier, and "lighter-than-air 
craft; d, the Automobile Club of Italy (in charge 
of aero-engine experiments); e, the Touring 
Club of Italy (to attend to matters pertaining 
to aerial touring). 

The Governors of the S. A. I., of which 
Prince Borghese. the indefatigable and popu- 
lar sportsm:in, is president, must be highly 
complimented on the formation of this General 
Committee, including as it does, representative^ 
of every industry connected with the Art, and 
intelligently dividing and distributing the worl 
of propaganda and the control of the expen 
ments to be undertaken. 

France. England, Belgium, to say nothing, o 
course, of the U. S. A., were-and are-in trou 
ble over the control of their respective share 
of atmosphere, by different aeronautical and au 
tomobile bodies. Italy is the first among thi 
nations represented in the International Aerc 
nautic Federation to take the radical and w 
step of allotting each body its appropriate shar 
in managing aerial matters and giving a chanc 
to all bona fide volunteers to cooperate to th 
real progress of the Art. 

Luxemburg 

Aeroplane flights are being made in the Gr 
Duchy by Wiesembach on his Voisin. An avia- 
tion field with hangars and repair shops were 
placed at his disposal by. Mr. C. Bettendorf. 

Monaco 

At the recent motor-boat meet one of the 
most interesting craft seen in the harbor was 
a combination machine which might be called 
a hydro-aeroplane; it is a light, flat-bottomed 
boat, with wings, aerial propeller and aerial 
rudders; its inventor claims for it that it can 
navigate both air and water with equal facility. 

Another craft built along the same general 
lines is that of Henrv Fabre, of Marseilles. 



that they had giv 

planes. Such a t 

but, 
such 
notice. 
It 



thing being don 
only one more 



automobile business 

eir time to aero- 

o doubt be a com- Gaudart, aftc 

ery distant future; at Barcelona. 

; the first case of On April igth. 



Spain 

naking some marvello 



nachii 



aded the 



Portugal 

The latest aviator to visit Lisbon 
he aviation craze is as rampant 
' 1 any other country on the C 



Taddeoli; 
Portugal 



first c 
rowly 



held back, 
■ious to' note that this exp( 
o various aviators all over 
,se being that of poor Delag 
scaped harm at the hands 
outside Rome, on May 25, 



ence has 

le world, 

nge, who 

a howl- 




THE SOMMEU BIPLANE, FITTED WITH A GNOME MOTOR, THE ONLY HEAVIER-THAN-AIK MA- 
CHINE WHICH HAS EVER CARRIED FOUR PERSONS ALOFT. SEE PAGE 146, THIRD COLUMN. 



Club of Portugal 



Rouma^nia^ 



The 
nking 



& Co.._ of Bucharest, is 
is making a regular fea- 



badly hurt in 
when flying r 
sured, but the 



Switzerland 

aviator Speckner 

a fall sustained 

ear Geneva. His 

Bleriot is badly da 



was somewhat 
on April 20th, 
recovery is as- 
maged and may 



ISO 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 



A LADY WRITES FROM NICE 



LEARNING from a contributor to, and friend 
of. Aircraft, that his wife had written 
him interesting accounts of the aerial doings at 
Nice, the Editor obtained his consent to publish 
the following breezy excerpts : — 

April 12, igio. 

..." \\'e finally got here on the 8th, after be- 
ing delayed quite a while at the frontier, about 
the tryptique. You can imagine how familiar the 
last few miles seemed. 

" We had intended going by La Turbie, but 
took the lower road when we heard the motor- 
boats sputtering in the distance; you probably 
know much better than 1 just which race it 
was, so I won't try to tell you but I do know 
we saw the "Ursula" go by at forty miles an 
hour or whatever it is she goes — it was simply 
uncanny, and the roar of the engines, — well, just 
think up an extremely noisy comparison; I can't 
think of one sufficiently so. 'His Grace' of 
Westminster in the stern— if that was he— looked 
mightily wet and uncomfortable, and I can't see 
how he and the others weren't made stone deaf. 

ething 



"We didn't stop at Monte, as S. had 
L here she was already late for. 



"It 



the 



ethe 



lity of the season,' as that terribly brilliant 
B. puts it, but an awful lot of people are turn- 
ing up for the flying and the place is packed 
with aeroplane-mad people in every walk of life: 
I thought you were pretty bad!— but 1 'take it all 
back': B. picked up a man at the Cercle whom 
he brought here to lunch with us— speaks French 
with an Italian accent, but has a Spanish name 
which I forget— well, he talked Bleriot and An- 
toinette until we harmless females got positively 
dizzy and felt afraid the motor would stop and 
we would 'miss our glide' : — a genuine fanatic. 
His idee fixe is monoplanes and it is as much 
as one's life is worth to put in a kind word for 
the despised 'zweidecker,' as the Germans call 
them. There are lots of Germans here, by the 
way,— to see Grade fly, I suppose; — so many, in 
fact, that the 'Promenade' should temporarily be 
christened 'des Allemands' instead of what it is. 
Speaking of the Promenade, I saw Rougier yes- 
terday; recognized him by his nose, which has 
not changed in profile since we saw him driving 
the de Dietrich at the Grand Prix; it appears 
his friends call it his 'gouvernail de direction' — 
it certainly is just the shape of a rudder. 

"They say his flying at Monte was marvellous; 
he had to start in that first little street you get 
to in the Condamine coming from Beaulieu; just 
imagine it. Everyone seems to think he'll win 
all the prizes here: the races start Friday; they 
are already practising, but I haven't been out 
as yet; I thought they were to fly at the race- 



!) Vc 

iieet this 



track (will you ever forget the crush when we 
had to go out by train?), but it is to be on the 
beach, out at La Californie. 

"The man who lunched with us— see above!— 
said we would soon be going to the races in 
monoplanes and S. said she would wait until it 
was so safe that the chances of her having her 
'face spoilt' on the trip were one to a million; 
he agreed volubly that it would be an outrage . . . 

"April i6, 19m. 
' The unexpected has happened (as it usually 
ero-lunatic. 1 went to the 
: was wonderful ; — a peer- 
less aay, a iignt, steady breeze, a sky and sea — 
well, you know what it is like here on such days: 
such light, such coloring. . . . 

"We got out at about three; Efimoff and 
Chavez were alreadv rushing overhead and then 
\'an den Born came out. and the Russian, the 
Peruvian and the Belgian tore around on their 
Farmans, at an unvarying height, just like so 
many toys on a string; the motors made such a 
noise that the marine band was completely over- 
powered, although the Gnomes are not as noisy 
as some of the other engines. The only draw- 
back was the smell of the oil; someone said they 
used castor-oil; is this true? 

"I was awfully clever! I knew the Farmans 
and Voisins apart easily and had as much to tell 
the others as you have to tell me. 

"You should have seen Efimoff take the cor- 
ners; he must have covered fifty miles just while 
we were there. It was getting to be positively 
monotonous when OHeslaegers rose in his tiny 
Bleriot — at least it looks tiny next to the big 
biplanes — . It is so much more graceful than the 
biplanes and looks just like a big gull — of the 
kind that follow the steamers. 

"OHeslaegers is just as wonderful at flving as 
when we saw him at the Velodrome d'Hiver. but 
his flying looks much safer than his motor- 
cycling. He has wonderful control and they say 
there is no one who can drive a Bleriot like he: 
I could just imagine Bleriot himself crossing 
the Channel when the little monoplane soared 
over the water's edge. Sometimes it seems al- 
most too wonderful to believe. 

'*I wanted to go up madly, but, as I told you, 
I won't even if I get the chance. 

"I feel so, so enthusiastic—j'-'st like the man 
3'ou told me about two years ago, who hastened 
to write an article to inform the world, before 
it became an every-day occurrence, that *he had 
seen a man fly.' 

"It was so much more wonderful than at the 
Jamaica Track and at Governor's Island, be- 
cause there were so many of them and they fol- 
lowed the course with such astonishing accuracy. 
The Voisins seemed very steady, but they don't 



take the corners as sharp, and lose a lot of dis- 
tance that way. 

"The Antoinette didn't go up, much to our dis- 
gust; but I saw Latham in a very raggy be- 
grimed 'mecano' suit, smoking his 'eternelle cig- 
arette '; he was quite unmistakable." . . . 



April 



1910. 



'Why aren't you here? It is getting more as- 
tonishmg every day. 1 don't know what to say 
or where to begin. _ They are all flying and get- 
ting in each other's way, encroaching on each 
other's air, passing over and under and around 
each other, flying three abreast— in a vertical 
sense: one above the other. It is like a dream, 
and yet it looks so easy and so natural; it was 
the August before last that we saw Farman mak- 
ing little silly jumps at Brighton Beach; if they 
progress at that speed, what will people be doing 
three or four years from now? 

"The course is too small to accommodate all 
the flyers at one time, and, as I say, they have 
been flving 'in layers"; as we left to-day the in- 
evitable Efimoff and Van den Born were skim- 
ming along a few feet above the ground; Olies- ■ 
laegers and Grade were up a hundred metres or 
to, and, far above, the Antoinette was soaring, 
but I can't describe it: it is the ceaseless motion 
in the picture which is so fascinating, the hum 
and rattle of the motors, the glint of the whir- 
ring propellers and that sky and sea— a sym- 
phony of blues. 

"Poor Grade fell into the Var to-day: I don't 
know what the trouble was; the day before yes- 
terday Rougier fell in the sea; it was certainly 
exciting, but it is astonishing there are no real 
accidents with so many flying together. 

"I certainly enjoyed the day. I brought Pam 
along! She disapproves of aeroplanes and voiced 
her feelings in indignant barks; no one takes her 
seriously here, as she looks so unusual; but to- 
day when she barked I heard an unmistakably 
transatlantic voice enounce: 'Back to Boston for 
yours!' Murray was most indignant when I told 
her about it (I think she looks upon herself as 
Pam's nurse, quite as much as my factotum). 

"Although it isn't allowed (verboten!), OHes- 
laegers flew right over us in the Club stand to- 
day: L. B.. who was sitting in front of me, gave 
a most un-baronne-like squeak and clutched hold 
of Mr. L.; the latter would, of course, have liked 
a regular passage of the big birds over his head 
after that— as causes of such a result—; the in- 
cident has much kindled his languid interest in 
the flying. 

"Everyone has been flying over the sea to-day; 
Van den Born was skimming along for miles 
just a few^ feet above the water. 

"What a delight it must be!" 



BRITISH AERONAUTIC NOTES 

Written especiaLMy for "Aircra-ft" by C. G. Grey, Editor of "The Aero," Lorvdorv 



f^ONSIDERABLE progress is being made in 
^ aviation in England as regards both construc- 
tion and actual liying. British aeroplane facto- 
ries are developing everywhere and showing con- 
siderable activity. 

At Sheppey the Short Brothers have turned out 
some half-a-dozen Wright machines which are all 
doing well. McClean, Ogilvie. Percy Grace, of 
San Francisco, Egerton, and Rolls all learned to 
fly on these biplanes in their original form, i. e., 
without tails; the machines are now being fitted, 
however, with a small tail, which is rigged up 
behind the rudders. This tail, which is about lo 
ft spread by 2 ft. deep has of course a marked 
effect on the natural longitudinal stability of the 
machine. On Good Friday I was down at 
Sheppey watching Rolls flying and nobody would 
have recognized his machine for a Wright un- 
less they could have seen the actual design of 
it. Instead of the typical up-and-down dipping 
of the classic Wright machine, it flew with all 
the steadiness of other biplanes, and this, in spite 
of the fact that there was an extremely gusty 
wind blowing, which made the machine rise and 
fall perfectly vertically owing to the variations 
in pressure under the entire lifting surface. 

It may not be generally known in the States 
that the Wright machines as built by Short 
Brothers are loaded in quite a different way from 
those built by the Wrights themselves, and by 
the French Wright Companies. In the Short ma- 
chine considerably more weight is put on the bi- 
plane elevator, with the result that it has a 
greater angle of incidence than the main planes; 
this is done with the idea of increasing the sta- 
bility. In the Continental and American machines 
the machines are practically balanced on the main 
planes, and although the front elevator is more 
of a carrying surface than it is on other biplanes, 
it does little more than act as a horizontal rudder. 
Owing to there being no tail to act as a damper 
in these biplanes, the Shorts hold that the ele- 
vator acts too quickly and that it is this " teiid- 
erness " of the machines which has given rise 
to accidents with the original Wright type. 



Messrs. Short have also turned out a biplane 
to the design of Captain Dunn. In plan this very 
original machine is laid out in the shape of a 
widely obtuse V; it has neither tail nor elevator— 
the stability usually derived from a tail being ex- 
pected in this case from the backward slope of 
the wings. Gliders and a power-driven machine 
of a similar type were experimented with by Cap- 
tain Dunn and by Mr. Launcelot Gibbs, of the 
Artillery, at Blair Athol, in Scotland, last year, 
with a certain amount of success. Captain Dunn's 
machine has now succeeded in rising from the 
ground, but has made, so far, no extended flight. 

At the Olym.pia show the Short Brothers showed 
a new biplane of their own design, which was 
certainly one of the very finest machines there. 
This machine has planes similar in shape to the 
Wrights, but the whole machine is much smaller. 
Its main characteristics are a large flxed cruci- 
form tail somewhat like that of the Curtiss, ail- 
erons between the wings, a biplane elevator and 
a long narrow rudder immediately behind the 
elevator. The machine has skids somewhat like 
those of the Wright, but it is also fitted with 
wheels. These wheels are so arranged that when 
the machine leaves the ground, tlie aviator, by 
pressing a catch, can release them so that they 
fly up above the skids, which thus are left to 
support all landing shocks; when it is desired to 
start again the winding up of a small winch at- 
tached to the wheels will bring the machine on 
to the wheels again. 

Flying in England has been confined during 
the last two months very largely to the Royal 
Aero Club's grounds at Sheppey, where Percy 
Grace, Egerton, Moore-Brabazon and Rolls have 
done some excellent flving. The longest flight, 
which, unfortunatelv, was unoflicially observed, 
was that cf Mr. Brabazon. when he fiew forty 
miles on his Short biplane; the most impressive 
flight, however, was that of the Hon. C. S. Rolls, 
who, on the Thursday before Easter, brought out 
a brand new Short-Wright machine, fitted with a 
tail, and flew across from the factory at Shellness 
to the flying ground at Eastchurch. After a 



short stay there he started afresh, flew over to 
Oueensborough at the other end of the Isle of 
Sheppey, rising steadily all the way until he 
reached a height (registered on his aneroid ba- 
rometer), of one thousand feet. He then came 
down at Eastchurch, having covered in all a dis- 
tance of twenty-six miles and having reached, as 
I have said, a height of a thousand feet ; a truly 
remarkable performance for a machine which had 
never been off the ground until it started on 
this fine flight. Mr. Ogilvie, down at Camber, 
on the South coast, has been doing a good deal 
of flying over sand and sea, his flights varying 
in duration, up to half an hour. Unfortunately 
he has had a deal of engine trouble, and has 
completely wrecked his machine on one occasion 
through a connecting rod blowing out through 
the side of the crank-case and forcing him to come 
down " all anyhow." 

Another new aviator is Captain Sanders, late 
of the Merchant Service, who, with his brother's 
assistance, built a large biplane at Lowestoft, and 
fitted it with an engine specially built for it by 
Brooke & Co., the well known motor-boat engine 
people. He made several flights of over two miles 
with this machine, but on one of these unfor- 
tunately ran into some telegraph wires, as a result 
of which the machine turned over and was 
wrecked. 

Another busy factory is that of Mr. Howard 
Wright, who has recently been specializing in 
monoplanes. A machine built by him for the 
Hon. Alan Boyle, has made several short flights 
over the Brooklands motor track, and another one 
built for the Aeronautical Syndicate, Ltd.. got off 
the ground at its very first attempt over Salisbury 
Plain. This machine which is known as the 
"A. S. L." is extremely original in appearance; 
it is fitted with wings similar to those of an An- 
toinette, but the small plane which would, if the 
resemblance were fully carried out, be a tail, is 
really the leading plane. In fact the machine 
operates very much on the lines a Wright mono- 
plane would, if such a craft existed. Great things 
are expected of this aeroplane, and as Mr. Bar- 



June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



151 



hour, the manager of the Aeronautical Syndicate, 
has spent many years studying aviation, it has a 
good chance to become a popular type of flyer. 

Some good flights were recently made at Wem- 
bley Park, near London, by the trench aviator, 
Taurin. He brought over a Bleriot monoplane 
on which he had previously flown near Algiers 
■when Metrot was flying there on his Voism. 
Though the ground at Wembley is quite an un- 
suitable one for beginners, it is not so bad for 
a really skilled aviator; there is a good starting 
and alighting ground, and a clear space on the 
side of a hill to fly around. Taurin made several 
flights whenever the weather was fine, and those 
who had the good fortune to see him were much 
impressed. Unfortunately the average English- 
man is such an utterly apathetic being that only 
a few hundnrd people turned up each day, in- 
stead of the thousands, which a similar exhibi- 
tion on the Continent would have called out. 
Some day in the near future, the country will 
wake up. and will then be just as foolishly hys- 
terical over everything aviatic as it is just at 
present apathetic. 

I n aero engines great progress is being made 
and if the number of engines sold at Olympia is 
any criterion of the number of machines being 
manufactured in the country the total figure must 
run into the thousands. 

Great firms like the Thames Iron Works Co., 
.and Vickers Sons & Maxim are turning out 
splendid engines, especially designed for aviation 
purposes. Mr. C. M. Smith, the manager of the 
motor department of the Thames Iron Works, is 
particularly to be congratulated on the excellence 
of his first attempt at designing an aero engine; 
this motor is a four-cylinder opposed horizontal 
engine with copper water jackets, and gives 35 
H.P. for a weight of 150 lbs. 



The Wolseley Company, which is owned by 
Vickers Sons & Maxim, are turning out two 
aeronautical engines, a 60 H.P. eight-cylinder V 
type weighing .^40 lbs., and a 30 H.P. four-cylin- 
der vertical, weighing 210 lbs. 

Another motor which caused considerable com- 
ment at the recent show was the Lascelles, a four- 
cylinder air-cooled engine with the cylinders set 
fanwise at angles of 45 degrees from each other. 
It is in fact a kind of modified Anzani— an An- 
zani with an added cylinder. 

The Green engine which is being used with so 
much success on the Army Dirigible, and also 
on the Short biplanes (but not on the Short- 
\Vrights, which have French engines) has been 
improved for 1910, being strengthened in some 
places and lightened in others; it is now un- 
doubtedly one of the finest engines on the market. 
In this, the copper jackets, instead of being elec- 
trically deposited, as in many engines, are sim- 
ply spun out of copper sheet, and are forced 
down over rubber packing rings on the sides of 
the cylinders; it is found that this makes per- 
fectly water-tight joints, even when there is con- 
siderable pressure on the water. 

Probably the lightest engine at the Aero Show 
was the " Alverstoa." a double cylinder (opposed 
horizontal) engine which, with a bore of 132 milli- 
metres and a stroke of 127mm., gives 30 H. P. 
for 112 lbs. 

The exhibit of actual aeroplanes at the Show 
was chiefly notable for the absence of freak-de- 
signs. The prevailing type was more or less a 
copy of the (Tross-Channel Bleriot. but there were 
quite a number of original machines on view: the 
biplane shown by George & Jobling of Newcastle 
has many excellent points, including a new sys- 
tem of springing the wheels. Mr. A. E. George 



The Humber firm, the makers of the well-known 
Humber cars and cycles, who have gone in 
heavily for aviation, showed a machine designed 
by the late Hubert Le Blon, in which the usual 
fusellage was replaced by a long wooden cylinder, 
or rather a cylinder made of a wooden frame cov- 
ered with canvas; f this marked quite a new de- 
parture in aeroplane design, and one which will 
doubtless be largely followed in the near future. 
The Roe triplane which is, I believe, the only 
machine in the world * to have flown with a g 
H.P. engine, attracted a good deal of attention. - 

At present the aviators of this country are 
greatly concerned with the possibility of acquir- 
ing first-class flying grounds, and already there 
are many schemes on foot to provide them. The 
Motor Union which recently absorbed the Aero- 
plane Club (turning it into the Aviation Section 
of the Union), is in treaty for a very large ground 
near London which will afford a five-mile circuit; 
it is intended to erect enormous grand-stands as 
well as repair shops and hangars, on this ground, 
and as it is within half an hour of the centre of 
London it should become practically the aero- 
nautical centre of England, provided no snags 
are struck in completing the negotiations. 

The British Michelin Cup, which is the most 
important Aviation Trophy offered for competi- 
tion in Great Britain, has been won by Mr. Moore- 
Brabazon with an 18 mile flight. He himself, with 
a 40 mile flight. Rolls with a 26 mile flight, and 
Grace, with a 20 mile flight, have all beaten the 
distance, but none of these performances were 
officially observed. 

Ed. Notes: f See page 146. 

* The Sellers quadriplane of Baltimore has 
flown under the propulsion of a 4-6 H.P. engine. 



THE WRIGHT COMPANY IS AN INCENTIVE TO THE 
DEVELOPMENT OF AVIATION 



THE April number of Aircraft contained 
an excellent statement of the plain facts in 
nhe Wright patent case, bv Mr. Campbell Wood. 
To the mind of the writer this article is by 
far the best and fairest account of the trouble 
that has so far appeared anywhere, and Aircraft 
is to be congratulated on receiving it. In the 
May issue appeared two partisan accounts of 
the same matter by the respective attorneys. 
IJnfortunateiy, both of these latter articles ap- 
pealed rather to passion and prejudice than to 
reason. It is the purpose of this article to sum 
up the case in a fair, reasonable, impartial way, 
from the viewpoint of the ordinary layman who 
is not financially interested in either side of the 

It seems, and it is sincerely to be hoped, that 
all attempts to invalidate the Wright patent will 
fail. Undoubtedly other inventors conceived the 
idea of warping wings before they did. but it is 
the peculiar discovery of the manner in which 
the vertical rudder and the warping device must 
be used together that made successful flight pos- 
sible. So far it has not been shown that any 
one had worked out this svstem previous to the 
Wrights. The reason is evident. It is an em- 
■pirical principle, to be discovered only by actual 
•experiment in the air, as they discovered it, and 
not such an idea as would be developed in the 
paper theories of their predecessors. 

Even though it can be shown that some pre- 
vious inventor had some such idea of control, 
and even though the Wrights knew of the pre- 
vious inventor's work, it cannot be denied by 
the bitterest opponent of the Dayton brothers 
that they were the first to make successful use 
of it in flight. By flight no one means a jump 
for a hundred feet at a few inches above the 
ground. Because they were the first inventors 
to put this principle to actual use in a prac- 
ticable form. Judge Hazel and Judge Hand have 
very rightly held that they are entitled to the 
exclusive use of it for the usual period of a pat- 
ent. The same law has always been held valid 
in all other patent cases. It is quite true that 
other inventors had some hazy ideas of both the 
telephone and the gasoline automobile before Bell 
and Selden applied for their respective patents; 
but because these inventors were the first to 
make actual and practical use of the ideas in a 
commercial form the courts have steadily upheld 
them in their rights to the exclusive use of the 
devices. 

Perhaps an illustration of an analogous case 
will make the matter clearer. In 1849 manv thou- 
sand people knew there was gold in California. 
and made plans to go after it. All of them, 
through their knowledge and efforts to obtain it, 
had an equal right to it. Yet the Government 
invariably granted a land patent to the first to 
get to a good place and laegin to make actual 
and commercial use of the ground. That the 
hundreds of unsuccessful ones who spent sums 
of money greater than were ever spent on the 
development of aeroplanes, and who toiled to ex- 
haustion many more hours than did all the in- 
ventors together, got no share of the gold dug 
up bv the more skillful and daring pioneers, was 



By John G, Ha.nna. 

not considered unjust. All governments in all 
ages have granted such land patents, and no one 
has ever tried to show that such grants are not 
fair. The present patent case is exactly the same 
in principle. If the hundreds of other inventors 
who have been struggling toward this gold mine 
find the Wrights already actually operating it on 
their arrival, there is nothing for them to do but 
turn in another direction and seek for another 
vein of ore. And this they can certainly find. 
for be it remembered that the Wright patent cov- 
ers but one very definite and not very perfect 
type of aeroplane, and there are any number of 
better and more profitable devices lying around 
in the wilderness, so to speak, waiting for the 
independent prospector to seek them out and 
claim them for his own. 

From the foregoing it appears how useless, as 
well as how unjust, it is to attempt to break 
the Wright patent. The proper course for Paul- 
han, Curtiss and others is to attempt to show 
how their aeroplanes do not infringe the Wright 
claims. As pointed out bv ^Ir. Wood and by 
Mr. Ludlow, the essential feature of the patent 
is the combined action of the warping and rud- 
der. If either part of the combination is dis- 
pensed with or rendered unnecessary, then there 
is no infringement. 

Curtiss claims that his ailerons balance each 
other so as to render correction by the rudder 
unnecessary. If the inventor would proceed to 
demonstrate this fact at once by actual flight 
in the presence of representatives of the court, 
instead of wasting time on attempts to un- 
dermine the Wright patent, he would probably 
be henceforth declared free to pursue the manu- 
facture and operation of his really clever little 
machine without molestation from the Wrights or 
anyone else. 

Paulhan claims that the peculiar loose attach- 
ment of his ailerons causes them to offer no re- 
tarding effect when drawn down just sufficiently 
to produce the necessary lift. No retarding effect 
means of course no concurrent use of the rud- 
der and hence no infringement. This claim seems 
somewhat doubtful. Still it is more likely to 
help him if he proves it than if he spends money 
and time in fruitless attacks on the Wright patent. 

Paulhan's Bleriots were originally equipped 
with regular wing-warping devices, like all of 
the type. If equipoed thus, they are plainly in- 
fringements, since corrective action of the rud- 
der will certainly be necessarv. Before coming 
to this country, however. Paulhan claims to have 
removed the warping wires from the wings of all 
of them. No better proof of the sinceritv of 
the Wrights and their intention to mind strictly 
their own business and their own svstem of con- 
trol can be desired than their public declaration 
that Paulhan might use these modified and non- 
infringing Bleriots freely without -fear of molesta- 
tion by them. 

So much for the Wright patent and the cases 
of Paulhan and Curtiss. It is next in order to 
consider the Wright Company and its attitude 
towards and effect upon aviation. 

Mr. Ludlow says that the Wright patent is "a 
power of injunction, a possible monopoly, which. 



owned by a covetous and rich corporation, might 
threaten the very life of aviation, stifle develop- 
ment in this country, and bar out the fruits of 
foreign progress." It is hard to imagine a more 
extravagant statement. The patent is a power 
of injunction and a monopoly only of one type 
of machine. Paraphrasing the old saying that 
"one swallow doesn't make a summer," it is quite 
true that one type of aeroplane doesn't make avia- 
tion. Instead of stifling development in this 
country, it will accelerate it, for inventors will 
be forced to devise some other type of machine 
to get around the patent claims. As it is, if 
the Wrights did not rigorously enforce their pat- 
ent, we would be too prone to be satisfied with 
the several good-enough machines we now have, 
and consider it unnecessarv to devise better ones. 
This has been the case with all other inventions. 
The first form, though imperfect, was used, per- 
haps for years, until a monopoly forced others 
to invent something better, when the original 
was improved to keep pace with the new in- 
vention. As to barring out fruits of foreign 
progress, perhaps it would be well to wait until 
foreign progress shows some fruit before worrv- 
ing about this. It is a fact that the success of 
practically all the better-known foreign flying -ma- 
chines dates from the day they began to profit by 
the fruits of American ingenuity. However, for- 
eign inventors will without question produce some 
very valuable work in the near future, surpass- 
ing what thev have already done, and it would 
be folly to bar it out. The point is, the Wright 
patent cannot bar it out so long as it is really 
fundamentally different from, and not a struc- 
tural variation of. the Wright machine. 

A case in point is the well-known Voisin bi- 
plane, which has recently shown such excellent 
balance in high winds while piloted by Rougier 
at Monaco. This machine claims entirely auto- 
matic lateral stability, and has absolutely no 
means for changing the angle of incidence of 
either of the main planes. The Wright patent, 
therefore, does not bar it out. and anyone can 
fly a Voisin biplane over every square inch of 
America without a word of protest from the 
Wrights. The same is true of the Bleriot and of 
Santos-Dumont's "Demoiselle" without the wing- 
warping devices. 

The statement that the Wright Company is 
willing to license all users of infringing aero- 
planes should be taken at its full value. That 
they have yet made no announcement of their 
rate signifies nothing. Remember that the suits 
against Curtiss and Paulhan have not vet been 
settled definitely. Until the courts definitely de- 
clare that their patent is valid and that the other 
machines are infringements, how can they be ex- 
pected to announce a price for what thev mav 
ultimately have no right to sell at all if the de- 
cision goes against them? 

Referring to the statement of the Wrights that 
they will not bring suit against those who use 
their type of machine purely for experimental 
purposes, Mr. Ludlow says this statement "is 
interesting, but of no particular value." It /j, 
it most certainly is, of the utmost particular 
value. For until Mr. Ludlow or some one else 



15^ 



AIRCRAFT 



Jujie, igio 



proves it false, this one sentence is enough to 
acquit the Wrights of every word of the long 
list of charges of stifling competition, hindering 
the development of aviation, barring out the 
fruits of foreign progress, and so forth, that have 
been brought against them. It means simply 
that they are giving to everyone the fullest pos- 
sible opportunity to beat them at their own game, 
and to advance the science of aviation by build- 
ing on the foundation of the Wright machine a 
better one that will vastly lessen the value of this 
patent. And it is a fact that the Wrights have, 
as Mr, Toulmin says, time and again helped 
other inventors in their efforts to produce ma- 
chines of a different type. How such a course 
menaces the development of aviation, as Mr. 
Ludlow asserts, is hard to see. 

The case of the Wrights and the French War 
Office has no bearing on the Paulhan-Curtiss 
suits; but. since counsel for Paulhan has seen fit 
to introduce it, it may be well to give the real 
facts in the case. The first idea of the Wrights, 
even before their first machine was completed, 
was to sell it to the United States Government 
alone, keeping the secret from all others. With 
patriotic self-sacrifice they offered it at a price 
not a tenth of what they could get by selling it 
to other governments or developing it commer- 
cially throughout the world. But our supremely 
wise and omniscient Government, blind then as 
now to the real status of aviation, turned them 
down with scant consideration. Then, and only 
then, were they forced to take their invention 
to a foreign market. Mr. Ludlow seems to imply 
that they had transgressed the rights of this Gov- 
ernment, for which the said Government should 
take away the rights previously granted them. 
Yet it is as simple as two plus two make four 
that it is impossible to transgress the rights of 
a party which has no rights to be transgressed. 
And by this colossally stupid blunder the Amer- 
ican Government had not only forfeited all its 
own rights in the case but as well trampled on 
the rights of the inventors and of the whole 
nation. No amount of gold medals and present 
orders for machines can ever atone for the ac- 
tion of the Government when it was first given 
the opportunity of purchasing the Wright pat- 
ent, years ago. Every loyal American must think 
with admiration of the self-sacrifice of the Wrights 
and with shame of the stupidity of the Govern- 
ment. 

Mr. Ludlow says further that the Wright Com- 
pany "is attempting to impose an exorbitant tax 
upon the community for the use of aeroplanes, 
and is claiming a monopoly for selling, making. 
using, or exhibiting aeroplanes." It is difficult 
to find words to fitly characterize this statement. 
As every schoolboy knows, the word "aeroplanes" 
does not in any way refer exclusively to the 
Wright type of flying machines. Such a statement 



is therefore an insult to the intelligence of every 
reader. Further, it is certain that the Company 
will not impose an " exorbitant tax " for the use 
of Wright machines, simply because competition 
of other tvpes will make this bad business policy. 
Nor will It try to keep a monopoly of the manu- 
facture of this type. The demand for machines is 
growing at such a pace that no one company can 
keep up with it, though it be a million-dollar 
corporation. 
Since it cannot take all the orde 



'ill 



the 



pany to take what royalti 

companies, exactly as was done m the case ot 
the Selden patent. No effort was made to ob- 
tain a monopoly-profit from this patent, but a 
royalty of one-eighth of one per cent, was asked 
and received from practically every manufacturer 
of cars coming under its scope. It is well known 
that immense profits have been made in the 
automobile business, profits quite satisfactory to 
million-dollar corporations, yet every cent of 
them were straight manufacturing and not mo- 
nopoly profits. The same holds true of aero- 
planes, which are even simpler in manufacture 
than automobiles. Any royalty or monopoly- 
profit that might be made would be utterly in- 
significant beside the legitimate return in manu- 
facturing. Even if the Company reserves to 
itself the exclusive right to manufacture all such 
machines, it can never force up the price, for if 
it goes much above the average level of the 
prices of the Voisin, Herring-Burgess, Baldwin, 
Bleriot, "Demoiselle," and other machines that 
may be operated here, then the public will 
naturally cease to demand them, and as a result 
the price will drop to the normal level. 

Such, then, is the position and the attitude of 
the Wright Company; What will be its effect 
on aviation? Instead of being a menace, as Mr. 
Ludlow claims, no logical and farseeing person 
can consider it as anything but the most pow- 
erful and useful incentive to the development 
of aviation that we have to-day. The W^right sys- 
tem of control is a good one, but not the only 
good one, and not necessarily the best. In 
fact, it is not the only one used bv birds, for 
various kinds of birds have_ entirely different 
means of maintaining equilibrium. The monop- 
oly of the first system discovered will be a pow- 
erful incentive for inventors to work out the 
other and perhaps better systems. It should be 
remembered that two of the six fatal aeroplane 
accidents have occurred with Wright biplanes. In 
an editorial in the March Aircraft the statement 
is made that " the Wright brothers owe their 
success to the thousands who tried and failed be- 
fore them, and the success of others after them 
will be built upon their failures." No better 
summing up of the matter could be made. 

As examples of what can be done in this line, 

THREE IMPRESSIONS 



consider the Pfitzner monoplane, which has been 
highly successful. It preserves its stability by 
changing the supporting area of the wings, in- 
stead of increasing the supporting angle. The 
Herring-Burgess biplane is also a success in ev- 
ery way, so far as tried. The fins on top pro- 
vide a clever and apparently efficient means of 
automatic stability. Baldwin's aeroplane, with its 
vertical rudder on top acting to straighten the 
machine when it tips, is also outside the scope 
of the Wright patent. Among foreign machines 
there is the Voisin, with its stability preserved 
by vertical partitions like a box "kite. The 
Bleriot and " Demoiselle " monoplanes, without 
wing-warping devices and depending for stabil- 
ity on the dihedral angle of the wings and on 
corrective tails, are also outside the class of in- 
fringing machines. This is certainly a fine col- 
lection to start from. Every month Aircraft 
has reports of new designs being worked out all 
over the country, and in a short time we may 
expect to see several very successful machines of 
original design added to the above list. It may 
easily be seen that the Wright Company has no 
monopoly of flying in America. The increased 
demand for machines of other types will spur in- 
ventors to greater efforts, resulting in a much 
earlier and greater perfection of the science of 
aviation than we should see if all the country 
were to be allowed to use and be satisfied with 
the present Wright system. And there are cer- 
tainly plenty of other systems waiting to be 
discovered. Any person of a mechanical turn 
of mind, after making a thorough study of the 
principles of mechanical flight, should be able to 
devise some system of balancing that would be 
entirely practical. The thing to do, then, is to 
get out and test these ideas in actual flight, as 
the Wrights did, and then to improve and per- 
fect them until they work with precision and 
certainty. 

\\'e have now looked at every side of the case. 
If this article seems favorable to the Wrights, it 
is onlv because reason and common sense are on 
their side, for an effort has been made through- 
out to keep it absolutely impartial. The Wright 
patent, it seems, is valid, and the patentees are 
justly entitled to all its benefits. The best course 
for Curtiss, Paulhan, and others is to show by 
actual demonstration that their machines do not 
operate in the same way as the Wright, or, if 
they do, to invent new ways of control. The 
Wright Company is not and cannot be in a posi- 
tion to monopolize or hinder aviation and flight 
as a whole, either in America or elsewhere. The 
attitude of the Company should prove a strong 
inducement to inventors to bring out new, bet- 
ter, and more efficient types of flying machines, 
and thus it will serve as an incentive to the de- 
velopment of aviation as a whole. There is the 
case in a nutshell. 



Miss Gertrxide Ba^con Describes the SensOLtions of Aeria.! Locomotion 



THE onlooker sees most of the game, and the 
passenger, idle, unhampered with anxieties as 
to the management of the craft, appreciates most 
fully the sensations of the voyage. As one who 
has sampled all three methods of aerial locomo- 
tion, I consider myself entitled to make com- 
parison. 

Only the point is that they cannot be compared. 
To ask which one prefers— to travel by balloon, 
airship or flving machine — is like asking if one 
prefers porridge, plum cake, or pate-de-fois-gras. 
It depends entirely on circumstances. 

SPHERICAL BALLOON. 

To travel by balloon is the consummation of 
idleness, indolence, and drifting dolce far niente. 
No engine jars and roars, no muscles strain, nor 
harness jingles. No breeze stirs, and no waves 
lap. "Let go all," shouts the pilot, standmg on 
the edge of the wicker basket, and eager hands 
relax their hold. What follows next is remark- 
able. After much experience I can confidently 
aver that the balloon does not move— does not 
so much as quiver. But the earth takes the 
opportunity to drop awav underneath, and recedes 
further and further from below the perfectly sta- 
tionary car and its mildly astonished but quite 
undisturbed occupants, and after that the world 
continues slowly to unroll itself in ever-varymg 
but ever-beautiful and unusual panorama— patch- 
work fields, shimmering silver-streaks, toy box 
churches and houses, and white roads like the 
joins of a jig-saw puzzle. 

And presently cotton wool billows come creep- 
ing up, with purple shadows and fleecy outlines 
and prismatic rainbow effects. Sometimes they 
invade the car, and shroud it for a while in 
clinging warm white wreaths, and anon they 
fall below and shut out the world with a glorious 
curtain, and we are all alone in fairy land, in 
perfect silence, in perfect peace, and in a realm 
that is made for us alone. And so the happy rest- 
ful hours go smoothly by until the earth has had 
enough of it, rises up more or less rapidly, to 
invade our solitude, hits the bottom of the basket 
more or less violently, and we step out, or maybe 



(From The Aero of London.) 

roll out. into everyday existence a hundred miles 
or so away. 

All the while the balloon has never moved, not 
so much as an inch. "What is the sensation of 
ballooning?" ask the uninitiated, and they seem 
to marvel that the answer is, "The sensation is 
the total absence of sensation." "But aren't you 
sea-sick?" they query, and you say, "How can 
one be when there is no motion whatever?" "But 
isn't it awful to look down?" they insist, and you 
reply, "Is it awful to sit in an armchair and look 
at a picture?" And still they don't understand, be- 
cause they labor under the delusion that it is the 
balloon that has moved, and not merely the earth 
and the sky that have shifted themselves about 
for our delectation. 

DIRIGIBLE. 

But it is otherwise in a dirigible. True the 
aloofness of it all remains— the earth's sudden 
downward plunge, the matchless panorama, and 
the absolute impossibility of realizing one's true 
position in the scheme of the universe. But the 
drifting indolence is replaced by the joy of life 
and motion. A stiff breeze fans one's cheeks, the 
unfamiliar car quivers and vibrates beneath the 
feet, the propeller whirls in a flash of light, and 
the throbbing of the engine, the steering wheel, 
and the levers suggest another form of rapid 
transit. 

An airship is a delightful blend of the balloon 
and the motor car — a combination of the chief 
pleasures of both. To the wearied, the jaded, the 
indolent, or the "bone idle." the dreamy restful- 
ness and calm of the drifting gas-bag may be its 
greatest charm, and this in a dirigible is certainly 
most effectually banished. But in its place has 
come the breath of life, the living pulsing 
strength, the exhilaration of action, and swift 

'*" ' AEROPLANE. 

The aeroplane excites — wildlv, maddeningly. 
The balloon sense is entirely absent. The fact 
that the height ordinarily attained by a flying 
machine is inconsiderable may have something to 
do with this; but it mav well be doubted whether 
even those few bold bird-men who have urged 



att; 



■idin 



abo 



the 



ground. The wonderful and inconceivable part 
about high flying to the balloonist is that he has 
attained his height without effort or knowledge. 
The aviator wins his upward way only by hard 
striving, and his feelings, if he has time for any, 
must be those of the mountaineer. 

A flight in an aeroplane, in my own experience, 
is a time of stress and strain. It is cold, bitter 
cold, even on a sultry summer evening, for the 
furious gale of the onward motion blows through 
and through you, and makes your eyes smart and 
reddens your nose. It is deafeningly noisy. 
When I climbed down from the little basket 
scat of the Farman biplane that night at Reims 
the voices of Sommer and his mechanics sounded 
to my deadened ears as if they came from an im- 
mense distance away, and not for several minutes 
did I hear properly again. 

An hour's voyage by flying machine would, 
even for a passenger, m^ke a not inconsiderable 
demand on bodilv strength and nervous energy. 
But, oh! the rapturous thrill of the swift plunge 
through air. the glorious exhilaration of the 
swooping flight, the sense that never until that 
moment have you felt wd^at it is really to live! 

One curious fact surprised me. Contrary to 
my expectations, I was absolutely unconscious of 
the exact moments of leaving and regaining the 
earth. A single turn of the propeller had started 
the engine (still warm from recent flight), and in 
a moment we were speeding along the grass at the 
rate of a racing car. By no movement or sudden 
shock was I made aware of what happened next; 
only presently there came into the motion a sense 
of lightness, floating buoyancy, absolutely novel 
and absolutely delicious. Yet so imperceptibly 
had the change come that it needed a downward 
glance to make sure that we were reallv in the 
air. Similarly, at the close of the flight it was 
only by the slackening of the engine that I learnt 
our voyage was over. No floating snowflake 
could have settled more lightlv to the earth. 

If life contains a more blissful experience than 
a voyage in an aeroplane, I have yet to dis- 
cover it. 



June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



153 



CLUB NEWS 

Compiled by Ada Gibson 



Aero Club of America 

Agreement Signed between the Club and 
the Wright Company 

THIS AGREEMENT, dated April Sth, 1910, made 
and entered into by and between the Wright Com- 
pany, a Corporation of the State of New York, party 
of the first part; and the Aero Club of America, a 
corporation of the same State, party of the second 

WITNESSETH: 

Whereas, the Aero Club of America, as the repre- 
sentative of America, is a member of the International 
Aeronautic Federation, and as such, is the custodian 
of the Bennett Trophy representing the International 
Aeronautical Championship of the World, won at 
Rheims 1909, by the American representative, and 

Whereas, under the rules of the International 
Aeronautic Federation, all contests held in America 
in which members or representatives of any of the 
Clubs composing the International Aeronautic Fed- 
eration or clubs affiliated with such clubs are contest- 
ants must be held under the auspices, and with the 
sanction, of the Aero Club of America, and. 

Whereas, the Wright Company as ow^ner of certain 
basic patents, heretofore issued to the Wright Broth- 
ers, has obtained from the Federal Courts decisions 
sustaining the validity of said patents, and injunc- 
tions forbidding the use of infringing machines by 
others, and. 

Whereas, by reason of said decisions it is deemed 
essential that the concurrence of the Wright Company 
shall be obtained in order that successful open aero- 
nautical contests may take place in America, and. 

Whereas, in the interest of the development of 
aeronautical science and sport, it is desirable that an 
arrangement be made between the parties hereto. 

Now, therefore, in consideration of the premises 
and of One Dollar by each party to the other paid, the 
receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, it is mutu- 
ally understood and agreed by and between the par- 
ties hereto as follows: 

First. The Aero Club of America in recognition of 
the decisions of the Federal Courts sustaining the 
patents and invention of the Wrigjit Company, as set 
forth in said decisions, and not wishing to encourage 
the infringements of said patents by others, hereby 
agrees that under its powers of sanctioning meets as 
above stated it will grant sanctions to such meets and 
contests only as shall be held under proper arrange- 
ments with the Wright Company. 

Second. The Aero Club will furnish judges, timers, 
etc., and all necessary facilities to the end that the rec- 
ords made at such contests duly sanctioned by the 
aforesaid Aero Club of America shall be accepted by 
the International Aeronautic Federation. 

Third. The Wright Company agrees that it will 
encourage the holding of open aeronautical meets or 
contests whenever approved as aforesaid by the Aero 
Ciub of America, by granting licenses for the use of 
its patents and inventions to the promoters or holders 
of such meets, under arrangements for reasonable 
compensation from them to it so that machines of any 
kind, make or country, without let or hindrance, may 
participate, under such license without further pay- 
ment or liability, in such meet or contest for which 
said license has been granted. 

Fourth. This agreement shall continue as long as 
the decisions of the said Federal Courts of the United 
States shall sanction and uphold the validity of the 
said patents and inventions of the Wright Company. 

In witness whereof, the parties hereto have 
caused their corporate seals to be afifixed and these 
presents to be signed by their duly authorized officers, 
the day and year first above w-ritten. Executed in 
triplicate. 

Aero Club of America, 

[Seal] By 

Cortlandt F. Bishop, 



IntercollegiaLte Aerona-viticaLl Asso- 

ciattion of America. 

By George Atwell Richardson, President 

QN _ Saturday morning, April 30th, a conven- 
^^ tion was held in Houston Hall, University 
of Pennsylvania, for the purpose of forming an 
Intercollegiate Aero Association. 

The following colleges were represented: 

Cornell University, two delegates; 

Princeton University, one delegate ; 

University of Virginia, three delegates; 

Hav'erford College, two delegates: 

Swarthmore College, one delegate: 

Columbia University, two delegates; 

Tufts College had a proxy present. 

The Yale. Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, Amherst, University of Chicago, Notre 
Dame, and Carnegie Technical School Aero 



Clubs, wl 



,l)lc to send delegates, sent let- 
ters stating that they were greatly in favor of 
the forming of the Association, and expressed 
their desire to become members. 

The morning was taken up with discussing the 
constitution of the new association and with the 
election of officers. These are as follows: 

President— G. A. Richardson, U. of P., 1912. 

First Vice-President— Cyrus McCormick, Prince- 
ton, 1912. 

Second Vice-President— Dr. Bird, Virginia, Pro- 
fessor. 

Secretary — Elmer Rae, Cornell. 1913. 

Assistant Secretary — Thomas Midgely, Cornell, 

'^Treasurer— S. S. Morris, Haverford. 

The new association will be known as the In- 
tercollegiate Aeronautical -Association of Amer- 
ica, and one of the first things that it will do 
is to publish a bulletin containing a complete 
account of the proceedings of the convention and 
also the constitution of the association in full. 
This bulletin will be sent out to every college 
and aero club in the country. Any college aero 
club now in existence which joins the association 
will be considered a charter member. 

A very active campaign for the purpose of 
arousing interest in aeronautics in the various 
colleges has been mapped out for the coming 
year. 



Aero Scientific Club of Washingtorv 

By Edward H, Young, President 

T-I-IEAero Scientific Club of Washington, D. C, 
' was organized on October 12, 1909, with fifteen 
members, nine of whom had, or were, building 
aeroplanes. The club now has a membership of 
forty-nine, and many applications have been made 
recently. The headquarters of the Club are at 
the Y.' M. C. A. Assembly Hall, where meetings 
are held twice a month for the purpose of dis- 
cussing the many problems of aeronautics. 

Last January it held a successful exhibit in con- 
junction with the Y. M. C. A.'s New Year 
reception and gave an illustrated lecture to a 
large audience, of which 2,500 viewed the exhibits. 

On January 24-29 at the National Automobile 
and Aeronautic Show, members of the Club ex- 
hibited seven completed man-carrying aeroplanes, 
many models of original conceptions, propellers, 

The directors are now negotiating for a large 
open field for experimental purposes. 

A donation has recently been made bv the Club 
to the Junior members of the Y. M. C. A. Aero 
Club. 

The officers are: E. H. Young. President; S. 
T. Bean, First Vice-President; William H. Beck. 
Second Vice-President; F. L. Rice, Treasurer 
and Secretary; Herbert Oden, Historian; W. S. 
Kline, Official Photographer. 



CLUB NOTES 



Members of the Tufts College Aero Club re- 
cently made some remarkable flights with gliders 
on the athletic field at Tufts. Edwin P. Bugbee, 
of Methuen, who is president of the club, made 
a glide of 225 feet. 

Another member. Dr. Philip Cobb, of the 
Chemistry Department, rose to a height of 25 
feet in a towed glide, but only succeeded in stay- 
ing up a very short distance. 

A strong wind blowing at the time added to 
the excitement and also to the merit of the 
amateur gliders. The tow-rope of Merritt B. 
White's machine broke just after he left the 
ground; he fortunately escaped injury. 



Reside 



of West Allis, Wi 



taking steps 



has been 

ticular through the fact that Dr. A. R. Silver- 
stone is building a flyer on the fair grounds, of 
which he expects great things. 

The ballooning season opened in New England 
on April 21st, when a short trip from Spring- 
field to Hadley, say a distance of seventeen 
miles, was made by A. Holland Forbes, pilot, 
.fohn Parker and William Hull. The greatest 
altitude reached was 6,200 feet. 

An Aero Club has been formed in Omaha, 
Neb., with Col. W. A. Glassford, Commandant 
at Fort Omaha, at its head. The members of 
the Club, who rank among the wealthiest and 
most influential men of the State, will make a 
study of the science of aeronautics and encour- 
age aerial navigation by organizing meets and 
exhibitions. The big Government dirigible shed 

ill be used by members of the Club for housing 



the 



aft. 



The Princeton University Aero Club has re- 
cently been formed by a number of students 
with a charter membership of twenty and the 
usual quota of officers. Arrangements are being 
made to hold a balloon ascension; a model con- 
test is also under consideration. 

The Aero Club of New England will, in co- 
operation with the Aero Club of Springfield, 
maintain a caretaker and balloon rigger at the 
latter city; he will take charge of ascensions held 
under the auspices of the clubs at all stations. 

The Aero Club of Jacksonville, which has now 
forty members, will shortly apply for incorpora- 
tion. Its Secretarv. Mr. Davenport Kerrison. 
has a full-sized aeroplane in course of construc- 




THE AERO SCIENT:FIC CLUE OF WASHINGTON : A GROUP. 



1S4 



AIRCRAFT 



June, 1910 



NEW FLYERS DESCRIBED: THE FAIRCHILD MONOPLANE 



By George F. CaLinpbell Wood 



THE aeroplane constructed by Walter Lowe 
Fairchild, of New York, and of the Aero 
Club of America, is remarkable in many more 
ways than one. That tlie designer and builder is 
an engineer — and an engineer of merit — is ap- 
parent to any but the veriest tyro, on a mo- 
ment's examination of his beautifully finished 
product. 

The Fairchild monoplane is in fact a model 
of mechanical construction, and, if its iiying 
capabilities are in any way commensurate with 
the intelligence and resourcefulness displayed in 
carrying out its design, those interested in the 
development of aviation may prepare to hail an 
eminently successful American monoplane. 

In design this flyer is eclectic in that it em- 
bodies the most successful features of the well- 
known types of monoplanes. 

The body or fuselage is of graduated steel 
tubmg; lightness and strength have been ob- 
tained through the careful use of different sizes 
and thicknesses of tubes,— the strength of each 
part and portion having been calculated in detail. 

All the tubes of the frame where especial 
strength has been thought advisable have been 
stuffed with elm, thus giving them great strength, 
with but little head-on resistance. 

In the trussing of the frame, steel tape and 
cable have been used to advantage, in preference 
to the usual piano wire. 

The wings are of the usual monoplane type, 
built up of fourteen double ribs over transverse 
one-inch steel tubes: they have flexible curved 
uncontrolled wing-tips, which are balanced for a 
certain lifting effect. The tail is similar to the 
flat tail of the Antoinette, which is used solely as 
a stabilizer and not for carrying purposes (lift- 
ing only its own weight and the framework con- 
necting it to the main body). 

Vertical and horizontal direction are obtained 
through rear rudders similar to the Antoinette's, 
except that a further vertical rudder in front of 
the hinge, in prolongation of the usual rear one, 
occupies the position of the French machine's 
fixed vertical fin. 

EiHcient lateral control is expected of an en- 
tirely novel and somewhat startling device, which 
will be affixed later and which the writer was re- 
quested by Mr. Fairchild not to reveal at this 
time. 

This and the other means of control will be 
published in a later issue, when the machine, 
which is now nearing completion at Mineola,' 
Long Island, is ready for trial. 

Like the Bleriot XII, the Santos-Dumont 
"Demoiselle," or the Grade, the Fairchild has its 
centre of gravity comparatively low; but unlike 
them, the aviator sits above; the inventor antici- 
pates no trouble from the usual drawback of a 
low centre— the tendency to oscillate— as this ef- 
fect is counteracted by the stabilizing effects of 



the vertical surfaces in the main body and of 
the wide horizontal tail and by the fact that twin 
propellers are used for propulsion. 

This use of two tractive propellers is excep- 
tional in monoplanes, and it is interesting to 
note that the big screws are both to revolve in 
the same direction. Mr. I-'airchild holds that if 
the gyroscopic effect of a single propeller can be 
deemed negligible in other monoplanes, that of 
two can be even more so. 

The motor is a Requa-Gibson two-cylinder (dis- 
posed V-shape) engine, giving 50-h. p. The pro- 



These collars are anchored to the lower end 
of the columns by a pair of powerful compres- 
sion springs. 

Skis, normally three inches above the ground, 
are used to absorb any excess of shock. 

Light double skids support the tail. 

The weight of this steel tube-aeroplane, un- 
mounted, IS m the neighborhood of 700 pounds: 
the construction is obviously of great strength 
for its weight. 

The supporting surface measures 280 square 
feet; the wings have a total spread of 37 feet, 




pellers used are also from Requa-Gibson; t 
diameter is 7 feet; their pitch 6 feet; they 
connected with the engine by chains r 
through tubes; the shafts of the propellL._ „. _ 
8 feet apart and 6 feet 8 inches above the ground. 

The landing chassis is both exceptionally wide 
and exceptionally strong. 

A pair of aeroplane-wheels support the fore- 
part of the machine when it is on the ground; 
the supporting columns, which, it should be 
noted, are double, form part of the frame; but 
the forks carrying the wheels are hinged to the 
lower ends of the tubes and the wheel-hubs are 
stayed independently to loose collars that ride 
upon a portion of the upper ends of the columns. 



the length over all of the machine being also 37 
feet. 



feet. 

Each wing measures 8 feet 4 inches in breadth 
at its junction to the body. 

The curve of the win^s is a composite one, 
worked out from Mr. Fairchild's calculations. 

The surface of the fixed tail is 60 square feet; 
that of the horizontal rudder or elevator 22 
square feet. 

The greatest care has been embodied in the 
construction of this remarkable monoplane and 
the engineering skill of the designer is discern- 
ible in the many ingenious details used in it, 
some of which have never been seen elsewhere 
in aeronautic construction. 



FLYING-MACHINE MODELS 



THROUGH Aircraft, the Junior Aero Club 
• of America wishes to issue a Challenge to all 
aero clubs and aeronautical societies or associa- 
tions in the United States to an aeroplane model 
contest. 

Model flying has already created such a 
marked enthusiasm that the time has been 
thought ripe by the J. A. C. A. to widen the 
scope of the sport during the coming summer 
by sending out this general challenge. 

The contests will not be limited to the younger 
generation, for the latter is well able to hold 
Its own against grown-ups— as the results of 
all the recent contests only too clearly prove. 
In contests where no age limit prevails all the 
honors have gone to the younger participators, 
but in order to avoid any unpleasant comments 
about including "growns" and "ungrowns" in 
the same competitions, it has been decided to 
offer two identical cups, one for the men and 
one for the boys. 

A challenge cup goes to the club whose mem- 
ber has obtained the longest flight from his 
model, of all competitors. This cup is donated 
by Edward Durant, whose father, it will be re- 
membered, was the first American aeronaut, and 
who is himself the director of the Junior Aero 
Club. 

The contests are to be held under the rules of 
the National Model Aero Club, which were 
published in the last number of Aircraft. The 
contestants will then be able to compete at the 
same time for the fine " 1910 Cup," the pic- 
ture of which was also published last month in 
this magazine, and which, it will be recalled, 
was donated by no other than A. Leo Stevens, 
the_ celebrated aeronaut. Its winner will be the 
individual, regardless of age or sex, whose 



By W. H. Phipps 



aodel flies the greatest distance, under offic 
bservation, during the present year. 
It might here be said that the indications 
lumerous that girls and women will soon be 
'ailing in enthusiasm their male relatives 
nodel flying, and that this will be the sig 




fashionable ga 



LE5H MODEL 



in the sport which will rival any 
.mo r.-r fg^ of thc past fcw ycars. 



The regular mode' 
Side branch of the 



second Regiment Armory 

The winners in the men's class 
Sage, with a Curtiss model, wh 



tests held by the West 
w York Y. M. C. A. 
:h 26th at the Twenty- 



tance of 107 feet 6 inches, starting from the 
ground. In the boys' class the winners were 
F. M. Watkins, 16S feet, first; D. Grier, 139 feet, 
second, and C. G. Vogel, 132 feet, third. 

Another Y. M. C. A. contest took place in the 
Fourteenth Regiment Armory, Brooklyn. 'There 
were twenty machines entered. W. M. Sage and 
F. M. Watkins repeated their victories with 106 
feet and 167 feet, respectively; C. G. Vogel was 
second to Watkins in the boys' class, with 132 
feet 5 inches. 

Model contests were held in the Metropolitan 
Opera House on April iSth, under the- aus- 
pices of the French Benevolent Society. The 
big event of the evening was the "Cross-Chan- 
nel" contest, the "Channel" being the space be- 
tween the balconies; a large silver cup was of- 
fered for this contest by M. Henri Chapal; it 
was won by L. J. Lesh, W. H. Phipps being 
second. The Reims contest was likewise won 
by L. J. Lesh. with the same machine which 
had carried off the first event. 

Much credit is due Dr. Dederer for the splen- 
did way in which these contests were conducted. 

Model competition added interest to the an- 
nual games of Public School 77, held on April 
9th, at the Eighth Regiment Armory, New York. 
Both the Junior Aero Club and the School con- 
tributed their quota of contestants. F. M. Wat- 
kins once again proved the victor in the boys* 
class, with a flight of 145 feet. His model is a 
monoplane of the front rudder tvpe, driven by 
two propellers at the rear. H. Southworth was 
second, with 139 feet; a flight of 124 feet gave 
third place to P. W. Pierce, a picture of whose 
machine appears on the next page. 

In the men's class the models were required 
to start from the floor; in spite of this handicap 



June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



155 



W. S. Howell, Jr.'s entry flew 149 feet, 
other contestants were: R, S. Barnaby, 
Halpine, William Piceller, J. Causi, H. I 
got, J. Badine, G. Merz, J. Silberman ai 
Hexamer. 

One of the features of the outdoor gan 
Public School 87, Manhattan, Seventy-s( 
street and Amsterdam avenue, which w 
held at Pastime Oval the afternoon of iNIaj 
will be an aeroplane contest for elem 
schoolboys. 



The date fixed for the 



odel 



nd kil 



tests to be held by the International School of 
Aeronautics, Garden City, Long Island, N. Y., 
has been changed to June nth and i2th, be- 
cause of the impossibility of Professor Lawrence 
Rotch being present on May 15th, on which date 
he is due in Pittstield to take part in some aero- 
static experiments. 

(^n this occasion a cup, offered by ^Ir. Camp- 
bell Wood, will go to the owner of the model 
making the longest flight in point of time, re- 
gardless of the distance covered or of the point 
of landing. 




MODEL OF P. \V. I'lERCE. 



broad. 



BIG MODEL CONTEST IN FRANCE. 

The records made by flying models in the 

nt contests for the " Gordon Bennett Cup " 

models, in Paris, show that the American- 

t models fly further than those constructed 

The longest model flight made during 

;' Paris contest was that of M. Dieterin's ma- 

ine; it flew 156 feet 4 inches. His model 

,s called "Chantecler," owing to the feathers 

which the planes were made; these were 

tched onto a light framework suggestive of 

Antoinette monoplane. 
There were twenty-six prizes, the principal 
cing the Prix Paulhan, 150 francs in 
iven by the famous aviator. Other 
ere the Prix Avia, goods to the valut 
ancs; the Prix de ■■L'.-Vuto," a gold m( 
ri Rougier, 100 francs cash; 
rix Bleriot, 100 francs cash; the Prix tl 
arman and the Prix Latham. 
It is to be hoped that just such intere? 
odel-flying can be aroused in this country 
rizes like the above allotted to th 



h, 
prizes 
of 500 



RECENT PATENTED INVENTIONS 

Briefed by Gustave IC. Thompson 



US. PATENT 953-810. April 5, igio. Edward 
• J. Augsberger. This is an aeroplane claim- 
ing automatic stability, through auxiliary planes 
disposed at the ends of the main planes. When 
one side is depressed the auxiliary planes on 



thrust or efficiency of p 
is attaclied to a shaft 
of longitudii 



s. The propeller 
, to — but capable 
a second shaft. 
ected, by a rod 
shaft (which is 



propellers revolve, _ ^ 

tions to obviate a rotation of the macl 
can be tilted— as shown in the figure- 



U. S. PATENT 953,810. 



that side oppose a greater resistance to the air 
than those on the other, thereby tending to lift 
that end. 

The intricacy of the mechanical side of this 
invention precludes a regular description, but 
the above indication and annexed sketch will 
give an idea of the patent, which is illustrated 
by no less than nine figures. It should be of 
interest to those seeking the solution of auto- 
matic stability. 

U. S. 



first shaft 
running through 
tubular, to a dyn 

igh the second shaft 
propeller, transmitted tl: 
rod, is measured on the dynamom 



Patent 954.510 

into the ground and 
dragged by the spre; 
in the figure. 

To withdraw the anchor th 
tached from the centre piece, both arms am 
centre piece being pulled up separately by th 
cords attached to each piece. 

One of the patents mentioned here 
also related to an airship anchor, and it is ap- 
parent that much thought is being given to the 
problem of anchoring big dirigibles, especially 
in Germany. 





of the !e\ 

propeller. 

a rudder attached beneath the 



U. S. PATENT 954,077, 



tethe 



us that the possibility of 
airships in the open is 
lem to be faced in conne 
has been shown many times, 
forcibly than last month, wher 
Zeppelin II" broke her moorings and 
ked in consequence. 



anchoring 
the most 
tion with 



ilde 



S. Patent 954,992, April i:;, 1910, 
Parse val. This is the latest non- 
td by the celebrated 



August 
gid pro- 
dirigible 



U, S. PATENT 954,510. 



In propellers of this kind it is necessary to 
weight the propeller to obtain the proper cen- 
trifugal force to spread out the blades. Weight- 
ing the ends of the propellers has been found 
objectionable and the present invention proposes 
to overcome these objections by distributing the 
weight over the blades. Metallic chains or 
ropes are therefore run through the front edges 
of the blades (the latter being made preferably 
of canvas) ; the transverse stiffeners are also 
formed of chains or cables. 

U. S. Patent 955.049. April 12, 1910. Gustave 
H. Erekke. A helicopter: The two horizontal 




PATENT 955,049. 



156 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 



NEWS IN GENERAL 

By Mrs. J. Herbert Sincla^ir 



THE 'Indianapolis Motor Speedway 



thi 



course in the world, 
contests will form a large share 
held there this summer, and w 
National Championship Uallo 



Its Nos. zs to 30 — Carrying various num- 
passengers at fast and slow speeds, near 
high altitudes. 
Sth, last day of Aviation Meet 



made between the 



Meet 
June 



Race on Septi 

Arrangements have been 
Motor Speedway Company and the 
Exhibition Company for the big Avi 
to take place during the week begij 
13th. 

The Wright brothers have given th 
to this being an open meet — in accoi 
the Wright Company-Aero Club c 
agreement (published elsewhere in th 
it will be the first aviation meet held 
license. 

Thus an open field is left to all aviators fly 



he ground 

Saturday, Ju 
-Special trial 

ntry flights 



rd hi| 



flights. 



Als 



the State of Indii 
fits there will be special cash 
medals, with additional 
e-xisting world's records, 
cost of the meet will be 
; are guaranteeing money 
of $25,000. and $50,000 cash 
to the Wright brothers. They promise to spend 
an additional $20,000 in promoting the meet. 



In all the 
prizes, trophi 



5,000. 



favorable conditions. This new monoplane has 
a spread of 30 feet and a fore-and-aft length of 
25 feet. Its surface is 224 square feet and its 
weight, complete, 500 pounds. 

The chief feature of this new monoplane is 
its gyroscopic stability device for maintaining its 
transverse equilibrium (shown in the photograph 
on the next page). This apparatus is driven 
by the motor and exerts a powerful force to 
keep the machine always on a level keel. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Beach, the experiments which 
have been made with it have demonstrated that 
this device will do all that is claimed for it, in 
which case it is a stride in advance in the 



for entry 



all 



for 



chi: 



iits. 



Wrights 
tered; these will be driven by the most 1 
of their pupils now receiving instruction 
bama, under Orville Wright— while at the same 
tmie especial efforts are being made to have 
the two famous brothers themselves make ex- 
hibition flights. 

There will in all probability be additional 
events for dirigible balloons. 

The following events form part of the 
ised programme: 

Event No. i— For the machine 
the shortest running distance. 

Event No. 2— For the start froi 
distance regardless of method for 

Event No. 3— For the machine making a com- 
plete circuit of the Speedway Track nearest to 
the ground. 

Event No. 4— For the machine making the 
fastest lap of the Speedway regardless of height 

Event No. 5— For the machine making the 
fastest ten miles. 

Event No. 6— For the machine landing nearest 
a given spot. Machine must la 
given area to receive a prize. 

Event No. 7— For the machine 
slowest lap of the course in the aii 

Event No. 8— For the machine rem; 
flight for the longest time (duration prize) 

Events No. 9 to 15— Special match races b 
tween various contestants. 

Events Nos. 15 to 20 — Special open events b 
tween the various aeroplanes. 

Events Nos. 20 to 2,5— Handicap events aroun 
complete circuits of the course at various di 
tances. 



prom' 
starting 
the shortest 



within a 
aking the 



ng in 




THE NEW BEACH ELEEIOT-TYPE MONOPLANE 



The 



- i illustration shows a front view 
of the new Bleriot-type monoplane which has 
been constructed lately by Mr. Stanley Y. 
Beach, the president of the Scientific Aeroplane 
Company, and with which he has been experi- 
menting of late at Stratford, Conn. The photo- 
graph which we reproduce was taken on April 
23d, just before the machine got off the ground 
m Its initial flight. In place of the 3-cylinder 
4-cycle Anzani motor used by Bleriot, Mr. Beach 
has employed a 4-cycle air-cooled motor of the 
same power (25-h. p.). With a 6-foot propeller, 
mounted upon the motor crankshaft, a thrust of 
over 200 pounds is obtained, which is sufficient 
to get the machine in the air with ease under 



of 



■oplanes practical for every-day use. 
The instrument can be applied to any type of 
aeroplane, and the Company will build any type 
the purchaser may desire. At present, how- 
ever, but two types of monoplanes similar to 
the Bleriot Cross-Channel and the Antoinette 
types are being manufactured. 



An improvement on aeroplane wheels is 
claimed by Mr. J. A. Weaver, Jr., of New York. 
He makes a wheel with a particularly wide hub 
which he avers gives it much greater strength, 
thereby making it possible to use a lighter wheel 
than otherwise. 




Your V acation Trip 



ALL the important ports on the Great Lakes are 
reached regularly by the excellent service of the D. 
a C. Lake Lines. The ten large steamers of the 
fleet arc of modern steel construction and have all the 
qualities of speed, safety and comfort. 

The D. y C. Lake Lines operate daily service hetwecn 
Detroit and Cleveland, and Detroit and Buffalo, four trips 
per week between Toledo, Detroit. Mackinac and way 
ports, and two trips per week between Detroit. Bay City. 
Sagina^v and way ports. 

About June 25 a special steamer will leave Cleveland 
twice a week direct for Mackinac, stopping only at Detroit 
every trip and Goderich. Ont.. every other trip. 

Send two-cent stamp fo"- illustrated pamphlet and Great 

Rail Tickets available on steamers. 
Address I. G. LEWIS, 0. P. A., Detroit. Mich. 
P. H. McMillan, Pres. A. A. SCHANTZ, Gen. Mgr. 



Detroit & Clmldnd NavXo. 



"ly" EEP your different numbers of Aircraft 
-^^ in Book form, and later on they will 
form a complete encyclopedia. 

An index Avill be published in the last 
number of a volume. 

We will send you (post-paid) covers for 
the purpose, at the rate of $1.00 apiece; each 
cover will hold 12 copies. 



Order from 

The Lawson Publishing Company 

37-39 East 28th Street 

New York, U. S. A. 



June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



IS7 




The Sacramento Ae 


ro Club, of Sac 


al.. has been organiz 


ed with a capital 


x> by Tracy A. Mille 


r, E. Roy Drake 


eaman and A. D. Be 


van. 



A prize of $2,000 has been offered by Andr 
Carnegie to the first x^i^pil oi the Carnej 
Schools of Technology to produce a heavi 
than-air machine which will fly. 



Captain C. d 
more assigned 
aeronautical ext 



F. Chandler has been once 
1 the duty of superintending 
-iments at Fort Omaha, Neb. 



The C. E. Conover Company reports a most 
successful month. Among those using their 
Naiad aeronautical cloth are such well-known 
men as Curtiss, Willard, Herring. Dr. Greene 
and C. & A. Wittemann. 

Mr. Hugo C. Gibson informed one of the 
Aircraft staff the other day that he was find- 
ing a proper appreciation on the part of the 
American public for the class of propellers 
turned out by the Requa-Gibson Company, 
which is doing a large business in this line. It 
looks as if the New World were at last begin- 
ning to wake up to certain possibilities which 
our friends on the other side of the Atlantic 
perceived quite a little while ago, — such as the 
production of propellers in quantities and inter- 
changeable, as compared with the "jack-knife" 
method. 

Among the many inventors seeking to solve 
the problem of "direct" lift is Joseph E. Bissell, 
of Pittsburg, Pa. 

A combined helicopter-parachute-gyroscope-fly- 
wheel monoplane is what Mr. Bissell calls his 
machine, and if it in any way comes up to the 
expectations of the inventor, it will certainly 
prove a stupendous advance upon anything pro- 
duced to date. 

Mr. James E. Plew, vice-president of the Aero 
Club of Illinois, is building a power flying 
machine on the principle of the Montgomery 
glider (which, it has been claimed, possessed 
absolute inherent stability). The machine is of 
very light construction. It is to be operated by 
a 12 horse power opposed-cylinder engine, the 
cylinders being 3% x 3% inches. Mr. Victor 
Lougheed, author of "Vehicles of the Air," is 
collaborating with Mr. Plew in the construction 
of this machine; he is responsible for the en- 
gineering work and is superintending its """ 
struction. They expected to have it re 
about May 15th. 

The new Herring-Burgess biplane hs 
been making some good flights at Pit 
Mass. Mr. Burgess, A. M. Herring 
ley S. Curtis flew in turn. The latter 
a fall when trying his hand at a turn 
tained no injury. 



ady to fly 



and Gree- 

sustained 
but sus- 



thr. 

Among the best flights made by Glenn Curtiss 
nd Charles liamilton at the San Antonio meet 
t'ere one of 500 feet in altitude by Curtiss, with 
passenger, and another in which Hamilton 
cached 900 feet. 

At 



t Atlanta Hamilton again distingui 


shed 


belf with his swift Curtiss. He beat ou 


: an 


omobile in a match race. 




would seem, however, that, at this time 


the 


\ ailing wmd would have much to do 


with 


ding the victor in such a contest. 





Je 

I^^ns3S City is planning to hold a big aviation 
nieet The local Aero Club has contracted with 
k L. Bernard of New York, who is business 
manager for Curtiss, Hamilton, Mars. Benoist, 
Harlan and Captain Baldwin for the appearance 
of these well-known sky-pilots at the meet. It 
is also said to be negotiating with some foreign 
meet is to take place from June 30th 



Tuly 4th. 



yited by President Di: 



CHASSIS OF BEACH MONOPLANE, 
GYROSCOPE IN PLACE. 



William F. Assmann, St. Louis, made a thrill- 
ing landing by night with his balloon "Missouri" 
recently. To land in a high wind on a dark 
night is a feat the difficulty of which can only 
be appreciated by an aeronaut. Mr. Assmann 
came through the ordeal with much credit. 

At the Portala Celebration at San Francisco, 
one of the most interesting sights was the simul- 
taneous start of the big spherical balloons. 
••Queen of the Pacific" and "City of Oakland." 
In the former, piloted by Captain I. Baldwin, 
of the San Francisco Aero Club, Miss Shaffer 
was a passenger, while Miss Woller, of Oakland, 
was one of those in the basket of the "City of 
Oakland." 



The records re 


:ently made at Memphis wil 


tand as official. 


the meet having been made 


inder the auspict: 


s of the Aero Club of Amer 


ca. Curtiss's tint 


e of 5 4-5 seconds in the quick 


tarting competiti 


Dn will take some beating. 



The Ohio Valley Industrial Exposition, to be 
held August 29th to September 24th, will make 
a special feature of aeronautical exhibits. 

The Western Aeroplane Company has been or- 
ganized with a capital of $200,000. The directors 
are Harvey Bissell, Tod Ford, Tr.. of Pasa- 
dena, and John J. Slavin, of Los Angeles. 



The Nasrs Aerial Navigation Company, of To- 
ledo, Ohio, have removed their headquarters to 
South Bend, Ind. 

The Cleveland Aeroplane Company has been 
incorporated by Sterling Parks, Edward F. Spur- 
ney, E. S. Linder, \V. J. Brinker and Josephine 
Merrick. It is capitalized at $10,000. 

Aircraft has again had to postpone the contin- 
uation of S. P. Langley's " Internal Work of 
the Wind," owing to the receipt of several ar- 
ticles on questions of the hour.- Several other 
excellent articles available were also crowded out 
of this number, notably a particularly interesting 
one on •' Kites," by Edward H. Young. 

NOTICE 

The price of AIRCRAFT has been increased 
from ten cents a copy to fifteen cents. The aero- 
nautical movement is assuming such reraarkalDle 
proportions that it was felt it could not be ade- 
quately presented to our readers in the style and 
manner which they are entitled to expect of this 
magazine, at the lower rate. 

The yearly subscription naturally becomes one 
dollar and fifty cents, but with a view of not 
taking_ unawares those who were contemplating 
subscribing, we will for the present accept the 
sum of one dollar in payment of a yearly sub- 
Owing to the unexpectedly large demand for 
back numbers of AIRCRAFT, these are now 
very scarce; they can be obtained at the follow- 
ing prices: 

March 40 cents 

April 65 cents 

May 25 cents 

Until these back numbers are virtually ex- 
hausted, however, we will make a point of start- 
ing any subscriptions received from the month 



DELIGHXS 



CBL£BRATEO 





Ticket admits to 
Turkish! and Russian 
Batlis, Hot and Cold 
Baths, Swimming Pool, 
Spray, Gymnasium, 
Solarium, Smoking, 
Rest and Writing 
Rooms, etc. 



)MEN. — On Mondays and Fridays from 
10 A.M. to 10 P.M. On Tuesdays, Wednesdays 
and Thursdays, 10 A.M. to 6 P.M. 
Open for Men.— At all hours of the day or night 
(except as above). Sleepinpr accommodation for 
600 (men only). On Saturdays and Sundays, and 
all public holidays. Baths open to men only. 



T o R. It- c X T-sr • 



IT E -yy 



iS8 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 



10 CENTS A LINE 



SEVEN WORDS TO LINE 



CASH WITH ORDER 



1/ NOCK-DOWN frames for a successful mono- 
rV plane glider, $i2.so l^.O.B. Newark, N. J., 
H. Wells, 75 Ave. "L." 

FARMAN-TYPE AEROPLANE, complete, for 
sale at a sacrifice. Apply to E. A., care Aiuckaft. 



/^URTISS-TYPE AEROPLANE, full size, with 
*^-' or without motor ; splendid workmanship. Ad- 
dress J. A., care Aircraft. 



WANTED.— An up-to-date business manager for 
aeroplane company. Cash bond required. Ap- 
ply B. F. M-, care Aircraft. 

COR SALE.— One 40 h. p. Eight Cylinder Curtiss 
1 Aerial Engine in good runninsr order. Price, 
.$72500. Address Box 188, Monett, Mo. 

HAVE NEW MONOPLANE, no freak but a 
sane Langley-type machine, with absolutely 
new steering and balancing mechanism. Want 
$1,500 for construction of a machine. Offer in- 
terest in patents. John G. Hanna, Box 55, 
Union Sta., Austin, Tex. 



ELECTRICAL Gyroscope and aluminum aero- 
plane inventor desires financier for its con- 
struction. I claim projection in my invention, 
possibility of overturning in mid-air will be 
eliminated, ribs are invisible, resistance com- 
pletely eliminated. For particulars address Aug- 
ust S. Praube, 2516 Woodbrook Ave., 
Md. 



rHE best and most scientifically constructed 
propellers for Airships and Naphtha Launches 
re made by Jacob Naef, 3548 Park Ave., Bronx, 
few York City. 



A EROPLANES.— Have you built an aeroplane 
^ that has never flown? The writer will fly it 
for you or help you to fly it. Address care 
R. I. C. AIRCRAFT, 37-39 East aSth Street, 
New York. 



T-HE FUTURE FLYING MACHINE. This 
» wonderful machine is automatically balanced 
in the air, it does away with the warping of 
the wings or tips, is operated by one steering 
wheel and is driven by two propellers which de- 
rive their power from a 50-h. p. revolving cylin- 
der motor. Its wings have a spread of 30 ft. and 
are 27 feet in length. The simplicity of this ma- 
chine does away with accidents and makes it 
very easy for anyone to operate. I wish to form 
a company of one or more to manufacture this 
machine. If you are interested, address Ralph 
Cole, Norwalk, Ohio. 

WANTED.— Capital for patents and construc- 
tion Monoplane, new principle, designed for 
perfect equilibrium and control, and rise from 
ground easily. Quite different from every type 
of aeroplane in use. Moses Franklin, Grand 
Junction, Colo. 



COR SALE.— Record-breaking balloon Peoria, 
'35,000 capacity. Just been overhauled. Fully 
equipped. Price, $400. Eugene Brown, 127-29 
Jefferson Ave., Peoria, 111. 



BUILD A GLIDER. Learn to fly. Gliding 
is the first step in learning to fly. I will send 
complete instructions and blue prints for build- 
ing a 20-foot biplane glider of standard type for 
25c (silver). D. H. Fairchild, Pana, 111. 



POR SALE.— One 110,000 cubic foot balloon, 
r holder of world's speed record. Also one 
40,000 cubic foot balloon complete. Make offer. 
C. A. Coey, 1710 Indiana avenue, Chicago. 



WANTED CONTRACTS FOR AERO- 
NAUTICAL EXHIBITIONS— a n d a 
CHANCE at PRIZE MONEY— FLIGHT 
GUARANTEED. TWO MACHINES— ONE 
THE SLOWEST in the world— OTHER FOR 
SPEED. APPLY TO F. E. de MURIAS, 
BABY^LON, N. Y. 

Pronounced DE (L) IRIOUS— insert *'M" in 
place of "L." 

No infringements on Wright machines. 



A EROPLANE.— Complete blueprints and spec- 
■^ ifications for constructing one passenger 

Monoplane: $1.00. Latest design; approximate 
weight, 500 lbs. Aldrich Aeroplane Co., Sacra- 
mento, Cal. 



EXPERT on obtaining patents; will overcome 
any difficulties in this line. In long experi- 
ence have never failed. Consult me; if your 
idea is in any way patentable, relv on me to put 
it through. John McGann, Sabula, Iowa. Route 
2, Box 13, Jackson Co. 



WANTED.— Capital for manufacturing Mono- 
plane. New principle. Perfect equilibrium 
and control. Leaves ground easily. Different 
from any type now in use. Moses Franklin, 
Grand Junction, Colorado. 



PLYING MACHINES. Demon Helicopter 
i Flyer, 25c. Fine Model French Aeroplane, 
good flyer, 85c. Materials for building 2-foot 
aeroplane with instructions, also five drawings 
and booklet for building two other models, all 
complete, for $1.75. Instructions for building a 
man-carrying machine, aeronautic books, spring 
and electric motors, supplies, etc. Monarch 
Aero Co., Box 133-K, Sta. A., San Antonio, 



IF you consider quality and you are looking 
for balloons or dirigibles, get my prices and 
samples of O. F. Lewis Balloons, fully equipped. 
Hydrogen generators for making gas for sale. 
Have applied for patent on a new steering 
device for aeroplanes that will not vary from 
an even keel. Would like to hear from parties 
interested, with capital. Oscar F. Lewis, Sara- 
toga Springs, N. Y'. 



WANTED.— A press representative in every 
city in the world to keep AIRCRAFT 
posted on the latest aeronautical doings. 
THE LAWSON PUBLISHING CO., 
37-39 East 2Sth Street, 
New Y^ork, U. S. A. 



I HAVE designed a flying machine which combines 
an aeroplane and helicopter. This machine will 
rise straight up in the air without a running start ; 
the planes being turned edgewise offer little resist- 
ance in the air when raising and when the desired 
height is reached they are pitched forward, thus 
sustaining the weight of the machine. The pro- 
pellers are thus pitched forward and used exclu- 
sively for driving the machine ahead. From results 
obtained from several small models I think it will 
make a great success. I would like to communicate 
with a gentleman of money who would like to 
finance the building of a large one. Address 
J. W. B., care of Aircraft, 37 E. 28th Street, New 
York. 



DISCOVERED something which has a greater 
lifting power than hydrogen, the lightest known 
element. Will divulge the long-looked-for knowl- 
edge to party with capital, interested in U. S. Pat- 
ent 939,651, which has directly opposed aeroplanes 
united together and having a body mounted for 
tilting movement between said planes, a propel- 
ler at the forward end of the body, adjustable for 
steering purpose, propellers arranged centrally with- 
in the planes for rendering momentum, means oper- 
ating the said propellers in unison ; a tail piece for 
steering if the motor gives out, means of forming a 
ball and socket connection between the tail piece and 
the rear end of the body. 

SAMUEL WADE APPLEGATE, 

"World Famed." South Bend, Ind. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

AFTER an aeroplane is constructed and is cor- 
rect mathematically, the most important part 
to consider is the motor. A number of aviators 
under-rate the power actually required to make a 
successful flight. "ADVICE": Do not under- 
rate your power. Be on the safe side and pro- 
cure a motor with power in reserve. "THE 
WHITEHEAD MOTOR," rates 75-h- P- at 1,000 
r. p. m. Weight, 200 lbs. Nothing to get out 
of order; will stand rigid endurance test; two 
cycle (new design) 4-cylinder vertical. A beauty 
and only $1,400. 40-h. p., weight 150 lbs., price 
$1,150. Geo. A. Lawrence, Mgr., "The White- 
head" famous motor, R. 405, Astor Theatre 
Bldg., New York, N. Y''. 30-day delivery. Men- 
tion AIRCRAFT. 



I HAVE invented an air machine which I claim 
' solves the problem; if the gas escapes the 
machine will keep on flying and cannot turn 
over or upset. 

The inventor will give any company or club 
plans for development and then have shares of 
its earnings. Write for full particulars to Jno. 
McDonald, Jr., Point Prim, P. E. I., Canada. 



'it -» F-/-^r^ TWO-PASSENGER AIRSHIP, 
■ff>^*S^O Two-cylinder Curtiss engine, 12,000 
cubic foot capacity. Made by Capt. Baldwin. In 
good condition. Suitable for exhibitions, club or 
private use. Complete with aerodrome-tent and 
generators. PRICE $1,000. Largest complete 
catalogue of aeronautical supplies in the U. S. 
Yours for stamp. R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co., 
Louisville, Ky. 



AEROPLANE. — Blue prints and instructions, 
with complete details for constructing mono- 
plane, St. 00. Latest approved design ; 28 feet by 
30 feet. ALDRICH AEROPLANE CO., 

Sacramento, Cal. 



XJOTICE TO THE PUBLIC— This notice is 
i^to make public a new invention in rudders 
for flying machines. This invention was com- 
municated by me on March 8, 1910, to several 
parties. My invention consists of a rudder 
divided into four parts, at the rear of the ma- 
chine, two parts on the right side and two parts 
on the left side; the two parts on each side 
hinged top and bottom and each part set at an 
angle and the parts on either side set at oppo- 
site angles. When not in use each part lies 
flat. They work from horizontal to vertical by 
means of connections extending forward in the 
machine. Joseph Thebeau, 315 West 51st Street. 



WOULD LIKE TO BUY 

NEW OR SECOND-HAND 25-50 H. P. 
AERO MOTOR. GNOME preferred. State 
in writing full particulars as to condition, 
make, price, etc. Address 

CASH, c o AIRCRAFT 



^^^ tn^ a Jersey Skeeter 
VjXly J. Aeroplane 

For IN-DOOR sport. Then let the winds blow ! They i 
can't prevent your flying in the house. The Jersey 
Slieeter is 8 in. long, weighs % ounce, flies 30 feet. 
By mail 25c. Send for circular. 

LINCOLN SQUARE NOVELTY WORKS 

1933 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 




T> A T^trX.T'T'C SECURED or 
i X\ 1 Il/i>l 1 k3 Fee Returned 

Send sketch for free search of Patent Office Records. 
How to Obtain a Patent, and What to Invent, with 
List of inventions Wanted and Prizes offered for In- 
ventions sent free. Patents advertised free. 

We are experts in AIRSHIPS and all patents and 
technical matters relating to AERIAL NAVIGA- 
TION. 

VICTOR J. EVANS & CO., Washington, D. C. 



_nd their cost. Shepherd & T 
Campbell, soo P. .Victor Building, Washington, D.C. 



June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



159 



PATENTS 

FLY! THAPS THE THING! 

BENNETT S. JONES 

PATENT ATTORNEY 
Victor Building:, Washingfton, D.C. 
Can secure you a Patent that will PROTECT 
your invention on a flying- machine, for a 
moderate fee. Advice Free. 
Printed copies of Airship patents 10c. each 
WRITE TO-DAY! 



PATENTS 

Obtained or no charge made 

Easy payments, 15 years official Exam- 
iner U. S. Patent Office, over quarter 
century actual experience, unexcelled fa- 
cilities, prompt efficient service, highest 
references. E^xperts in mechanical and 
aero navigation technique. Patents ad- 
vertised for sale free. Send sketch or 
description of invention for free search of 
U. S. Patent Office records and reliable 
report as to patentability. Send also for 
beautifully illustrated inventors' Guide 
Book on " How and What to Invent." 

E. P. BUNYEA COIVIPANY 
U.S. and FOREIGN PATENT ATTORNEYS 

Trade Marks, Designs, Copyrights 
606 F. ST., N. W., WASHINGTON, D. C. 



PATENTS 



GUSTAVE R. THOMPSON 
Room 1502 
Tribune Building New York City 

(Counselor at Law) 

Solicitor of Patents 

ESPECIALLY QUALIFIED TO DO 

Aeronautical Work 

OF HIGH CHARACTER 

Work done with regard to its legal effect 
REFERENCES 



PATENTS ""IT" 

Advice and Books Free. Rates Reasonable. Highest References 
Best Services 

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent lawyer 

612 F St. N.W., WASHINGTON, D.C. 



PATENTS. E!5H225 

100 Mechanical Movements. Mailed Free 
FRED Q. DIETERICH & CO. 

Patent Lawyers 
800 Q. STREET, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



"^^i^ New York ^^%^ 

THE IfB^V FIRE-1'ROOB 

NAVARRE 

Sei-enta Ave. * SStZi Street 

BUSINESS WEN. FAMILIES. TOURISTS 

Masimum of luxury at Minimum of Cost 




ACCESSIBLE — QUIET — ELEGANT 



New Dutch Grill Rooms, tartest in the City 

Electric Cars pa.ss Hotel to all Railroads 

EUROPEAN PLAN 

A Room with a Bath for a Dollar and a Half 

A Larger Room with a Bath for $2.00 and $2.50 

where two persons occupy one room 

$1.00 extra will be added to above prices. 

SEND FOR BOOKLET 

Edgar T. Smith Geo. L. Sanborn 



LAMINATED TRUE SCREW 

PROPELLERS 

IN STOCK/or IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT 

We are turning out Propellers of the 
highest excellence and efficiency 

Our 6-Foot Propeller delivers 200 lbs. 
thrust at 1200 R. P. M. 

6-Foot Propellers, weight 610 'bs., price ^40.00 
7-Foot Propellers, " Sj-o " " 50.00 
8-Foot Propellers, "11 " " 60.00 

■ANr SIZE MADE TO ORDER 

P. BRAUNER & CO. 

335"339 East 102nd Street, New York City 

TELEPHONE 2189 LENOX 



Aeronautical Supplies 

AT 

Money Saving Prices 

Elbridge Special Featherweight, 2 Cycle Aero 
Motors, water-cooled. 

3 Cylinder, 30-45 H. P., 138io lbs $750.00 

4 Cylinder, 40-60 H. P., 178 lbs 1,050.00 

Cylinders 4''s x 41), copper jackets, aluminum 

bases, hollow crank shafts. 
4 Cylinder, 20-24 H. P., air-cooled, 150 lbs.. . 610.00 
Cylinders 3 ' -j x3 ' o, flanges I '' s in. deep. 

20 X 2 Aeroplane Wheels with tires, built with steel 

rims and special hub, very strong. Price 9.50 

E. J. W. Aeroplane Hubs, turned from solid bar of steel, 

drilled, 36 holes, well nickeled 4.00 

E. J. W. Aeroplane Hub Brakes, enables aviator to stop 
his plane, before or after alighting on ground. 
Length 8 in., outside cones 5 :'4 in., bored 36 holes, 1 0.50 

Requa-Gibson Propellers, Laminated wood, perfect screw 

6fL, 6i.> lbs 50.00 

7fL. 9lbs 60.00 

8 ft., 12 lbs 70.00 

The 6 ft. propeller gives 200 lbs. thrust at 1200 
R. P M. 

Model Propellers, Laminated wood, 10 in., 15 in., perfect 

screw 5.00 

Galv. Steel Cable for "Guying " 

lX,.i in., breaking strength, 200. Price, 3c per ft. 
Vir, •• " " 500. " 31. ,c " 

3/,., 800. " 4c '• 

i/s' " " ;■ 2300. " 6c " 

Rubber Bands for models, 1/fe in. square 10c 

Complete Catalogue of Supplies, Motors, Gliders and Light Metal 
Castings, Mailed Free upon Request 

E. J. WILLIS CO. ^^:Jil Se"w\S'rk 



i6o 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 













BOOKS 

We have compiled a list of the very best aeronautical books written in the English 

language and offer them for sale to our readers. Earnest students 

of Aerial Flight should read every book in this list. 




Make all Drafts, Exp 
THE LAWSON PUBLISHING 


ess or Post Office Orders payable to 

CO., 37-39 East 28th Street, New York, U. S. A. 


Abtificial and Natural Flight, by Sir 
Hiram S. Maxim. Being a description of 
his own experimental work and the develop- 
ment of flying machines generally 

POCKETBOOK OF AERONAUTICS, by H. W. L. 

Moedebeck. Containing many features of 
aerial travel: a splendid text-book for the 
beginner or the aeronautical engineer. . . 

Vehicles or the Air, by Victor Lougheed. 
One of the very latest aeronautical books, 
covering almost every detail of the science 


$1.75 
3.25 
2.50 
3.00 

3.50 

1.50 
3.50 

1.25 
1.50 


Handy Man's Workshop and Laboratory, 
by A. Russel Bond. A popular work on 
almost everything pertaining to the every- 
day life of the mechanic. 370 illustrations 
and two chapters relating to flying $2.00 

Conquest of the Air, by Alphonse Berget. 
A book covering the history, theory and 
practice of the science of aeronautics, with 
explanatory diagram and photographs 3.50 

The Conquest of the Air, by A. Lawrence 
Rotch. A subject treated by an accepted 
authority in a manner appreciated by a pop- 
ular, as well as a scientific audience 1.00 

Airships Past and Present, by A. Hilde- 
brandt. A general sketch of the past and 
present state of the art, together with its 
problems, presented in a way that can be 
understood by everybody 3.50 

Aerodynamics, by F. W. Lanchester. Con- 
stituting the first volume of a complete work 
on aerial flight, with appendices on the ve- 
locity and momentum of sound waves, on the 
theory of soaring, flight, etc 6.00 

Aerodonetics, by F. W. Lanchester. Con- 
stituting the second volume of a complete 
work on aerial flight, with appendices on the 
theory and application of the gyroscope, on 
the flight of projectiles, etc 6.00 

All the World's Airships, by Fred T. 
Jane. Being the first annual issue, contain- 
ing photographs of almost every flying ma- 
chine built up to 1909 10.00 


Aerial Navigation, by A. F. Zahm. A book 
written by one of the world's great scien- 
tists who has made an extensive study of the 
aeronautical subject for the past 20 years . . . 

Airships in Peace and W.vr, by R. P. 
Hearne, with an introduction by Sir Hiram 
Maxim. A popular account of the progress 
made by the different countries of the 


Aerial Navigation To-Day, by Chas. C. 
Turner. A finely illustrated work on the 
principles of Ballooning, Aviation, Aerial 
Law, Military Aeronautics, the aerial ocean 
and the industrial side of flight 

The Problem of Flight, by Herbert Chat- 
ley. A most instructive work, written princi- 
pally for aerial engineers 

The Force of the Wind, by Herbert Chat- 
ley. A scientific treatise, dealing with the 
subject of wind pressure in relation to en- 
gineering 

My Air-Ships. By Santos-Dumont. The 
thrilling story of this intrepid Brazilian's 
wonderful success in aerial navigation, told 
in an entertaining way, free from techni- 
cality. With .55 full-page pictures from 
photographs. 12mo, 400 pages 


'"Born Again." A philosophic novel -nTit- 
ten by Alfred W. Lawson. Has nothing to 
do with the science of aerial flight. The 
ninth edition of cloth bound copies being ex- . 
hausted, a few paper-cover books remain- 
ing in stock can be had for fifty cents each . .50 









June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



i6i 



THE 

ROBERTSON 

AERONAUTIC 

SCHOOL 



THE ROBERTSON AERIAL CO. 

Builders 

Reconstructors 

Repairers 

Conductors of Experimental Work 

Machines built from your own design 



SUPPLY DEPARTMENT 

We can furnish you with all parts to build any 
type of flying machine from a tack to an Aviator. 



AERONAUTIC SCHOOL 
DEPARTMENT 

Our school is conducted directly under the super- 
vision of Mr. D. W. Robertson, founder of the 
largest Automobile school in Philadelphia. The 
school is fully equipped to give the most complete 
course of its kind in America. The course includes 
practice in building all types of full-size machines. 



Write your wants to us 
and we will supply them. 



The Robertson Aerial Co. 

BETZ BUILDING 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



ARE YOU TIRED OF INHALING THE 
OTHER FELLOW'S DUST? 
TAKE TO THE AIR, TRY 



FLYING 




ng the English Channel 



Paulhan's great flight from London to Man- 
chester (185 miles) and White's two 115-mile 
trips, have demonstrated the practicability of 
traveling by aeroplane. 

Fatigue from maintaining equilibrium in violent wind 
stopped White, but it won't stop you if you use a 

Beach Perfected Monoplane 

the only machine having complete automatic stability, attained 
by a novel patented method. All you have to do is to steer. 
It's as easy as running an auto and ten times more pleasurable. 

Far better than ballooning, as you can go when and where yoj 

please. 

Two types and sizes. Delivery in j weeks. Prices $5,000 to $7,500. 

Write to-day for Catalogue. 

Scientific Aeroplane Company 

Box 773, New York 



l62 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 



HOW TO RUN AN AUTO 



Homans' Self Propelled \'ehicles" 
gives full details on successful care, 
handling and how to locate trouble. 

leginning at the first principles 
necessary to be known, and then for- 
ward to the principles used in every 
part of a Motor Car. 

It is a thorough course in the 
Science of Automobiles, highly ap- 
proved by manufacturers, owners, 
operators and repairmen. Contains 
over 400 illustrations and diagrams, 
miking every detail clear, written in 
pUin language. Handsomely bound. 

PRICE, $2 POSTPAID 



SPECIAL OFFER 



The only way the practical merit of this 
MANUAL can be given is by an examin- 
ation of the book itself, which we will sub- 
mit tor examination, to be paid for or returned, 
after loolcing: it over. 

following^ agreement, the 



No money in advance required, just sign and return. 

THE UWSON PUBLISHING COMPANY, 37-39 [ast 28th Street, New York 




SAMUEL F. PERKINS 

SCIENTIFIC KITE FLYING 

Aerial Advertising 

By Aeroplane Kites and Balloons 

Special Attention is called to the Spectacular Night Ad- 
vertising in which enormous beams or brilliantly colored search- 
light rays (visible for five miles) are thrown upon "ads " suspended 
thousands of feet in the sky. 

110 Tremont Street, Boston, Massachusetts 



GREEN'S ENGINE 

BUILT FOR THE JOB 

EVERY part of the Green Aerial Engine is designed especially for the 
purpose it Is intended to fulfil. It is not an automobile engine modified 
or made to do duty for aeroplane work. From first to last it is constructed 
with a special view to the peculiar requirements of an aerial machine — 
lightness, efficiency, and consistent and continuous running under full load. 
Green's Aerial Carburetor embodies an entirely new principle called into 
existence by the requirements of aviation. It is one of many special parts 
which go to form the Green engine, and have made it so great a success. 

Fvll particulars sent on application. 

The GREEN'S MOTOR PATENTS SYNDICATE, Ltd. 

55y, BERNERS STREET, LONDON, W. 

Makers for the Patentees : The Aster Engineering Co., Ltd. 



SOARING BLADES 

Made to Order, Jlttachahle 
to ^our Aeroplane or Glider 

They increase the speed to nearly double the 
motor power, push machine if motor stops over 20 
miles p. h., which permits gliding and prevents acci- 
dents. Any height can safely be attained. Blue 
prints for aeroplanes with full patent rights, main- 
taining automatic equilibrium, also furnished. 

FOR TERMS APPLY TO 
R. DRESSLER :: :: Coney Island, New York 



DESIGNER AND BUILDER, OR MAKE TO 
YOUR OWN DESIGN 

AEROPLANES, GLIDERS, 
MODELS OR PROPELLERS 

GLIDERS, PARTS AND AERONAUTIC 
SUPPLIES IN STOCK. 

AERO MOTORS ALWAYS ON HAND 



FRED SHNEIDER, 1020 E. 178th St., NEW YORK 

New Ycrk Agent for ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY 



AEROPLANE 
TIRES 




Clincher type only, 
which is the lightest 
and most satis- 
factory type for 
aeroplanes. 



SIZE 


w 


sight Complete 


20x4 in. 




6% lbs. 


26x2^2 in. 




6% " 


28X2>^ " 




7/. " 


28x3 




8 " 


28x3>^ " 




8M " 



Wheels also furnished for the above sizes 

PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER CO. 
JEANNETTE, PA. 

BRANCHES: 
New York — 1741 Broadway; Boston — 167 Oliver Street; 
Chicago — 1241 Michigan Avenue; San Francisco— 512 
iVVission Street; Los Angeles — 930 S. Main Street. 



June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



163, 



The Greatest Aviation Motor of Modern Times 

NOW COMING TO THE FRONT RAPIDLY 
The World Famous 

WHITEHEAD 

MOTOR 

DESIGNED BY THE NOTED ENGINEER 
GUST AVE WHITEHEAD 

Non-Bursting Cylinders : Vibration Negligible 

Absolutely Nothing to Get Out of Order 

4 Cylinders Vertical : 8 Port Exhaust : 2 Cycle : 

Will Run Until Fuel is Consumed 



75 H. P., 200 lbs. 
40 H. P., 145 lbs. 



$1,400 
1,150 



Order Quick : 30-Day Delivery : Now is the Time 

GEO. A. LAWRENCE, Mgr. 

Astor Theatre Bldg. New York City, N. Y. 

Exclusively adopted by C. cS: A. 'Wittemann, Aeropknie Mfrs. 



I NAIAD i 
Aeronautical Cloth 

'J: Manufactured Especially for Aeroplanes and used by Aviators of "1^ 

V Prominence ^; 

i LIGHT, STRONG, AIR-TIGHT | 

% MOISTURE-PROOF ON BOTH SIDES | 

^ Sample books, including data and prices, sent on request ^ 

I THE C. E. CONOVER CO. % 

% 101 Franklin Street, - - New York | 



AEROPLANE WIRE WHEELS 

Curtisstypein stock— 2o"x2" AVIATOR TIRE 
— Weight complete : 7 pounds — Dead load, 600 
pounds. 

Monoplane tail wheels, i6"xi)4'' — Weight com- 
plete: 3 pounds. 

Can furnish hubs any width and wheels any size 
to order. 

J. A. WEAVER, Jr., Mfr. 

956 8th Ave., bet. seth and S7th sts. New York 




THE WARNER 

AERO-METER 

THE FIRST AEROPLANE ACCESSORY 

Tells the aeroplanisl just the force ot the wind pressure against his planes, 
enabling him to guard against accident through diminished air resistance. 

Built on the errorless magnetic principle which has made the Auto- 
Meter the Standard auto speed indicator. 

It looks unlike the Auto- Meter but has r^--.^ 

the same honest "insides'' and consequent ,.^SL' 

capacity for "delivering the goods." 

Warner Instrument 
Company 

4 WHEELER AVE., BELGIT.WIS. 
SELLING BRANCHES: 



BOSTON 

CHICAGO 

CLEVELAND 

ST. LOU13 

ATLANTA 

DETROIT 

BUFFALO 

SEATTLE 



SAN FRANCISCO 
INDIANAPOLIS 
CINCINNATI 
PITTSBURG 
LOS ANGELES 
PHILADELPHIA 
DENVER 
NEW YORK 




MODEL M 

AUTO- METER 



F. E. de MURIAS 

M 
(Pronounced DE(L)IRIOUS— insert "M" in place of "L") 

Babylon, Long Island, N. Y. Tel. 34 Babylon 

Manufactures and also Pilots Aeroplane 

Now making contracts for 

Exhibitions during 1910 

Flights positively guaranteed 

Have the slowest-flying aeroplane in the world 

Others for Speed 

No infringements on the Wright Brothers' Patent 



She's a Combined Helicopter, Parachute, 
Gyroscope, Flywheel Monoplane. 

YOU COULDN'T UPSET HER BY BOUNCING A HUNDRED- 
POUND SHOT ON THE PERIPHERY. 




Why imitate birds and bugs when the above arrangement solves the 

problem ? If you cannot see at a glance how this mechanism is the acme of 

simplicity, durability, stability, rigidity, safety, speed and control, write to 

JOSEPH E. BISSELL. Box 795, Pittsburg, Pa. 



164 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 



^e CALL AVIATION ENGINE 

Aviators Attention ! ! ! A Timely Word About Motors ! 



C What you want is A Real Aeronautic Motor, light and yet 

strong, simple, and above all reliable. A motor, moieover, 

that file average mechanic can understand and opeiate. 

C What you do not want is a combination mo 

tor cycle, or modified automobile, engine. Light 

ness in these is secured only by the sacrifice of 

strength and eftkiency; and yet eithei type is 

unduly heavy. We have 

tried both, and we know. 

Before you invest, it will be 

worth your while to write 

us, and hear what we have 

to say. 

C At an expense of several 

years' experimenting, and many 

thousands of dollars outlay, we 

have at last perfected a high 

grade, water=cooled, four-cycle, 

gasolene engine for aeronautic work. -^ 

C By special method of construction, upon which 

we are securing patents, these motors are much strongerth in 

the ordinary makes, and at the same time very much lighter. 

C The 45 horsepower engine weighs .3 pounds pei hoise- 

power, and the 90 horsepower only 2V2 pounds pel 

horsepower — about one half the weight per horsepower 01 

any other adequately water-cooled engine. The weight, as 

also the quality, of each engine is """ 




C These motors are not of freakish construction, either in 
the number of cylinders, or in any other respect. They 
ot the regular opposed type, similar to the famous 
Darracq aeronautic engine with which Santos- 
Dumont's machines are equipped, conceded by gas 
engineers to be the smoothest running, and near- 
vibrationless type. C. A scarcely less impor- 
tant feature is the fact that 
our motors are silenced 
(not muffied), which fea- 
ture is secured without loss 
of power. They are, in 
fact, the only silent motors 
yet devised for aeronautic 
.:uj work. The importance of this 

feature can not be overestimated, 
and in connection with their 
strength, lightness, and reliabili° 
ty, places these motors in a class by themselves. 



' Model E I: Two Cylinder, 45 H.P.; Weight, 135 lbs. Price, . $700 
3^ Model E 2: Four Cylinder, 90 H.P.; Weight, 225 lbs. Price, $1,200 
^§0im EXTRA-Bosch Magneticignilion : Model E-1, $50; Model £-2, $100 

^1 TFRMS: 40 percent cash, with order; balance. Sight Draft against Bill of Lading 
^ C Write to us and let us send you illustrations and descrip- 
' tion of these wonderful motors. 



THE AERIAL NAVIGATION CO. OF AMERICA, Girard, Kan. 

p. S. Send for particulars and price of our REVERSIBLE AERIAL PROPELLER. Somethins entirely new and absolutely indispensable 



Santos -Dumont 

Monoplane 
"DEMOISELLE" Type 

$275 



Original 

1 8 Ft. Spread 



Hamilton Gliders 

$30 
$45 



20 Ft. Spread 
160 Sq. Feet 

22 Ft. Spread 
220 Sq. Feet 



HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO. 

208 30TH AVENUE, SEATTLE 

Successors to 

Hamilton & Palmer 

"The Pioneers" 



" Dumonoplanes" 

Above Type 
SPECIAL DIMENSIONS 
21 Ft. Spread - $350 
24 Ft. Spread - $400 



$150 Cash Prizes 

For GLIDER FLIGHTS 

Write us for full information 

BIPLANES 

BUILT TO ORDER 



June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



i6S 

AERONAUTICAL 



C. & A.WITTEM AN N, f.^E^^R^^ 

Designers, Constructors, Developers of Heavier-than-air Machines 
AEROPLANES GLIDERS SEPARATE PARTS 



Our Gliders are the best, 
the safest and the easiest 
to operate. 

Practical Lessons in 
Gliding. 

Experiments conducted. 

Large Grounds for Testing. 

GLIDERS IN STOCK 



Witlemann Glider in flight 

Works : Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road, Staten Island, N. Y. 




Light Metal Castings tor 
Connections always car- 
ried in Stock, or special 
castings made to order. 

Clear Spruce Finished to 
Order. 

Also all other Fittings. 

Get our estimate for your 
Flying Machine. 



Telephone 390 L W-B 



KNABENSHUE'S FLIGHT IN NEW YORK 




Above is a sample of the Aerial photographic 
work done by 

LEOPOLD LEWIS 

915 Eighth Avenue New York 



A full line of Eastman's Kodaks and supplies aluiays on hand 
DEVELOPING AND PRINTING A SPECIALTY 



THE LUDLOW AEROPLANE 

Patents Pending 

New System of Transversal Control. Guaranteed 
as to Flight. Guaranteed as to freedom from 
infringement on other patents. First Machine 
ready for delivery June 1st, 1910. 

ISRAEL LUDLOW, 2686 Broadway, NEW YORK 



BAMBOO 

Specially selected for Aeroplanes 
ALL SIZES IN STOCK = 

J. DELTOUR, Inc. 

49 Sixth Ave. - - - New York 

Telephone S565 Spring 



366 AIRCRAFT June, igio 



AEROPLANES 



of unrivalled qualities in design and finished workmanship 

are built by the 

W. STARLING BURGESS CO.I^ 



OF 



MARBLEHEAD, MASS. 

Licensees and Sole Manufacturers in the United States of 
the Herring-Burgess flying machines. 



This Company is also building Air-Ships, Gliders and 
Flying Models of other types, and will be pleased to submit 
estimates of cost to those who wish to furnish their own de- 
signs. All machines will be tested and flown at the Company's 
Trial Grounds on Plum Island, in Massachusetts Bay. 



I.H.MacALMAN 

Agent for W. Starling Burgess Co., Ltd. 

Showrooms, 96 Massachusetts Ave. 

BOSTON, MASS. 



June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



167 



DDADEI I EDC in stock for 
rnlir ELLEno immediate shipment 



OUR TRUE PITCH, LAMINATED ASH AND MAHOGANY PROPELLERS COMBINE ALL 
THE MOST VALUED AND PROVEN FEATURES OF FOREIGN AND HOME PRACTICE 

THEY ARE BUILT IN LARGE QUANTITIES ON THE INTERCHANGEABLE PLAN 

WE SPECIALIZE. YOU GET THE BENEFIT OF OUR EXPERIENCE. 

YOU KNOW THE VALUE OF BUYING A STOCK ARTICLE, ONE WHICH IS PAST THE 
EXPERIMENTAL STAGE. 



WRITE FOR CATALOCUl 



TERRITORY OPEN FOR AGENTS 




6 ft. dia. for 20-30 H. P 

(Minimum thrust 200 lbs. at 1,200 R. P. M.) 

7 ft. dia. for 25-40 H. P 

(Minimum thrust 250 lbs. at 1,200 R. P. M.) 

8 ft. dia. for 30-60 H. P 

(Minimum thrust 300 lbs. at 1,200 R. P. M.) 
Larger Sizes to Order 
Small Propellers for Models, 10-16 in. dia. .... 



.$50.00 at our works 
$60.00 at our works 
$70.00 at our works 

$5.00 



Mail or telegraph 1 0% of amount, and we will ship C. O. D. for balance, plus cratage. 
When ordering state the direction of rotation of propeller when you stand facing the 
breeze made by the propeller, clockwise or anticlockwise. 

If uncertain as to the size you require, state the horsepower of your engine and its speed. 



THE REQUA-GIBSON CO. 



225 West 49th Street 



New York, N. Y. 



Phone 7200 Col. 



WHEN WRITING PLEASE MENTION AIRCRAFT MAGAZINE 



50th St. Subway Sta. 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 



INTERNATIONAL 

SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS 

FOUNDED 1908 

The First Private School Established in the World 
The Only Aero Institute in U. S. A. Directed by a Licensed Pilot 

FOUNDER-DIRECTOR 

ALBERT C. TRIACA 

Pilot Aero Clubs of America, France, Italy 
Ex-Technical Director Foreign Department New York School of Automobile Engineers 




THE AERODROME OF THE I. S. A., 

with Aeroplane Sheds, Gas, Shops, Lecture and Model Hall, Ladies' and Juniors' Rooms and a private mile track for experi- 
ments, is located at Garden City, L. I., N. Y., adjacent to Hempstead Plains, where flights of lo miles in a straight line 
can be made. (Take L. I. R.R., from 34th Street Ferry, New York; or Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn.) 

HOME STUDY COURSES 

IN AEROSTATS, DIRIGIBLES AND AVIATION. Prepared by Lieut.-Colonel G. Espitallier of the French Balloon Corps. 

RESIDENT COURSES 

Private lessons in all branches of Aeronautics for Ladies and Gentlemen. Junior Class with contests for Kites and Models. 

I. S. A. SUPPLY DEPARTMENT 

Sole Agents (U. S. A. and Canada) for the CMAUVIERE INTEGRALE PROPELLERS, holders of all records 

for Dirigibles and Aeroplanes. HUE (Paris) Aeronautical Instruments. COMPLETE LINE of Imported and Domestic 
Aeroplanes, Balloons, Dirigibles, Motors, Fabrics and Parts. 

Models and full size apparatus made. Estimates and consultations given. Illustrated lectures arranged. 

Subscriptions taken for Foreign Aero Magazines 

L S. A. Aerodrome, Garden City, L. L (near the Garage) 

New York Office: Care of H. Ducasse Co., 735 Seventh Avenue [ i84'I"B°RYiNT ] 
Paris Office : 52 Rue Servan, Paris 



June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



169 



AERONAUT LEO STEVENS 

Leading Balloon and Airship Constructor of the World 

REPRESENTING THE 

CONTINENTAL RUBBER CO. 

OF HANOVER, GERMANY 

MAKERS OF THE FINEST AND STRONGEST BALLOON AND 
AEROPLANE MATERIAL IN THE WORLD 



Fabrics 
for 



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and 




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and 

flying 



SAGE 
[ngineer 



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MODELS DEVELOPED 

CONTRACTOR TO THE U. S. GOVERNMENT 

AND TO 

NINETY-FIVE PER CENT OF THE CLUBS IN THIS COUNTRY 
Also Representing the Santos-Dumont Aeroplane 



The Wilcox Propeller 



AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE 

CARTON & LACHAMBRE 

Balloon and Airship Builders 
OF PARIS, FRANCE 



ADDRESS 

Box 181, Madison Square 
IMew York 



170 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 



PRESERVATIVE VARNISH 

For Balloons, Dirigibles, 
Aeroplanes and Tents 

An elastic, non-porous varnish for silk, linen, mus- 
lin or any other fabric used in the manufacture of 
air-craft. 

This varnish saves the big expense of Balloon 
Sheeting. 

Send for Free Sample to 

VICTOR BRUNZEL 

1383 Third Ave. : : New York 



^he STENZY 



Latest and 
Most Reliable 



^ero jHotor 



Positively 
guaranteed to 



run at two thousand revolutions a minute at 50% 
less gasolene, day in and day out. One pound 
weight per horse power. 50% cash with order. 
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money returned. Delivery 60 days from date. 

Orders received, 1019 Binney Street, Baltimore, 
Md. From 100 pounds up; from 100 h. p. up. 

Send sta^^ /or refly. A. F. P. STENZY 



THE HALL'S SAFE COMPANY 



p. O. BOX 846 

Principal Office and Factory 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 



Manufacturers of the HIGHEST 
grade of Screw Door and Square 
Door Banl<ers' Safes and Vaults 




Salesroom 

393 BROADWAY 

Between White and Walker Streets 



NEW YORK 



Makers of 

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THE GREATEST STRENGTH FOR 
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Write us for Prices and Samples 
Mail Orders Promptly Attended To 



741 BOYLSTON ST. 



BOSTON. MASS. 



New York Agent 

FREDERICK P. SHNEIDER 

1020 East 178th Street 




June, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



171 



Henry FARMAN Biplanes 



Are the best 
the safest, 
most rehable 
and easiest 
to drive 



A FEW RECENT RECORDS 

Grand Prix de Champagne (H. Farman). 

Passenger Prize (two passengers and aviator) (H. Farman). 

Grand Prize of Blackpool (H. Farman). 

Speed Prize (H. Farman). 

Distance and Speed Prize, Doncaster (Sommer), 

Height Record by Paulhan (300 yards). 

WORLD'S record distance (234 kms.) (H. Farman). 

WORLD'S record time (4 hrs. 18 mins.) (H. Farman). 

WORLD'S record for Height (4,165 feet) (Paulhan). 

Longest town to town record, London to Manchester (Paulhan). 

At the Los Angeles meet Paulhan won the First Prizes for Height, 

Endurance and Passenger-Carrying Contests with a Henry 

Farman Biplane. 

MICHEUN CUP (H. FARM AH) 



Works: Camp de Chalons, Marne. Offices: 22, Av. de la Grande Armee, Paris 



Contractors to the French War Office 



What Kind of a Motor Do You Want? 

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CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES 

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Send for Catalogue 4 XX 

CURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD 

HERRING-CURTISS CO., Hammondsport, N. Y. 




172 



AIRCRAFT 



June, igio 



Important to Inventors, Builders and Owners of 

AEROPLANES AND FLYING MACHINES 



Mechanical Defects, and Faults of Construction in Air-craft of Every Description Remedied by 

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V^ri/ArvLilLkJ ELi. J_>/r\L_JkDk3L.Ejr\, and Consulting Engineer 

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Office and Factory, 386-390 SECOND AVENUE. NEW YORK 

With fully equipped workshop, skilled workmen, up-to-date specially designed tools, apparatus and modem machinery. 

PROMPT DELIVERY GUARANTEED OF THE SMALLEST MODELS OR THE LARGEST CONTRACTS FOR WORKING 

MACHINES. 



THE DRESSLER GRAPH-O-VIEW MOVING PICTURE MACHINE, for the home, club, lodge room, 
school and college, has no equal as an entertainer and educator. Reproducing all kinds of animal and microscopic life. The 
actual flight of air-craft satisfactorily shown by this machine. 

The electrically operated GYROSCOPE, showing the fundamental principle of automatic balancing of aeroplanes, pro- 
duces effects at once striking and instructive. This was first successfully manufactured by Charles E. Dressier in 1 889. 



CHARLES E. DRESSLER 



386-390 SECOND AVENUE 



NEW YORK CITY 



aA' rite for Price and Sample of Special Silk Aeroplane Covers 




2M-yard 
Silk Scarfs 



Send $2.50, and re- 
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Send 50 cents, and receive in return 
a new lace bordered pure silk hand- 
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We also manufacture a fine quality of Silk for Balloons 



VICTORY SILK CO. 



PATERSON 

NEW JERSEY 



Pressor j. J. Little & Ives Co., New York 



-H 



ROTARY MOTOR 

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The "Wizard of Aviation" 



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Its wonderful reputation is positive assurance of absolute satisfaction 



USED BY 



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And All Other Leading Foreign Aviators 



Holds World's Records 

DISTANCE — DURATION — HEIGHT — SPEED 



Prices, f. o. b. Factory, Paris, France — Packed for Marine Shipment 



50 H. P., $2600 



^ 



100 H. P., $4800 



Terms: One-third Cash with Order, Balance on Delivery 

AEROMOTION COMPANY 



AMERICA N 
A GENTS 



OF AMERICA 



1611 WRIGHT BUILDING 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 



ORDER IMMEDIATELY TO SECURE EARLY DELIVERY 



:^ 




Elbridge 

Featherweight 

Engines 

The Only American Aerial 
Motors with a guarantee 
based on actual performance. 



40 to 60 H. P., 178 lbs. $1050. Unlimited Guarantee. 



THE makers of the 
Elbridge were spend- 
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the development of light- 
weight engines more than 
four years before the word 
"Aeroplane" ^vas used. 



The Featherweight is the lightest engine cf its power in the \\'orld. Will actually 
show 75 H. P. 

An Elbridge rated at 20 H. P. showed a pull of 200 lbs. turning a 6 x 4 propeller 
1200 r. p. m. 

Elbridge Featherweights are made in four sizes from 10 to 100 H. P. Higher power 
to order. 

This type of motor is used by Matheson Automobile Co., Denver; Frederick Shneider, 

New York City; McCallum Aeroplane & Mfg. Co., Kansas City; N. E, Brown, 

Grand Haven, Mich.; Lieut. A. F. M. MacManus, U. S. A. (Retired) San Antonio; 

Wm. F. Milligan, Portland, Ind. ; James W. Wade, Salt Lake City; Eric Bergstrom, 

Chicago; S. H. Pankost, 

Sacramento; Martin A. 

Schmidt, Buffalo; Western 

Aeroplane Co , Spokane; H. 

O. Belden, Chena, Alaska; 

George A. Metcalf, Boston; 

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N. Y.; Dr. William W. 

Christmas, Washington, D.C.; 

Auchinvole, Botts & Crosby, 

San Francisco, and many 

others. 

Factory always open for your 
inspection; demonstrations by 
appointment. Full particulars 
of both air and water cooled 
engines on request. 



Elbridge Engine Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 





July, 1910 • Edited by ALFRED W. LAWSON » 15 Cents a Copy 



BALDWIN'S 

VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL 

WINS 



LAHM BALLOON CUP— 697 Miles. Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon " New York" 

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE 

35 Hrs., 12 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon " New York'' 

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD 

48 Hrs., 26 Mins. Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial 

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD 

24,200 Ft. Harmon and Post, Balloon " New ^ork," St. Louis Centennial 

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 

30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 
GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES 

QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 
2nd— 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 

2nd— BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE— Glenn H. Curtiss 



BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL 

USED IN THE U. S. GOV. DIRIGIBLE AND SPHERICAL BALLOONS 

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the 
same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and 
ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of 
oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double- 
walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A 
man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to 
spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, 
width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming 
balloon material, and which, through its superior qualities and being an absolute gas holder, is 
bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon 
must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS. 



AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY 

Prices and Samples on application 

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN, Box 78, Madison Square, NEW YORK 



Jidy, iQio 



AIRCRA FT 



173 



FRANCAISE AMERICAINE AEROPLANE CIE. 

^"«L% MINEOLA, L. I. 



AEROPLANES 

MOTORS 
PROPELLERS 



OF CONSEQUENCE 

This Company, having long since passed the experimental stage, proposes to give its patrons, at the lowest price, the 
benefits achieved by its experts who have for years been profound students of Aerial Navigation. 

POSITIVELY NO INFRINGEMENTS 





DESIGN 

MATERIAL 

CONSTRUCTION 

FINISH 

FLIGHT 

PRICE 



RIGHT 



MONOPLANES, BIPLANES -WITH MOTORS, PROPELLERS, COMPLETE FOR ASSEMBLING AND FLIGHT 

FIRST PRIZE AT FIRST TRIAL 
IN AMERICA FOR FLIGHT 

We Employ only the Best Designers and Experts on Aerodynamics 

Our Product is therefore Scientifically^ f¥lathematically and 

Mechanically Correct 

For excellence of workmanship, construction and durability, we stand without a peer. Our up-to-date method of keeping 
in touch with each new improvement and embodying it in our product, stamps us as being without competition. 

Our wind-proof surface covering and non-rusting wire are specially manufactured tor our use. 

Our motors are designed by Horner, whose experience in engines is unsurpassed; they are very light 

and very powerful, their rating of 25 H. P. and 50 H. P. being estimated at 700 R. P. M.; 

at greater speeds than this their power increases at an exceptional ratio. 



BRAINS IN BUILDING. 



GOODS TO DELIVER 



Delivery 30 days. Price 93,000 complete. Terms on application 



THE FRANCAISE AMERICAINE AEROPLANE CIE. 

Address direct to Factory, Mineola, L. I., N. Y. 



174 



A I R C RA F T 



July, igio 



CURTISS has won the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 
AEROPLANE TROPHY for the third year in suc- 
cession, by his splendid flight down the Hudson 
River, and if his feat is not surpassed by anyone else 
during 1910, he will become its permanent owner. 
THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN has consistently and faithfully 
fostered the science of aviation since its earliest days. 




The Scientific Ami 



Aeroplane Trophy 



If you have taken up the new sport of aviation, we should 
be pleased to have you try for our trophy. 

If you are interested in the well-nigh magic progress that is 
being made in dynamic flight, by all means read 

We^t ^ctcntific Smeritan 

the only and the oldest weekly in America dealing with 
aeronautic and mechanical progress. 

Subscription price, S3. 00 per year 
SPECIAL TRIAL OFFER 

Send us Si -SO — the regular price for 6 months subscription — and 
we will send the Scientific American to you for the balance of 1910. 

MUNN & CO., Inc., 361 Broadway, New York 



AERONAUTIC PATENTS 

Our sixty years' experience in seeming patents {botli domestic and for- 
eign) is a guarantee of prompt andefficient service. We pay especial atten- 
tion to aeronautic apparatus, and will be pleas 
patentability of your invention if you will wril 

MUNN & CO., 365 Broadway, New York 



CHURCH 

AEROPLANE 

COMPANY 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



Heavier-Than-Air Machines 
Separate Parts 
Working Models 
Flying Models 
Aeronautic Specialties 

Supplies for Model B\iilders 



SPECIAL NOTICE 

We have received so many inqumes for agency 
propositions, and orders are coming in so fast, that 
our mail has grown to the extent where we find 
ourselves unable to keep up with our correspond- 
ence; we v«ll fill orders, however, and answer all 
letters as quickly as possible until we have still 
further increased our facilities to deal with them. 



Price List of Models and Parts is 

now ready, but it will be some little time before 

our Supply Catalog for Full Size Ma- 
chines is ready for distribution, as there are so 
many new things to list. 

In asking for catalog, please state which one 
you want. 

CHURCH AEROPLANE COMPANY 

Main Office and Factory, 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Chicago Office, 49 Waliasli Avenue 

H. S. RENTON, Manager 



July. iQio 



AIRCRAFT 








NEW YOKK I. 


")n 


after breaki 


ng American record Im c., 


pIp 


surround 1 


nding field. " New \ ork 


Ha 


milton later 


in the day returned to N 



MM ^ 1.1 I I Ml ^ BY AIR: 86 MILES IN 107 MINUTES 
.u.ius i_i. ^-^ L .uiiuv flignt, prepares to land in field at North PhilaJ^li, 
lies special trani, below aeroplane, has just come to stop after racing 
York, landing at Go 



■ith Hamilton for 



CONTENTS — JULY, 1910 

Cover Drawing R- Lillo 

Frontispiece — The Curtiss Dinner of May 31st 176 

Albany— New York Glenn H. Curtiss 177 

Chronographic Account of Albany— New York Flight Augustus Post 177 

Flying at Mineola Mrs. J. Herbert Sinclair 178 

Editorial G. F. Campbell Wood 180 

Law and the Air Denys P. Myers 181 

Kites Edward H. Young 182 

New Flyers Described W. H. Phipps 183 

Big Men of the Movement 184 

Foreign News Albert C. Triaca 186 

Flying J\'Iachine Models W. H. Phipps 188 

The Wright Suits: Some Conclusions to be Drawn William R. Rummler 188 

Records and Statistics G. F. Campbell Wood 189 

Recent Patented Inventions Gustave R. Thompson 190 

Some Construction Details IQO 

Club News Ada Gibson 191 

Military News of the INIonth Brigadier-General James A. Allen 192 

General News Ada Gibson 192 



AIRCRAFT 



Published Monthly by The Lawson Publishing Company 
ALFRED W. LAWSON 37-39 EAST 28TH STREET. NEW YORK. U. S. A. 

President a7id Treasurer Telephone, 5017 Madison Square 

TERMS TO SUBSCRIBERS 
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Advertising copy must be in hand by the 1st of month previous to date of publi- 

Only high-grade advertisements of thoroughly reliable firms are solicited. 

Entered as "second-class tnatter" February 18, 1910. at the 



ERNEST C. LANDGRAF 

Secretary 

WHEN YOUR SUBSCRIPTION EXPIRES 

onth before a subscription expires we enclose a renewal blank 



When 

ewal Ai 



which 

der for the r 

that your subscription will expire, you should send your 



in order not to miss a number. New subscriptions which 

■ before the 15th of any month will begin with the issue of that 

_d after that date they will begin with the following month's issue. 

We cannot enter subscriptions to begin with back numbers. One month's notice is 

necessary before a change of address can be made. 



lishin. 



' York, N. r. 



- the 



t of March 3. 1879. 



^S3^ 



AIRCRAFT 



Vol. I. No. 5. 



NEW YORK, JULY, 1910. 



ALBANY— NEW YORK 



By Glenn H. Curtiss 



^i^aHERE were, of course, but two things which could 
^ijK have prevented the Albany-New York flight : the breaking 
^^^ of some vital part of the aeroplane and bad weather. 

I took pretty good care that I should not fall victim 
of the first of these two contingencies : I had my latest and 
best engine aboard and, just as I had every reason to expect, 
it ran perfectly from start to finish. Extra precautions were 
taken to prevent the loosening of guy wires and, in fact, a leak- 
age in the oil tank was the single mechanical incident of the 
voyage. While the running out of oil compelled me to land 
twelve or thirteen miles before reaching Governor's Island, it 
was only afterwards that I discovered it. for I thought at the 
time that the loss of the oil was due to the pump causing too 
great a flow. 

As regards the weather, it was all that could be desired; the 
air disturbances I encountered in the narrow part of the Hud- 
son Valley' — violent as they proved to be and ticklish as they 
were to overcome — were purely local in character, and in the 
open stretches the breeze was never very great. 

I waited several days for a good day, as I knew a breeze at 
Albany would mean a small gale around such places as Storm 
King; had the course lain over perfectly flat country', I would 
not have been so hard to please in the matter of air conditions. 

I have been asked whether this flight was a harder one to 
succeed in than the London to Manchester one. It is very hard 
to compare two events so different in character. 

Of course, Paulhan went further than I, and I went faster 
than Paulhan, but when it comes to comparing the difficulties 
of two such flights, only one who had attempted both of them 
could really pronounce himself. A water surface having, of 
necessity, but one level, " flying over water," may sound easier 
than " flying over land," but when the water becomes a narrow 



strip between precipitous shores, a rolling country would seem 
far preferable as an underlying surface to the air one is flying in. 

The general weather conditions, from all accounts, were not as 
good in the Manchester flight as in the Hudson one, but on the 
other hand, the English flight was not made on a single date, 
and both Paulhan and Grahame-White had six or seven hours' 
sleep between the first leg of the journey and the second. 

I see no reason why I couldn't have flown to New York 
without a stop : ray machine could have carried the extra gaso- 
line, and the engine was cool and in fine running order on landing 
near Camelot, just south of Poughkeepsie. 

It is practically impossible to say precisely at what speed I 
traveled, as it would be necessary to lay out the exact course 
over the ground taken by me, together with my changes of 
level, but it was about fiftj'-three miles an hour. 

The first part of the flight — about seventy-four miles— took 
just eighty-four minutes; I have before made a flight about as 
long as this, when I flew eighty-five minutes and five seconds, 
going around and around the course at Los Angeles, on January 
20th last; I used a different machine at that time (my Gordon- 
Bennett Cup racer), and because of the distance lost on the 
turns, covered only 53 miles and a fraction officially in that time. 

After I had negotiated the narrow reaches in the Highlands 
south of Poughkeepsie, I felt pretty sure of success, but the 
Metropolitan Tower certainly looked good to me when I first 
caught a glimpse of it far to the south, when soaring over the 
Tappan Zee. 




7.02 A.M. Curtiss started from Van Rensselaer 

Island, Albany. 
Mr. Jacob L. Ten Eyck official starter 
for Aero Club of America. 

7.03 Passed over the city limits of Albany, 
7.20 New Baltimore. 

J. 26 20 miles. " Times " special train 

caught up with aeroplane. 
7.27 Milton Hook Brick Yards. Wind still. 

Aeroplane flying about 

hour. Passed Tighthoui 

side of Hudson river. 
7.32 Stockport, 24 miles. 

7.35 Hudson. 29 miles. Aeroplane flying 

high. Catskill Mountain House 

could be seen in the distance. Ma- 
chine flying steady, water calm, small 
ripples along the surface. 

7.36 30 miles. Tram passed through tunnel 

parallel with 'plane. 
7.40* Tower No. 8t, N. Y. C. R. R., Green- 

dale ferry. 



CHRONOGRAPHIC ACCOUNT OF FLIGHT 

By Augustus Post 
Official Representative of the Aero Club of America and Timekeeper 

Rensselaer 7.4r A.M. Catskill on West shore of Hudson 8.04 A.: 



=\/el 



Flying high. 
Water trough in center of track. Train 
equal with 'plane. 
Linlithgo station, 

Qtown steamer dock. Aeroplane 



fiv 
Pass 



ell. 



steamboat on West side of 
the river. German town station. 
Aeroplane pitched when foot oil- 
pump was used. Slight ripples on 
the water. 

Train running parallel with aeroplane. 

Tivoli. 4^ miles. Aeroplane high. 
Wind slightly from the West. 

Barrytown. 49 miles. Aeroplane about 
800 feet high, descending a little 
lower until about 400 feet high. 

Kingston. Brick yards on West shore 
of river. Curtiss is flying very near 
the train, within perhaps 100 yards. 



8. 04 A.M. Aeroplane turns toward West. Heads 

a little more into the wind and 
crosses to the West side of the river 
at high speed. 

8.05 Private yacht dock on East side 

of river. Aeroplane flying high again. 

5.06 Rhinecliff ferry, 54 miles. Aeroplane 

has been flying 1 hour 4 minutes. 
Seems to be flying well. 

8.08 Passine tower. No. 67, N. Y, C. R. R. 

S.oSJ Train passed through tunnel. Curtiss 

goes back to West side of river: 
flying over ice-houses. 

8.11 Passed lighthouse in middle of river. 

The aeroplane seems to be slowly 
rising and falling on the varying 
currents of air. River is very wide 
at this point. There are large stone 
crushers on the West shore, and a 
large stone building of a Catholic in- 
stitution on the bank of the river. 
Staatsburg. 60 miles. 



178 



AIRCRAFT 



July, igio 



Aeroplane is now passing over a large 
white house, some private residence 
on the West shore of the river. Aero- 
plane is flying past freight train on 
the West Shore Railway. 

Hyde Park station. 64 miles. Train 
passing water trough in center of 
railway track. Passing Insane Asy- 
lum at Poughkeepsie. 

Passing upper portion of Poughkeepsie, 



Passing 


Poughkeep 


ie bridg 


e. I 


Vero- 


plane about 200 feet above 


t. 




Train go 


es through 


Poughkeepsie 


sta- 


Train a 


rives Gill's 


Mill do 


ck, 


ppo- 


site lar 




of Curti 


,s. Aero- 


plane 


anded acco 


rding to 


Curtiss's 


watch 


on his machine at S. 


-.(,. - 


left 


special 


train and 


went to 


the 


lield 


where 


Curtiss had landed 


arr 


vin*^ 


a few 


minutes lat 


er. The 


tank 


s of 


the m£ 


chine were 


filled w 


th .s 


"Sl- 


Ions 


gasoline a 


id I gal 




id a 


half oi 


oil. The 


machine 


was 


care- 


fully e 


xamined an 


d found 


to b 


e in 


good 


rder, one w 


re being 


stave 


d to 


preven 


vibration. 


J\'Ir. George 


Col- 



lingwood took special train party to 
New Hamburg station. 

Curtiss started for New York from field 
in property of Mr, Gill. 

Camelot. 

West Point. Aeroplane passed over 
Constitution Island at an altitude of 
about 400 feet above the land. 

Manitou. 

Peekskill. 

Ossining. Aeroplane flying on West 
side of the river. 

Dobb's Ferry. 

Yonkers. Aeroplane flying about level 
with top of Palisades. 

Landed 214th Street. Inwood. After 
passing down river to Dyckman 
Street, returning to Spuyten Duyvil 
and oassine over drawbridge the 
aeroplane landed upon the property 
of the Isham estate. 




CURTISS LANDING AT GOVERNOR S ISLAND, NOON, MAY igjll, IQIO 



1.42 A.M. Curtis 



Flying 



Curtiss 
trophy, a; 



Anie 



the Hudson 
passed New 
at Governor's 



Vork City, 
Island at n 




Uj2cc^ 



entered for the Scientific 
the first flight from Albany to the 
- at Poughkeepsie— 74:t miles— will 
;cord for this event, and if not ex- 
i the vear will stand at his trial for 



cs/- — 





FLYING AT MINEOLA 

By Mrs. J, Herbert Sinclair 



Almost every evening, after business hours, the and a moment later it is winging its way over the 

millionaire clubman, who sees in aviation a plain, only to alight at the will of its driver, 

science, a military art and a sport, in which his Mr. Harmon invited his friends to witness his 

country should lae preeminent, motors out to attempt to earn the Aero Club's aviator's pilot 

Mineola to make a flight or two; his French me- license, a few weeks ago; he was entirely suc- 

chanics trundle the historic machine out of the cessful in this— making the three flights of five 

shed, set its ever-willing Gnome engine awhirl, kilometers each without trouble, and being the 



THE BALDWIN BIPLANE IN FLIGHT : CAPTAIN 
BALDWIN AT THE WHEEL 



" An American Mourmelon," was the way a 
-well-known enthusiast put it, on viewing the rap- 
idly increasing activity displayed at Mineola, by 
aviators and would-be aviators now assembled 
there to the number of a score or more. 

The flying grounds have become the rendez- 
-vous of all the aeronautic enthusiastics of the me- 
tropolis, and a " but de promenade " for the 
fashionable colonies in the neighborhood. 

Hardly a day passes now that several of the 
fivers are not seen in action above the adjacent 
Hempstead Plains, whilst an examination of the 
low-lving buildings springing up between Mineola 
and 'Garden City, will reveal big artificial birds 
within, in every conceivable state of completion, 
some mere skeletons of what they are to be, whilst 
others are receiving the finishing touches before 
being taken out to conquer the element for which 
they are destined, and to the problem of the mas- 
tery of which, their designers have devoted 
weeks of thought and labor. 

Between Mineola and Garden City are the 
grounds of the Aero Club of America; three ma- 
chines are quartered there and others are ex- 
pected. 

In the south shed is Clifford B. Harmon's 
Henry Farman biplane, the self same machine 
which carried Louis Paulhan to a world's height 
record at Los Angeles, last January. 




JOE SEYMOUR IN HIS HERRING-CURTISS BIPLANE 



July, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



179 




to plunge headlong toward the earth, 

or spiral course, and with or withoi 

running, constitute " thrillers " of no 

plainly. 



ordc 



)f his hard 
vhat out of shape 
xals strength in I 
vhich the life of the 

As this 
ng taken 



but although some- 
need of repair, it re- 
itial parts — those on 
the wheel depends, 
written, the great little biplane is be- 
n hand, and put into condition to 
undertake the New York to Philadelphia flight. 
Outside the Aeronautical Society shed, and 
housed in a tent, is the beautifully built little 
Curtiss-type biplane of Edwards and Edick; it 
is fitted with what looks like a most promising 
2-'-25-h.p. motor. 

Other machines in the neighborhood are that 
of F. Raiche, being assembled in a building in 
Jlineola village, and that of Mr. P. W. Wilcox 
who recently graduated from Columbia University 
with the degree of Aeronautical Mechanical En- 
gineer, — the first time it has been conferred. 

The Wilcox machine is ready to fly; it is 
housed in the shed of Albert Triaca, situated in 
the grounds of his International School of Aero- 
nautics, at Garden City. 

This biplane is a remarkably finished product 
of the Henry Farman type, but with some im- 
portant distinctions: for one thing the whole tall 
or rear cell acts as a biplane elevator instead of 
merely a hinged portion of it do 
trol is also different, for an 
of which 



ngenii 



device. 



the 



of 



say 



oppo 
oppo 



by 



equal tc 

down, thus bringing about no turning 
nt; this makes a rudder obviously un- 
cessary in straightaway flight, and to judge 
im the latest legal decisions, this would mean 
Wright patent-rights are not infringed on by 



CLIFFORD B. HARMON, IN HIS HENRY FARM.^iN BIPLANE, QUALIFYING AS AN AVIATION 

PILOT OF THE AERO CLUB OF AMERICA, ON MAY 2IST. THE BALDWIN BIPLANE ON THE 

GROUND, TO THE RIGHT 



The Wilco 



obile 



biplane is to be driven by Lewis 
like " Joe " Seymour, has a na- 
■en international reputation as an 

nearly all the famous 



first 



the distin 



this 



ntry. 



opla 



Walter Lowe Fairchild's steel-tube 
occupies the north shed; it is fitted 
gine and propellers from Requa-Gibson, and 
at this writing, ready for preliminary_ trials. 

This interesting machine was described in i 
June Aircraft. 

Captain Thomas A. Baldwin's biplane, which 
referred to in detail elsewhere in this is 
cupies a tent to the rear of Mr. Fairchiid'; 
further back still is the large shed ir 
jNIr. Harkness' Antoinette monoplanes are to b 
housed: these flyers are similar to the bird-Iik 



fafe 



whilst the latter i 
racy-looking flyer, 
in many respects, 



will fit a large hundred 
motor to his machine be- 
1 be ready tg take to the 
still farther advanced on 



ablv 



ded pi; 

nous machine 

wliich Glenn H. Curtiss 



having hii 

bed ^ 



Burgeat, Wachtei 
iers, Labouchere, th 
Hay den Sands hav 
I in Egypt; none ha 



hich Latham, 
Kuller, de Mumm, Wiencz 
late Hauvette-JIichelin and 
made famous in Europe an^ 
ever flown in this country. 

A quarter of a mile to the west is the large 
shed or hangar of the Aeronautical Society; not- 
withstanding its generous proportions its floor 
space is completely rented to members, and those 
not fortunate in applying early enough for space 
whereon to put their machines together and keep 
them between trials, have to resort to subsidiary 
tents in the immediate vicinity of the main build- 
ing. 

There are few hours of the day when this ^reat 
aviary is not a scene of earnest activity: "Joe" 
Seymour, the well-known racing motor-driver, has 
his Herring-Curtiss biplane quartered here. This 
is one of the first of these famous flyers turned 
out; it originally belonged to JNIr. Warner of 
Eeloit. Wis., who has made many flights in it. 
; to fly during the past 
tirely mastered the art; 



The most 
course, that 

tory last year, when, at its helm, he won the 

hilst Gordon-Bennett Cup, at Reims, on August 2Sth. 

hich It is now the property of Charles Hamilton, 

T he probably the greatest aeroplane driver in the 

'orld at this time, and almost certainly the most 

aring. Hamilton's flights at Mineola enabled 

Jew Yorkers to get a glimpse of the sensational 

erial rough-riding and caper-cutting in which he 

as indulged almost daily, from the Atlantic to 

le Pacific, in the many exhibitions and contests 

f the last six months. 

His famous " dips " where the biplane is made 



drop 


lik 


after 


heir 


repli 


'd: 


work 


s to 


An 


othe 


that 


the 


shou 


d b 


extra 


lift 



Europe, wl 
nonals of the roi „ 

arman brothers, de Caters, Rolls, Cagno, 
, Rougier. Wagner, Hanriot, Rigal, Bablot, 
id, Hautvast, Chris tiaens and poor Le 
naturally took to professional flying when 
aclng died out, the crack motor drivers of 
:a have begun to look skyward. 

AT THE AERO SHOW 

1 recent show the favorite question with 
linitiatcd seemed to be, " What happens 
your engine stops right up in the air? " 
npression being that the machine would 
stone. One exasperated exhibitor, 
sked the question for the «th time, 
mply telephone to the 



other, 



brilliant 



gestion 
on air-cooled 

horizontally " s 



by a 



jitor was 



Seymour has b^ 
few weeks, and has now > 
notwithstanding his we 
and the relatively low p 
has made fine flights ovei 
to be as proficient at the 
at that 01 his racing cai 
Three other biplanes ; 
nearing completion in t\ 
Diefenbich biplane imm 
upon entering the shed; 
plane. Prince BoL ~" 



jht- 

■wer of his machine, he 
the plains and promises 
wheel of his air-craft as 

tid two monoplanes are 
= big hangar; the huge 
diately arrests attention 
outside of the Cody bi- 
triplane ' " "' 



gott biplane it is probably the largest aeroplane 
yet built; it is designed to carry passengers and 
shows much strength in its design. 

Right next to it stands the biplane of Miss 
Lillian Todd, a lady who has for some time been 
interested in the science; the machine embodies 
many promising features, and some improvements 
over the design of last year's model. The undu- 
lating frontal curvature of the upper plane among 
other things is a novel feature in this country, 
and the first trials of the biplane are eagerly 
awaited. 

The biolane of Frank Van Anden is another 
which win soon be in the air. Mr. Van Anden 
has already flown in a machine of his construc- 
tion, and anticipates making long flights in his 
latest conception. 

Paul de Kilduchevsky and L. Rosenbaum are 
working hard on the construction of their mono- 
planes. 




CHARLES K. 



HAMILTON MAKING ONE OF HIS FAMOUS DIVES, 
HERRING-CURTISS RACING BIPLANE 



IN HIS EIGHT-CYLINDER 



iSo 



AIRCRAFT 



July, igio 






iPTER RECORDING month after month 
the great feats being performed in Eu- 
rope, it is certainly no small satisfaction 
to point to an American's performance 
over American territory on an American 
machine, fitted with an American propel- 
ler, driven by an American engine, as the greatest 
aeronautic achievement of the month. 

In changing the conditions under which its Albany- 
New York prize could be won, there can be no ques- 
tion that " The New York World " acted most wisely. 
It seems very probable that both the carrying capac- 
ity of Curtiss's biplane and the endurance of the 
famous aviator would have been equal to the more 
stringent effort of making a " non-stop run " but with 
the greatly increased chances of failure which the 
stricter conditions would have entailed, it is doubtful 
if the attempt would have been made at this date. 

Glenn Curtiss once more showed of what stuff he 
was made, in this historical flight, and demonstrated 
his remarkable capability to undertake a great task 
and carry it through to a successful conclusion. 

His magnificent success on May 29 is a fitting se- 
quel to his astounding European campaign of last 
year, when, with a new and untried biplane, he swept 
all before him and captured the Blue Ribbon of avia- 
tion from the most famous bird-men of the Old 
World. 

As a direct result of the winning of " The World's " 
prize, tens of thousands of dollars are being offered 
all over the country for cross-country flights, notably 
$30,000 for a flight from New York to St. Louis by 
" The New York World " and " The St. Louis Des- 
patch," $25,000 for one between Chicago and New 
York by " The New York Times " and " The Chicago 
Evening Post," $5,000 for one from Indianapolis to 
Chicago, and $10,000 for one from Washington to 
New York. 

As this issue is going to press, Charles Hamilton, 
who is perhaps the most expert aeroplane driver in the 
world to-day and is certainly the most daring, is about 
to undertake a flight from New York to Philadelphia 
and back for a prize offered by " The New York 
Times." 

000 



Because many of the events indicating the prog- 
ress of Aeronautics are at present occurring in other 
countries than the United States, this publication is 
making a special feature of its Foreign News. 

Every periodical on the art of which we have any 
cognizance is received in these offices, whether it be 
the " Motor " of Sydney, N. S. W., or the " Vosdook- 
hoplavatel " of St. Petersburg, the " Locomocion 
Aerea " of Barcelona or the " Luftschiffer-Zeitung " 
of Vienna, " L'Aero-Mecanique " of Brussels, or the 
great European sporting daily newspapers. 

One and all are perused by European members of 
our staff, familiar with the language they are printed 
in and with conditions, places and people abroad, and 
competent to judge relative values in aeronautic news. 

Besides these, our special correspondents in every 
aeronautic center of importance the world over fur- 
nish us with regular correspondence on all doings of 
interest in their vicinity, and letters are exchanged 
with the leading foreign aeronautical publications, the 
better known of which are " The Aero " and "Flight," 
of London ; " L'Aerophile " and the " Revue de 
I'Aviation," of Paris ; the " Zeitschrift fur Luftschif- 
fart," of Berlin ; " L'Aviatore Italiano," of Milan, etc. 

It is in this manner that we have been able to fur- 
nish our readers, in the first five months of our exist- 
ence, with accurate and definite news from over forty 
different countries and colonies. 

Our Foreign News aims at representing the es- 
sence — the condensed summary — of the previous 
month's aeronautical doings, all over the world, and 
at showing the steady spread of the movement to the 
far corners of the earth. They are also calculated to 
make those still wondering " whether there is any- 
thing in it," reach the opinion to which they must 
inevitably come, at an earlier date than otherwise. 

Perhaps it is because this need is not so much felt 
by our foreign contemporaries of note, but, whatever 
may be the reason, we find that, in the gathering and 
publishing under one head of these items of news 
from such widely dispersed localities. Aircraft 
has already assumed the internationally preeminent 
position which we aspire to gain and maintain in 
every branch and phase of the Art and the movement, 
and in the presenting of it to our readers. 



July, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



i8i 



LAW AND THE AIR, 

By Denys P. Myers 

Continued from June Aircraft. 

AIR-NAVIGATORS IN WAR 




TRANSITION from peace to war is a sharp one 
ill the Hfe of a nation and, plunging the peoples 
concerned into a crisis, necessitates quick and defi- 
nite action in all cases. War is the abnormal 
status, and actions of little consequence in them- 
seKes may then be fraught with the utmost im- 
IHirtance. Therefore a great deal of attention has 
} li'on paid to codifying the laws of war in an ef- 
• 111 to reach the end that every situation to be 
iicountered can be solved by a specific rule. 
No one is keener about tackling the novel problems involved 
by new inventions than the government legal expert charged with 
keeping the rules of war up to date. Yet man's ingenuity has 
outdistanced his ilk. The regime of the air is an actuality, and 
he is in the lurch, and will probably remain there until the Third 
Hague Conference of 1915 shall enable him to catch up with the 
times. 

Of the fourteen conventions drawn up by the Second Hague 
Conference in 1907, eleven related directly to a state of war, 
settling many mooted points both as to persons and property. 
In some of those conventions regulations were agreed to for the 
first time as to wireless telegraphy in war, although the scientific 
fact was several years old. It will be likewise, in all probabilitj', 
several j'ears before any adequate rules as to the conduct of aerial 
hostilities will e.xist. Yet at no point where aeronautics and law 
touch is the necessity for definite regulations so great. 

The warrior in the air is a fighter of the third dimension, 
whereas his brother on the earth moves in but two dimensions. 
He is not bound by the ordinary rules of motion that circumscribe 
the activity of the soldier of the line. There has been much dis- 
cussion and considerable disagreement about the ability of an 
aviator to inflict damage bj' dropping bombs, but the few experi- 
ments conducted in this country at Los Angeles and San Antonio, 
Tex., so far as their results are known, would indicate that the 
bomb and the man-bird are not altogether a useless combination 
for warlike operations. 

No one denies, however, the great advantage of the vehicles 
of the air for purposes of espionage. Here is a delightful incon- 
gruity : Art. XXIX of the regulations on land warfare of The 
Hague, 1907, says : 

" A person can only be considered a spy when, acting clan- 
destinely or on false pretenses, he obtains or endeavors to ob- 
tain information in the zone of operations of a belligerent, 
with the intention of communicating it to the hostile party. 
. . . The following are not considered spies : Soldiers and 
civilians, carrying out their mission openly, intrusted with the 
delivery of despatches intended for their own army or for the 
enemy's armj'. To this class belong likewise persons sent in 
balloons for the purpose of carrying despatches and, generally, 
of maintaining communications between the different parts of 
an army or a territory." 

Such a provision would scarcely be made to-day — three years 
later — , for it virtually exempts the aeronaut from the opprobrium 
and responsibility of being a spy, although he is infinitely more 
dangerous to his opponents than any ordinary spy. 

In fact, at present, the flying man escapes largely for the same 
reason that an enemy did, in a supposititious case once put to an 
accomplished international law\'er. As stated, the primary ele- 
ment existing in a spy is clandestine action. So, it was asked, 
suppose an enemy on a ship in Boston harbor takes oiif all his 
clothing, swims to the Charlestown navy-yard and collects valu- 
able information in time of war before he is caught. Is he a 
spy? It was decided that technically he was not, although his 
exoneration came on a clever quibble. — that a man in his natural 
skin could not be disguised. 



Even the status of aeronaut or aviator can thus be seen to be 
practically undefined, and a possible solution of the matter will 
be to recognize a difference between those crafts used for scout- 
ing or communication purposes and those designed to secure more 
sinister and dangerous results to the enemy. A distinction in 
flags, or better, a specific emblem, for the former might serve 
to establish their character. The latter need not bother them- 
selves much with that question. 

This solution would be in line with the distinction already 
made in war. It is admitted that a man has a right to fight, 
scout and reconnoitre for his country. Those things are not to 
the interest of his enemy, but if he is caught at them, the enemy 
is prevented from treating him harshly for performing a patri- 
otic duty, and he becomes merely a prisoner of war, and must 
be treated with the same consideration as the enemy's own 
troops. 

The spy, on the other hand, is considered an enemy of the 
deepest dye. Seventeen articles of The Hague convention are 
concerned with guaranteeing good treatment to the prisoner of war. 
One deals with the treatment of a spy : " A spy taken in the act 
shall not be punished without previous trial." 

This wide distinction being a fact, it is obviously unfair to 
put the subaltern carrying proper military messages between 
two commands of the same flag in the same category with the 
man who sets out to nose into the secrets of the opponent. The 
former evidently should be held only as a prisoner of war ; the 
latter is a spy, and the enemy is entitled to protect himself ade- 
quately against his thirst for illicit knowledge. Notifications be- 
tween hostile forces are now provided for in the case of hospital 
arrangements and similar matters. It might prove feasible to 
notify that certain aeroplanes, with a recognized mark, are en- 
gaged on purely technical business connected with the army and 
that their occupants, if brought down, are entitled to the status 
of prisoners of war. Such a notification would not stretch mili- 
tary honor farther than it has already been distended by con- 
vention, although it would have the disadvantage of making 
the other fellows unduly prominent when they began to spy. 
And undoubtedly in any army there would be found plenty of 
brave men willing to run the risk of treatment as a spy for the 
benefit of his country, without any such assurance. 

Fauchille in his code stipulates that "war in balloons" (or aero- 
planes) "is subject to the laws and customs of maritime war," 
This statement can scarcely prevail, for it places the aeronaut 
or aviator at too great a disadvantage. The air and the sea, 
notwithstanding close analogies, are not equivalent elements so 
far as navigation is concerned. There are cycles of development 
between the conquest of the water and that of the air — which de- 
pends upon a complicated, delicate and high-powered motor. Ac- 
cidents that on the water would be negligible, in the air spell dis- 
aster. An ocean liner's engines stop and she continues to float 
safely. But if an aviator's motor slips up he is dashed to ground 
or glides in a fairly helpless condition to the earth. The dirig- 
ible itself is more nearly the prey of Nature if its engine halts 
than is the steamship. 

Therefore, it seems only fair to the air-conqueror that he 
should be more generously treated than his fellow the seaman. 
In war, however, there is the supreme question of added danger 
to the attacked and of great advantage to be gained by the of- 
fensive use of air-craft. The consequent interplay of interests 
will make the problem of settling upon the aviator's rights and 
duties, privileges and responsibilities in war-time one of the 
most engrossing of legal problems. It will be both interesting 
and enlightening to learn what the first International Congress 



l82 



AIRCRAFT 



July, igio 



on Aerial Navigation which convened at the French Foreign 
Office a few days ago will have had to say on the subject. 

But difficult as it will be to determine mere justice in such 
cases as have been mentioned, the problem will be magnified 
when different systems of law or variant policies complicate the 
affair. Germany, for instance, is unique in having had an aerial 
foe, the French in 1870. Bismarck, in the case of a capture of a 
French balloon manned by a British subject, maintained that his 
trial as a spy would have been justified, "because he had spied 
and crossed our outposts in a manner which was beyond the 
control of the outposts, possibly with a view to make use to 



our prejudice of the information thus gained." One condemna- 
tion in that war is on record, though the death sentence was 
commuted. 

In the present legislation, belligerents — those having the right 
to fight — are carefully defined. Volunteer service or casual aid 
to the regularly armed forces by non-belligerents will be es- 
pecially easy for owners of air-craft, and this point will demand 
attention, for upon its settlement depends the question whether 
the aviator shall be considered a qualified agent or an outlaw of 
his country. 

{To be Continued in August Aircraft.) 



KITES 

By Edwatrd H. Young 

T/ic kite, thai children's playthtft^, despised by scientists, is nevertheless deserving of the most 



n.— Elder U75b). 




' PPROPRIATELY enough, kite flying as an art 
was first known in the Celestial Empire. It is in 
fact, fully twenty centuries since it was first used 
by the Chinese for purposes of sport, trade and 
war, and even to-day there is no country where 
more varieties of kites, in form, design and shape, 
can be found than in Ancient Cathay. 

Kite flying" has, for so many centuries, been 
looked upon in China in a matter of fact way, that 
it has created for itself a lasting standard, which 
calls for its practise by grown men. They fly kites while the 
children look on, and they do not feel that any apology is ex- 
pected of them for indulging in the occupation. 

One advantage the Chinese have over Americans, is that they 
possess wood that is far more pliable than an}' available here 
and a paper which is lighter for its strength than the ordinary 
American paper : the wood is either rattan or bamboo and the 
paper is the rice crepe paper. Rattan is a very tough, straight- 
grained wood which can be bent into almost any shape without 
breaking; this facility, together with the toughness and lightness 
of the paper at their disposal, is the reason the varified construc- 
tion of kites has been so fully developed among the Celestials. 
In America, the wood readily available cannot be bent much 
without breaking and the paper is heavier, with the result that 
the forms of kites constructed are less numerous, and that they 
are more angular and also more closely related in principle. 
Though apparently a defect, this has proved in one way a blessing 
in disguise, for the cardinal principles underlying the construc- 
tion of American kites bear a very close analogy to those under- 
lying that of aeroplanes. 

To illustrate : in aeroplanes there are four leading principles to 
consider : gravity, pressure, thrust, resistance. In kites we have 
gravity, pressure, resistance and lift, the latter corresponding with 
the thrust of the aeroplane. 

Gravity is the downward pull on a flying object — aeroplane, 
kite, etc., — ; pressure is the upward tending of the air to sustain 
the flying object; resistance is the obstruction made by the flying 
object to the air it is passing through; the thrust of an aeroplane 
is represented by its forward motion in still air, and is entirely 
independent of any wind which may happen to be blowing; it is 
similar to the lift or pull of the kite, which, when not towed, is 
held up by such natural wind as there is at that moment. 

Gravity and pressure being always opposed to each other 
should always be in coincidence both in aeroplanes or kites. 
Thrust or pull on the one hand and resistance on the other being 
always opposed to each other, they should also be in coincidence 
with each other. The flying centre of an aeroplane or of a kite 
is at the union of these four points or forces, — in the aeroplane 
where the engine and passenger are carried, and in the kite where 
the string is attached. 

It is true that an aeroplane flies almost in a horizontal position, 
while a well poised kite flies at an angle of about 36 degrees, but 



the principles remain the same, the differences in construction 
being made with that object in view. In a kite the pull of the 
string corresponds to the thrust of the propellers on an aeroplane ; 
the string holds the kite to one spot and allows the natural wind 
to sweep through or under the kite, thus maintaining it aloft ; 
this natural current of air has the same effect as the artificial 
wind which the aeroplane creates for its own support when being 
driven through the atmosphere by means of its propellers. 

As in an aeroplane, so in a kite must there be a proper pro- 
portion of lifting surface to weight and a proper proportion of 
resistance to thrust or lift. Again, the bridge-work or bracing in 
both aeroplane and kite must be analogous : as an aeroplane must 
have fore-and-aft balance so must a kite ; horizontal rudders will 
obtain it for the former and keels will for the latter. 

Another analogy between kites and aeroplanes is found in their 
form ; thus a Malay or Eddy kite conforms to the principles of a 
monoplane such as a Bleriot, an Antoinette or a Santos-Dumont 
machine ; a box kite conforms to the principles of a biplane such 
as a Voisin, a Farman, a Curtiss, or a Wright flyer, while the 
triangular box kite conforms to the principles of the Langley 
" aerodrome." 

We can thus see that there are numerous analogies between the 
American straight stick kite and the modern aeroplane. From this 
we gather that a kite is a good form to experiment with to obtain 
a knowledge of principles in aeroplane construction. Of course 
it should be understood that a kite must be figured on to fly at an 
angle of 30 degrees to the horizontal, and that allowance must be 
made for this difference of incidence when it comes to apply the 
figures to aeroplanes ; a correct analogy can always be established, 
however, if this fact be kept in mind, and it is an excellent and 
inexpensive way to develop and test one's aeroplane ideas. 

One more use to which the science of kites can be put is the 
investigation and study of the effect of the wind on the construc- 
tion or " make-up " of the kite ; for instance the locating of the 
centre of pressure and the precise way this stick or that surface 
affects the kite's behavior or equilibrium, and the exact reason 
why. 

This analogy and this co-operation between the science of kite 
flying and that of aviation are by no means limited to the above ; 
they could be kept up for all the leading points of construction, 
and besides the great amount of knowledge derived, (for the 
field is practically a virgin one and few or no published tables 
and results are available) a high skill in the flying of kites would 
be obtained, a skill which would be found to be of great value if 
it were ever contemplated to enter the aeroplane field. 

Thus kites have an ancient lineage, — they are in fact, by many 
hundreds of years, the first air-craft which ever rose above earth 
— and through modern efforts, the science of building and flying 
them has taken on a new lease of life and reached so high a 
plane of human usefulness that to deny its existence as a science 
and to despise it as such, is but to make a signal show of 
ignorance. 



July, igio 



AIRCRAFT 



183 



NEW FLYERS DESCRIBED 

THE BALDWIN BIPLANE 

By W. H. Phipps 



HEN the ne\vs 
Captain Thcfn- 
put together ; 



Aias received last March that 
s S. Baldwin had designed 
heavier-than-air machine, it 



say that 
very great interest by every 
in aerial navigation. What o; 
Capt. Baldwin's vast aerial ej 
to all, and in consequence 
the solution of the problem 
looked forward to with more 
terest. 

We publish drawings of thi 
showing it both in its present 
flown in by its designer at Mined 
original and intermediary forms. 

Originally this biplane was not u 
triplane (see March Aircraft, pag 
land, with the upper pi 
the chain-driven tractive propell 
the biplane horizontal rudder at 
passing a vertical rudde 



\merican interested 
e might aptly term 
Derience was known 
riis contribution to 
f human flight was 
than ordinary in- 

Baldwin biplane, 
form, as it is now 



i) of Eng- 

for it had 



ivhen 



the 



othe 



vays 



having ! 
no spring 
although 



from the R( 



;iated 



Iv diff 
10 covered-in body or ' 
J shock-absorber in front, 
embodying certain feat 
noplane construction, it showed less of 
them than the English machine. 

The distinctive feature of the Baldwin biplane 
at that time was the device designed for lateral 
control. Capt. Baldwin has always believed in 
Israel Ludlow's ideas for insuring lateral balance 
by dihedral angles; he did not embody this prin- 
ciple in this machine, but adapted another device 
on which Mr. Ludlow has applied for a patent: 
a single vertical surface, pivoting on a vertical 
shaft like a rudder, iibove and in the center of 
(the resistances developed 
xpected to 



pla 



lateral equilibr 
This device as 



far 



vhe 



this 



It 



kno 



nfringes 



ed). 



pate 



iriginally designed was 
ondsport. When Capt. 
. San Antonio the rear 



biplane as 
tried out in Hami 
win took it down 
zontal rudder had been r 
a horizontal rudder had 
the motor had been moved to the rear of the 
lower plane, and the propeller placed behind it 
in a propulsive capacity, while the aviator's seat, 
from being behind the planes was placed in front 
of them, thus practically changing pla 



the 



pla 



The 



pla 



als 



temporarily set at a dihedral angle of about iS 
degrees. 

When the machine appeared at Mineola a fur- 
ther change had been made in it, " Curtiss " aile- 
rons between the planes having replaced the cen- 
tral vertical hn as lateral stabilizers. It is in 
this form that the popular veteran of the air— 
Capt. Baldwin is fifty-seven years old— has flown 
at Mineola. Both Curtiss and Hamilton made 
remarkable flights in this machine recently, and 
the steady progress of Capt. Baldwin warrants 
the belief that he too will be cutting capers in 
the air before long. 

Dimensions and details of construction of the 
Baldwin biplane follow: 

MAIN PLANES. 

have a total span from tip 
1 inches, and a fore-and-aft 
nches. They are single sur- 
Dn the upper side of the ribs 
-ized cloth. " Curtiss " ribs, 
vature turned out by the Ham- 



The mam plan 
to tip of 31 fet 
chord of 4 feet 
faced being cover 
with Baldwin ru 
of the standard 



ndsport factory, are used 
(See Fig. 7 and 8, Construction Details, page 190.) 
"The main planes are spaced 4 feet 6 inches apart. 

THE TAIL. 



The tail, which 



is also of the bipla 
nilar lines to the n 
:et behind the main 
upport it, when on 



THE ELEVATOR. 

in type from the main planes, i 
ice it is of the monoplane type 

is double surfaced. The span 

chord is .10 inches. 

VERTICAL RUDDER. 



Df the tail and 



third wheel is placed in front of the twin 
and normally does not touch the ground, 
pacify being only to deflect the shock in r 
a steep landing (see drawing). No sprin 
used in connection with the wheels, the 
being rigidly mounted on steel tubes. 

PROPULSION. 

This is furnished by a 25-li.p. 4-cylinder 1 
water-cooled motor driving, through a clia 



I'heels 
ts ca- 
aking 



d on a skid 
however, it 
e machine. 




operated by the steering wheel as on 

AILERONS. 

The ailerons now used to maintain lateral bal 
ice are double surfaced and flat. The span 
15 inches, and the fore-and-aft depth 25 incht 

RUNNING GEAR. 

The running gear consists of two 20 ir 
heels in front and a skid under the tail. 



sprockets, a 7 foot 6 inch propeller which it turns 
at about 800 revolutions per minute. Capt. Baldwin 
is said to have ordered an engine of greater power. 



has been done with steel cable 
usual piano wire, the joints being 
id then soldered to insure safety. 
;ht of the biplane is approximately 



1- 


The b 


ipl 


ne 1 


IR 


Hammo 


ndsport 




the san 


p ? 


s us 




All t 


uss 








of 


the 




bent ar 


oiin 


d an 


rh 


The t 


ita 




A 


600 pou 


nds 







B^ld^i..^ iifU.n.. ^ «*pe/-iA^e.,('^a^ „.tS=.n.antoni,,, 7Jj 



AIRCRAFT 



July, igio 




BIG MEN OF THE MOVEMENT 



CLIFFORD B. HARMON 

T-HAT Clifford B. Harmon should be the pre- 
1 mier amateur aviator of America to-day speaks 
well for the prospects of aviation as a sport pure 
and simple, in this country. 

Mr. Harmon is also keenly alive to the scien- 
tific and military aspects of the question and 
is deeply interested in seeing this country in the 
lead in all phases of the movement. 

It is the patronage of just such men as he 
which gives to the Art and retains for it, that 
dignity of which, as one of the most startling 
developments of man's genius the world has 
ever known, it is so deserving. 

Mr. Harmon has been interested in aeronautics 
for some time past; last year he indulged ex- 
tensively in ballooning, his most notable trip 
being that in which he and Mr. Augustus Post 
left St. Louis in his balloon " New York," on 
October 5, and landed 48 hours and 26 minutes 
later at Edna, Mo. 

This is the only occasion in American history 
on which a balloon has remained up two days, 
and as such it still constitutes the American 
record for any kind of an air- voyage, but the 
remarkable feature of the voyage was that all 
records for height attained, in the Western Hem- 
isphere, were also beaten. 

It was as a passenger of Louis Paulhan at 
Los Angeles that he first experienced the joys 
of flying. In this manner he made a long cross- 
country flight on January 19th. going out to Re- 
dondo and back to the aviation field; he later 
purchased Paulhan's Farman (the holder of the 
world's height record) and has of late been 
teaching himself to fly at Mineola, near New 
York. 

This apprenticeship may be said to have ended 
on May 21st, when he passed the tests (three 
flights of live kilometres each) necessary to 
qualify as an Aero Club of America pilot of 
a heavier-than-air machine. 

After business hours, while others turn to the 
links or the courts or scorch along the high 
roads, he runs down to Mineola and spends the 
balance of the afternoon soaring at forty miles 
an hour, a hundred or more feet above the ad- 
joining plains. 

His ambition is to retain the two Gordon Ben- 
nett Cups for America. He wishes to use an 
American-built racer in the aviation contest, and 
is counting on a 100 H. P. Gnome motor he has 
recently ordered, to drive it to victory. 

A mere list of the "open air clubs" which 
count him among their members would in itself 
show how versatile and eclectic a sportsman 
is Clifford B. Harmon: among these might be 
mentioned— outside the Aero Club of America, 
of which he is a vice president— the Rose Tree 
Hunt, Philadelphia Athletic, Larchmont Yacht, 
Seawanhaka Yacht, New York Athletic clubs. 
He is also a member of the Automobile Club of 
America and is an expert motorist. 



SANTOS-DUMONT 

A LBERTO SANTOS-DUMONT was born some 
■'»■ thirty-seven years ago near Sao Paulo, Brazil, 
where his father had a large coft'ee plantation. 
Many men have contributed to recent progress 
in Aeronautics, but it is very doubtful if anyone 
has done more to stimulate public interest in 
the new art than the famous Brazilian. 

The first air-craft that this famous navigator 
of air ever saw was a small spherical balloon 
which made an ascension at a fair in Sao Paulo, 
in 1S88. Pie made several trips to Europe in the 
next few years, and in 1S97 made his first balloon 
ascension with Lachambre, of Paris. The next 
year he undertook the construction of the first of 
the long hne of air-craft with which his name 
was to be associated. 

Santos-Dumont built altogether twelve dirigi- 
bles, the most famous of which were his No. 4, 
No. 6 and No. 9. As mentioned on page 133 of 
this volume (Tune Aircraft), he won the prize 
of 100,000 francs of M. Deutsch (de la Meurthe) 
by circling the Eiffel Tower of Paris, and return- 
ing to his point of departure, in the Aero Club 
of France grounds at St. Cloud, in half an hour. 

From 1S98 to 1904 Santos-Dumont was in the 
public eye as the most prominent, the most en- 
thusiastic, and also the most daring experimenter 
in navigating the air. In 1905 the rumors which 
reached him concerning the experiments of the 
Wright brothers in America, and also the efforts 
being made in France, by such men as Ferber, 
Archdeacon, Eleriot, Voisin and Esnault-Pelterie to 
solve the problem of heavier-than-air craft turned 
his attention towards the possibilities of aviation, 
in which so few believed at that time. 

On August 14, 1906, at the Polo grounds, at 
Bagatelle, near Paris, Santos-Dumont succeeded 
in leaving the ground for a second or two in a 
crude aeroplane of the cellular or box-kite type, 
driven by a 24-h.p. Antoinette engine. The 
Wright brothers' earlier successes were at that 
time almost universally disbelieved, and the Bra- 
zilian's feat created a tremendous sensation 
throughout Europe, where it was hailed almost 
as a miracle; in fact so impossible was mechani- 
cal flight considered only four years ago that very 
few outside of those who actually witnessed the 
" levitation " at Bagatelle believed that it actu- 
ally took place. 

The present type of Santos-Dumont aeroplane, 
well-known to all followers of aviation, as the 
" Demoiselle " or Dragon Fly monoplane, is one 
of the smallest and fastest flyers as yet built. It 
is perhaps because he is himself a small man 
physically that the " Demoiselle/* has been far 
more successful when piloted by its inventor than 
by his pupils, but there is no doubt that this is 
also owing very largely to his great experience In 
aerial matters. 

Santos-Dumont has recently made some sensa- 
tional cross-country flights in his diminutive aero- 
planes. 



ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL 

ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL, the inventor 
^>> of the telephone, has turned his attention to 
aeronautics for some years past, but the ex- 
periments made by him with a man-lifting kite 
in the Winter of 1907 were the first in this line 
to attract universal attention. 

They were carried out near Dr. Bell's beautiful 
home, at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, and the kite 
used embodied the famous principle expounded 
by Dr. Bell, being composed of over three 
thousand tetrahedral cells. 

With kites and aeroplanes of the ordinary type 
if one increases the size of a given model, the 
weight increases not in proportion but as the 
cube of the dimensions; at the same time the 
supporting surface is increased as the square of 
the dimensions; in consequence the limit in 
carrying capacity is quickly reached. 

Dr. Bell set about to discover a mode of con- 
struction whereby the weight did not increase 
in any greater proportion than the lifting power, 
when the size was increased; the tetrahedral 
principle was the result of his researches and it 
was with his big kite— the "Cygnet"— that he 
proceeded to test it. 

These tests were successful, the kite on one 
occasion carrying up the late Lieutenant Self- 
ridge a hundred and seventy feet above the 
waters of the Bras d' Or lake. 

Dr. Bell then founded his celebrated Aerial 
Experiment Association from which so much 
good to American Aviation was to derive. 

The winter headquarters of the Association 
were established at Hammondsport, N. Y., and 
five motor-driven machines were built in turn: 
the "Red Wing" designed by Lieut. Selfridge, 
the "White Wing" of Mr. Baldwin, the "June 
Bug" of Mr. Curtiss, the "Cygnet II,"— the 
giant motor driven "Tetrahedron" of Dr. Bell, 
and the "Silver Dart" of Mr. McCurdy. 

The "Cygnet II" had 5,000 tetrahedral cells and 
was driven by a 50 H. P. Curtiss motor; the 
propeller broke on an early trial and experiments 
in this line were temporarily discontinued. 

The "Red Wing" made the first public flights 
ever made in America and the other machines, 
which were also biplanes, were each an improve- 
ment over their immediate predecessor; they were 
the direct forerunners of the eminently successful 
aeroplanes since turned out by Glenn H. Curtiss 
at Hammondsport and by Baldwin and McCurdy 
in Canada. 

Not content with acquiring undying fame as 
the inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham 
Bell is thus contributing an earnest share towards 
the solution of the great aerial problem. 

What seems not to be generally known is 
that Dr. Bell has also been identified with the 
discovery of the graphophone. 

Dr. Bell has now left for Europe, where another 

Octave Chanute— is also, at the present time.' 



July, igio 



AIRCRAFT 




BIG MEN OF THE MOVEMENT 



HUGO C. GIBSON 

HUGO C. GIBSON is an edifying example of 
the type of men connected with the flourish- 
ing automobile industry, who have drifted into 
the newer, but just as promising, industry of 
air-craft. 

Born in 1874, in Worcestershire, England, he 
was educated at the City of London College 
where he conducted the engineering columns of 
the school paper and at the City and Guilds 
of London Technical College. 

The internal combustion engine was at that 
time just emerging from the embryonic stage 
and Gibson already showed particular interest 
in such studies as applied to this latest form 
of power-plant. 

It was, however, to the construction of a 
steam launch that he first applied the keen 
mechanical instinct which was later to give him 
a position of note among consulting engineers 
in this branch of applied science. 

His direct interest in the latest form of land 
locomotion began some fifteen years ago when he 
purchased one of the early De Dion i| H. P. 
tricycles which afforded him his first experience 
with the type of engine which was to revolution- 
ize road traffic in the next few years and with 
which he was to become so familiar, during 
its development. 

In 1S97 he became an associate member of the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers and became 
a contracting mechanical and electrical engineer, 
a profession which, with politics, shared his in- 
terest during the next few years. 

Four years ago he became interested with 
Mr. Dugald Clark, Professor Carpenter, Denton 
and others in the Selden lawsuit, which is to 
the automobile industry what the Bell litigations 
were to the telephone and what the Wright 
lawsuits may prove to be to the present early 
forms of flying machines. j\Ir. Gibson, as a 
technical expert for the Association of Licensed 
Automobile Manufacturers, was on the winning 
side of the Selden lawsuit and clearly had a 
share in bringing about the victory of the patent 

Hugo Gibson has now entered the aeronautic 
industry in earnest and has undertaken the manu- 
facture of the power and propelling plant of 
aeroplanes, using original designs of his own. 
both in motor and in screw propellers. He has 
carefully gone into the requirements of aerial 
engines and propellers and is devoting his inti- 
mate knowledge of the theory and practice of 
internal combustion engines and of physics gen- 
erally, and gases in particular, to turning out 
a mechanism entirely fitted for the purposes for 
which it is desired: i.e. propelling a vehicle 
through a yielding and elastic fluid. 

Mr. Gibson is a member of the Automobile 
Club of America, the Aero Club of America 
and the Aeronautical Society of New York; what 
leisure time he has he devotes to yachting. 



GABRIEL VOISIN 



GABRIEL VOISIN, th 
Voisin brothers. _was \ 
ago at Bellevill 
Although th 



■ of the famous 
3me thirty years 

of Gabriel Voisin 'is usually 

. th the construction of aeroplanes, his 

role in aeronautic history was not confined to 
designing and building flyers: he tested his ideas 
in person and was lucky to survive the early days 
of flying without sustaining injury. 

He was the first to follow the advice and ex- 
ample of Ferber and to repeat at Eerck, on the 
shores of the English Channel, the gliding experi- 
ments of Lilienthal, Pilcher, Herring, Avery and 
the Wright brothers. 

In 1904 he was interested with Archdeacon and 
Bleriot in experiments of towed flight over the 
Seine, and himself mounted the big kite on most 
occasions, in tow of the racing motor-boat "La 
Rapiere." 

In the Fall of igo6, the Voisins started work 
in earnest, and early in the following year their 
first aeroplane — that of Delagrange— was ready. 



He 

the helm and first pilo 
ground (iV'Iarch, 1907). 

It was not until 



Gabr 



ed hij 
months later that Dela 



elf to make flights, 
nd Voisin biplant 
nthusiast and belie 



Henry 



Within four 
through winni 
of 50,000 francs for 



s he had won immortal fame 
e Deutsch-Archdeacon prize 
flight of a circular kilometre 
of Gabriel Voisin began to show 
signs of coming true. 

For several months Voisin biplanes enjoyed the 
unique distinction of being the only machines 
known to be capable of sustained circular flights. 

But the advent of the great American pioneers 
did not curtail the activity of Voisin, who claimed 
for his biplane natural lateral stability, through 
the use of fixed vertical surfaces between the 
main planes and whose machine of this type is 
no infringement of the Wright patents— as recent- 
ly admitted in Court by the Wrights themselves. 

Notwithstanding Wright's presence in France 
in the summer of 190S, and his daily trials near 
Le Mans, it was Delagrange's Voisin which made 
the first half-hour flight ever made in Europe, 
getting within less than eight minutes of the 
Wrights' world's record of 1905. 

Farman flew 44' 32" in October, 1908, which 
was to be the record for French-built machines 
for many months, but it was Louis Paul ban who 
was to show what could be got out of Voisin's 
conception. The great little Frenchman's long 
distance flights in windy weather went far towards 
convincing a doubting world of the future of flying. 

Others eminently successful in handling Voisin 
biplanes are Bunau-Varilla, Rougier, Bregi, Me- 
trot, and the Baronne de Laroche— the first 



HORACE B. WILD 

PROMINENT among the men who have made 
*■ a profession of the practice of aeronautics is 
Horace E. Wild. 

Although originally, and still, an electrical en- 
gineer, he has been a close student of aerial navi- 
gation for over twenty years. In fact, Horace 
Wild's interest in aeronautics appears to date back 
to the fatal balloon voyage of Professor Donald- 
son, which terminated in Lake Michigan with the 
loss of two lives, and of the start of which Mr. 
Wild was a witness: notwithstanding its disas- 
trous termination, it fired his imagination and 
incited him to take up ballooning. 

In 1SS9 Horace Wild made his first montgolfiere 
or hot-air-balloon ascension and parachute de- 
scent. This performance was followed by many 
others of a similar character. Wild becoming one 
of the most proficient professionals of the day. 
He had several narrow escapes and finally gave 
up this spectacular side of professional ballooning 
for more useful experiments. 

His first trip in a motor driven gas-bag took 
place some five years ago at Chicago. On Janu- 
ary 3, 1903, he successfully drove his dirigible, 
the " White City Eagle," over the house-tops of 
the big city, and on July 14, 1906, he started from 
the White City Grounds and, sailing once more 
over Chicago, circled the Masonic Temple, 
and returned to his starting point at White City 
in I hour and 45 minutes: this was his first 
out-and-home trip. Mr. Wild exhibited his air- 
ships at most of the leading cities, and claims 
to have made altogether 600 dirigible ascensions. 
On one occasion, on September 14, 1908, at the 
Louisville, Ky., fair grounds, he remained in the 
air 5 hours and 20 minutes which, we believe, is an 
American record for dirigibles. Horace Wild has 
also made a score of ordinary balloon trips: in 
this way he sailed over the Great Lakes, and also 
crossed the Sierra Nevada in California in the 
balloon "United States"; his longest continuous 
trip lasted 24 hours and 25 minutes. 

Mr. Wild has recently become interested in 
aviation and has already flown. He has more- 
over a factory in Chicago devoted to the manu- 
facture of aerial vehicles and apparatus of every 
kind. 

As an electrical engineer he designed the light- 
ing and wiring of White City, near Chicago, with 
which well-known resort he is still professionally 
connected. He devotes, however, eight months 
of the year to aeronautics, in the practice and in 
the propaganda of which he becomes more in- 
terested every day. 

The Aero Club of America, the Aero Club of 
Illinois, the Aeroplane Club of Illinois number 
Horace Wild among their members; he is also 
an honorary member of several other American 
Aero Clubs. 

He has recently been giving demonstrations in 
Illinois with a Curtiss biplane, and has been lec- 
turing on aviation throughout the state. 



AIRCRAFT 



July, igio 




^^ByJ[\]oQvh C.Triaea 

— ^^^€^ 



THE SECOND CHANNEL CROSSING: JACQUES DE LESSEPS REACHING THE 
ENGLISH COAST, NEAR DOVER 



Argentine Republic 

Bregi is still at Buenos Ayres; he expected to 
take part in the contests projected at the end of 
May at Villa Lugano, for which altogether $30,000 
in prizes had been voted. Valleton had also en- 
tered. 

A pupil of Bregi, Dr. Roth, recently made a 
fine night on Bregi's Voisin. 

Austria 

Vienna is keenly anticipating the visit of the 
Zeppelin V, the world's largest air-craft. Count 
Zeppelin is expected to be in personal charge of 
his latest creation when it leaves Friedrichshafen : 
the voyage is planned to take place in June, if 
the huge airship is ready to take to its element at 
that time. 

One of the most remarkable aeroplanes as yet 
produced has been recently experimented with 
with great success near Vienna. It is the latest 
monoplane of the famous Austrian inventors, Et- 
rich and Wels. No more bird-like flying machine 
than this has as yet' flown. It is called the 
" Taube " (pigeon) and, under the direction of 
Etrich, has made several remarkable flights, on 
one occasion flying with two passengers, and on 
another flying continuously for i hr. 11 min. 

On May 17th, with Illner at the helm the mono- 
plane flew from Wiener-Neustad to Vienna and 
back, 54 miles altogether, — going out in the morn- 
ing in 32 min., and returning in the evening in 42 

Belgium 

An interesting monoplane has just been con- 
structed at Liege by P. Moulin. One feature 
about this machine is that lateral equilibrium is 
obtained through bending the entire rear ex- 
tremity of the wings, thus changing the angle of 
incidence in the whole plane. 

' The dirigible " Belgique IT " recently made sev- 
eral trips above the exhibition grounds at Brus- 
sels, 

At a meeting held at the Windsor Hotel, at 
Montreal, on June i, several Canadians of promi- 
nence interested in aviation decided to request 
the Dominion Government to subscribe funds to 
enable Baldwin and McCurdy to compete for 
the big " Cross-Country " prizes recently offered 
in the United States. 

Denmark 

The Danish Aeronautic Society is to hold an 
aeronautic exhibition in the old frigate " IzUand " 
now moored at Langelinie. Models and accesso- 
ries of all kinds pertaining to air-craft will be on 

Egypt 

Plans have been started by members of the Im- 
perial Aero Club of Germany for an aeroplane 
exploration of the Desert of Sahara, assisted by 
automobiles. Conditions along the Nile valley are 
to be the special object of the investigation. The 
cost of the expedition is estimated at $180,000. 

England 

The general excitement and enthusiasm caused 
by the great Cross-Country flights last month had 
hardly subsided before the Cross-Channel feats of 
Jacques de Lesseps and of Rolls stirred it up 
anew. De Lesseps' flight, which took place _ on 
May 21, was a re-edition of the historical " First 



Crossing " accomplished by Bleriot exactly three 
hundred davs before (July 25, igoci% 

The machine used was a Bleriot monoplane 
fitted with a Gnome motor: the flight took place 
in the afternoon and lasted about 45 min. The 
aviator had some difticulty in keeping to his 



By this flight, as indicated 



last 



nth' 



which had escaped Bleriot last year, through a 
technicalitv. 

The flight made by the Hon. C. S. Rolls on 
his British made Short-Wright biplane, June i, 
both started and ended on the English side of the 
Straits of Dover; he left Dover late in the 
afternoon and after reaching the French shore, 
circling above it, and dropping weighted letters 
there, returned to England without alighting, and 
landed at the very spot from which he had started. 
This flight of about 50 miles lasted 80 minutes. 

The Royal Aero Club of Great Britain has al- 
ready been asked to sanction six flying meets to 
occur this summer and the prizes for which ex- 
ceed $200,000; Huntingdon will be the first meet; 
it will be followed by the great Bournemouth 
Carnival in July. Another big series of contests 
is to be held in Scotland at Lanark. 



France 

ire being held all over the 

mpetition to secure the more 

is very keen among tht 



and the other consulting the map and making to- 
pographical sketches: this team appears now to 
be quite ready to play a useful part in military 
manceuvres; their machine, like that of nearly all 
the successful cross-country flyers, is a Henry 
Farman, fitted with a Gnome engine.* 

The Aviation Schools at Pau, Buc, Etampes, 
Mourmelon, Lyons, Juvisy. Issy. Mouzon, etc., 
etc., are showing tremendous activity, and the 
number of competent aviators turned out is only 
limited by the number of machines available, not- 
withstanding that all the aeroplane factories are 
working overtime to supply the tremendous de- 
mand. New companies are being formed and new 
machines being exploited with varying degrees 
of success, and it is not too much to say that 
hundreds of flights are being made every week. 



V definitely fixed to 
and promises to re- 
er French meeting, 
nly be 5 kilometers 
ill be hexagonal in 
and 



neets 



Aviation 

country, and 

famous profi 

ganizers. At the lours 1 
upon the heels of the Nice 
cessful winner was the English 
Dickson. 

At the Lyons meet. Van den I 
Paulhan and Latham shared the 
of this tou 



which folio 



k, the 



'iator Capta 



the 



nade late 



but the 
dly marred by 
th of Hauvette-Michelin, who, in a flight 
oon of May 13, took a turn 
turning post, causing it to 
him. This extraordinarily 
first of its kind to occur— 
le of the Antoinette mono- 
r drivers. A picture of his 
leliopolis was published in 



hit the 



:ident- 



unkicky 
ended th 

plane's most promisii 
action at 



the April number of Aircraft (page 60). 

The first town-to-town flying-machine race took 
place on June 6 during the Angers meet ; the 
course (from Angers to Saumur) measured 26^ 
miles as the crow flies, the distance by rail be- 
tween the two towns being 30 miles. 

iner, in the splendid 



The Reims meeting is i 
take place from July 3 to 
tain its place as the pre 
The course this year will 
around instead of 10 and will 
form, two of the corners being 
the' others forming practically o. sv,>,u,^ ^n, v^, 
which will be conducive to high speed. The prizes 
offered amount to 260,000 francs, and of this 50,000 
francs go to the constructor whose machines taken 
altogether ccver the greatest distance during the 
meet; 30,000 francs go to the aviators making the 
longest flights without landing (of which 20,000 
francs go to the first) ; 15.000 are allotted to the 
aviator whose flights cover the greatest total dis- 
tance, the second getting 8,000 francs, the third 
4.000 and the fourth 3.000. There are also prizes 
amounting to 10,000 francs to the aviators making 
the best flights in the Gordon Bennett elimina- 
tion trials for Frenchmen, and 15.000 francs for 
the two highest flights; 5,000 for the officers' prize; 
5,000 francs for the ladies' prize (for the two 
*' aviatrices " doing the best time at 10 kilo- 
meters), 5,000 francs as a passenger prize, 15,000 
for speed prizes, in addition to daily prizes for 
the three best performances in distance, height 
and speed. Besides all these there is a special 
prize of 5,000 francs for any aviator who, during 
the meet, beats the world's distance or height rec- 
ord, and there is a prize of 15,000 francs to the 
first aviator and 500 to the second, who shall 
cover the sreatest total distance. 

tdding to the interest and keeping 
used, should it be windy, there is 
)f 7,000 francs and a second prize 
nan-carrying kites, and, of course, 
itside of the actual prizes belon^ng to the 
meeting there are always the Paris "Daily Mail" 
and Michelin Cup prizes, for which a man can 
compete whenever he likes. M. Michel Ephrussi 



By way of 
the people an 
a first prize ■ 
of 3,000 for 



Martinet proved 



of 



C51 



additi 

straightaw 



of the 



third; all thr 



biplan 
Dicks 
Somn- 



Henry Farmans, and Legagneux 



competitors all starting at th 
organization 
ell serve as 



pay 



nong the great cross-countrv feats of the 

th may be cited flights by Roger Sommer of 

niles one day, and of 100 two days later, of 

jret (55 miles with a passenger), of Maurice 

(50 miles with a passenger), when he 

May 21, from his aerodrome at Buc to 

isit to his brother Henry's new agency 

school at Etampes. 

Another who has made great flights is Lind- 
painter, who, on May 24, flew from Mourmelon 
to Reims where he circled the famous old cathe- 
dral, thus making_ an actual reality of the con- 
ception of the artist who designed the poster of 
the Reims meet, last year, which showed the bi- 
planes soaring about the historic towers. There 
is also Marconnet who flew from Mourmelon to 
the outskirts of Paris, and the military aviators 
Fequant and Martinet, who have been making 
•most interesting experiments, the one driving 



francs for 
aerodrome, 
same time. 
f this meet 
example to those about to 
; American meets. It is questionable, 
-, whether it would not be of more in- 
to the spectators to have duration of 
:onsidered as a prize winning standard 
than distance over the ground, for the 
iduces the competitors to fly strictly over 
rse for hour after hour, and further dimii 



chances of the slo 
n more desirable as a 

s, which of course hav 
natural reward of thei 



aft tha 



vhich ; 

the 



'ift 



speed prizes as 



On May 7, at Pau, Bleriot made a flight for the 
first time as a passenger. The machine was the 
new type two-seater Bleriot. The